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- 1. E-ISSN: 2321–9637 Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014 International Journal of Research in Advent Technology Available Online at: http://www.ijrat.org 408 MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY AND EXAMINING EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION IN MATLAB/SIMULINK Nitin R. Aghara1 , Punit N. Sompura2 1 Student, School of Engineering R.K.University 2 Assistant Professor, School of Engineering R.K.University Email: agharanitin1990@gmail.com punit.sompura@rku.ac.in ABSTARCT: This paper presents the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic model using MATLAB/Simulink software package. The proposed model is design with a user-friendly icon using Simpower of Simulink block libraries. Taking the effect of irradiance and temperature into consideration, the output current and power characteristic of PV model are simulated using the proposed model. Keywords: Photovoltaic cell; characteristics; matlab/Simulink. 1. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic energy is a source of interesting energy. It is renewable, inexhaustible and nonpolluting and that it is more and more intensively used as energy sources in various applications. Photovoltaic systems have been the worldwide fast growing energy source because of the increase in energy demand and the fact that fossil energy sources are finite, and that they are expensive. Furthermore, the impacts that the energy technology has on the environment which make the photovoltaic become a mature technology in used. The increase in a number of Photovoltaic system installed all over the world brought the need for proper supervision and control algorithms as well as modeling and simulation tool for researcher and practitioners involved in its application is very necessary. In this paper, the design of PV system using simple circuit model with detailed circuit modeling of PV module is presented. 2. THE CIRCUIT MODELS OF THE PV MODULES Photovoltaic cell models have long been a source for the description of photovoltaic cell behaviors for researchers and professionals. The ideal photovoltaic module consists of a single diode connected in parallel with a light generated current source (Isc ) as shown in Figure-1. The equation for the output current is given by: I=Isc-ID where, ID== Isc/[exp( qVoc / NskAT ) -1] Fig.1 Equivalent circuit of photovoltaic cell
- 2. E-ISSN: 2321–9637 Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014 International Journal of Research in Advent Technology Available Online at: http://www.ijrat.org 409 For modeling of photovoltaic array, we must be calculating photo current, reverse saturation current. So first we calculate this term in following steps. 2.1. Photo Current In Fig.2[2], the module photocurrent Iph of the photovoltaic module depends linearly on the solar irradiation and is also influenced by the temperature according to the following equation. Iph = [Iscref + Ki (Tk - Tref)]*λ/1000 Where, Iph =light generated current at nominal condition Ki = Temperature co efficient Tk =actual Temperature Tref =reference Temperature 2.2. Module Reverse Saturation Current In Fig.3[2] Module reverse saturation current, Irs is given by the equation, Irs = Isc/[exp( qVoc / NskAT ) -1] Where, Irs= Reverse Saturation Current, q = electron charge (1.6 × 10-19C), Voc = the Solar module open circuit voltage (21.24V), Ns = the number of cells connected in series, k = the Boltzmann constant (1.3805×10-23 J/K), A = the Ideality factor (1.6). 2.3. Module Saturation Current I0 In Fig.4 The module saturation current Io that varies with the cell temperature is given by, Fig.2 Model of photo current Iph Fig.3 Model of reverse saturation current, Irs
- 3. Volume 2, Issue 1 International Journal of Research in Available Where, Eg = the bandgap energy of the semiconductor 2.4. Module for calculate NsAKT 2.5. Equivalent circuit of photovoltaic array The detailed circuit model of PV module is shown in fig.6. 3. THE SIMULATION RESULTS Figure -8 shows the I-V characteristics of PV module at constant irradiation and constant temperature. E-ISSN: 2321–9637 Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014 International Journal of Research in Advent Technology Available Online at: http://www.ijrat.org = the bandgap energy of the semiconductor Equivalent circuit of photovoltaic array The detailed circuit model of PV module is shown in fig.6. THE SIMULATION RESULTS V characteristics of PV module at constant irradiation and constant temperature. Fig.4 Model of saturation current I0 Fig.5 Model for calculate NsAKT Fig.7 Equivalent circuit of PV module. 9637 Advent Technology 410 V characteristics of PV module at constant irradiation and constant temperature.
- 4. E-ISSN: 2321–9637 Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014 International Journal of Research in Advent Technology Available Online at: http://www.ijrat.org 411 Figure -9 shows the P-V characteristics of PV module at constant irradiation and constant temperature. Figure-10 shows the I-V output characteristics of PV module with varying irradiance at the constant temperatures. It is depicted that the PV output current varies drastically with insulation conditions and there is an optimum operating point such that the PV system delivers its maximum possible power to the load. The optimum operating points changes with the solar insulation, temperature and load conditions. Figure-11 shows the P-V out characteristics of the PV module with varying irradiance at the constant temperatures. From the graphs when the irradiance increases, the current and voltage output also increases. This result shows the net increase in power output with an increase in irradiance at the constant temperatures. Fig.8 I-V characteristics of PV module Fig.9 P-V characteristics of PV module Fig.10 Characteristic-varying irradiance- constant temperature
- 5. E-ISSN: 2321–9637 Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014 International Journal of Research in Advent Technology Available Online at: http://www.ijrat.org 412 4. CONCLUSION An accurate PV module electrical model is presented and demonstrated in Matla/Simulink. It can be seen that the PV current IPH is a function of the solar irradiation and is the only energy conversion process in which light energy is converted to electrical energy. The physical equations governing the PV module (also applicable to PV cell) is elaborately presented with numerical values of module saturation current at various temperatures. Hence, this circuit model presents the relationship between module parameters and circuit performance. This involves the step-by- step method for the PV modeling in Matlab Simulink. This paper provides a clear and concise understanding of the, I- V and P-V characteristics of PV module, which will serve as the model for researchers and expert in the field of PV modeling. References [1] Prof. Pandiarajan N., Dr.Ranganath muthu, “Development of power electronics circuit-oriented model of photovoltaic module ”, Internationa Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology. Vol -2, Issue-4, October-December 2011. [2] M. Abdulkadir, A. S. Samosir, A. H. M. Yatim “Modeling and Simulation based approach of photovoltaic system in Simulink model”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol-7, Issue-5, May 2012. [3] Jenifer .A, Newlin Nishia.R, Rohini.G and Jamuna. V “development of matlab simulink model for photovoltaic arrays”, 2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]. [4] Dell Aquila R. V. 2010. A new approach: Modeling,simulation, development and implementation of a commercial grid- connected transformer less PV inverter. pp. 1422-1429. [5] Ramaprabha R. and Mathur B. L. 2011. Soft computing optimization techniques for solar photovoltaic arrays. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 6(10). [6] S. Nema, R.K.Nema, and G.Agnihotri, “Matlab / Simulink based study of photovoltaic cells / modules / array and their experimental verification,” International Journal of Energy and Environment, pp.487-500, Volume 1, Issue 3, 2010. Fig.11 P-V characteristic-varying irradiance-constant temperature.