Analytical Study of Cluster Based Routing Protocols in MANET

International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering
International Journal of Computer and Communication System EngineeringInternational Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering

There are number of cluster based routing algorithms in mobile ad hoc networks. Since ad hoc networks are not accompanied by fixed access points, efficient routing is a must for such networks. Clustering approach is applied in mobile ad hoc network because clusters are more easily manageable and are more viable. It consists of segregating the given network into several reasonable clusters by using a clustering algorithm. By performing clustering we elect a worthy node from the cluster as the cluster head in such a way that we strive to reduce the management overheads and thus increasing the efficiency of routing. As for the fact that nodes in mobile ad hoc network have frequent host change and frequent topology change routing plays an important role for maintenance and backup mechanism to stabilize network performance. This paper aims to review the previous research papers and provide a survey on the various cluster based routing protocols in mobile ad hoc network. This paper presents analytical study of cluster based routing algorithms from literature. Index Terms— Ad- hoc networks, Cluster head, Clustering, Protocol, Route selection.

ISSN: 2312-7694
Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE)
32 | P a g e
© 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com
Analytical Study of Cluster Based Routing Protocols
in MANET
Mansi Sharma Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dubey
Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
ASET, Amity University ASET, Amity University
Noida, U.P., India Noida, U.P., India
sharma.mansi2889@gmail.com skdubey1@amity.edu
Abstract— There are number of cluster based routing algorithms
in mobile ad hoc networks. Since ad hoc networks are not
accompanied by fixed access points, efficient routing is a must for
such networks. Clustering approach is applied in mobile ad hoc
network because clusters are more easily manageable and are more
viable. It consists of segregating the given network into several
reasonable clusters by using a clustering algorithm. By performing
clustering we elect a worthy node from the cluster as the cluster
head in such a way that we strive to reduce the management
overheads and thus increasing the efficiency of routing. As for the
fact that nodes in mobile ad hoc network have frequent host change
and frequent topology change routing plays an important role for
maintenance and backup mechanism to stabilize network
performance. This paper aims to review the previous research
papers and provide a survey on the various cluster based routing
protocols in mobile ad hoc network. This paper presents analytical
study of cluster based routing algorithms from literature.
Index Terms— Ad- hoc networks, Cluster head, Clustering,
Protocol, Route selection.
I. INTRODUCTION
Importance of ad hoc networks arises where backbone
infrastructure is not possible and the communicating nodes are
rapidly moving (mobile) such as in case of everyday situation
like students on campus sharing free internet connection,
military scenarios and rescue operations and other emergency
conditions. IEEE 802.11b defines two main operating modes,
namely, infrastructure mode and IEEE ad hoc mode. The
essential characteristic feature of ad hoc network is mobility
and multi-hop functioning that needs routing mechanism made
for moving nodes in a network.
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) could be defined as
collective network of mobile devices comprising of laptops,
smart phones, sensors and other type of nodes that are mobile
in nature, interact with each other with help of wireless links
without having a fixed backbone or network infrastructure [1].
Such type of a network could work independently or it could
collaborate with multiple attachments either with cellular
network or the internet or both.
This type of a network, because of above stated properties
lacks a centralized administration too as the nodes are self-
organizing. The nodes in such a network are required to
transfer message to neighboring nodes along with the path
from the source node to the destination node. It should be taken
into consideration that only those nodes are engaged in routing
that are included in the routing path from source to destination.
Due to the rapid change in mobility, lack of infrastructure and
inter node connectivity, routing is one of the major issues in
MANET.
The routing protocol in MANET calls for dynamic
topology maintenance, multi-hop routing and should be free
from loops and needs to be scalable. The limitations due to
mobility are rapidly changing topologies and routes for
communication between nodes and lack of awareness of
possible movement in network whereas the shortcomings due
to mobile nodes are limited device capabilities, bandwidth
limitations, different types of devices in a network having
different configurations and limited battery life of devices.
Clustering is dividing of network into clusters so that the
elements that exhibit the similar properties can be part of the
same cluster [2]. Moreover, we can say that clustering is
assigning each data element a corresponding cluster. Outliers
are those values which are left isolated because they do not
belong to the cluster. Outliers are generally those data points
that have different properties that cannot be associated with
any cluster. Clustering is finding its application in business
driven applications since it can be used to target and analyze
the customer behavior, market sales and predict the sales in
future. Clustering is used in varied areas such as town
planning, weather forecast prediction, customer retention by
analyzing and grouping the customers and their buying habits.
Application of clustering in routing for MANET is beneficial
as partitioning the network in cluster makes it easy to manage
and organize it. We choose a cluster head in each cluster by
means of which each communication to and fro the cluster
must pass through that cluster head. The selection of cluster
head from the cluster depends on various parameters such as
the distance of the given node to the cluster head, the energy of
ISSN: 2312-7694
Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE)
33 | P a g e
© 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com
the node, movement of the node and other factors. Different
cluster based routing algorithm shall be analyzed in this paper
from the literature.
We have organized this paper in sections in which: Section
2 reviews literature survey; Section 3 reviews the analysis;
Section 3 reviews the future scope; Section 4 gives the
conclusion; and finally, appendix reviews the analysis table.
II. PREVIOUS WORK
In [3] mobility management and prediction information is
used for routing. It is an on demand distributed clustering
algorithm. Since MANET is a network that is constantly
changing, the addition and subtraction of nodes to and fro the
network affects overall permanence of the network. In
algorithm proposed, the duration between the messages sent is
increased and it has better performance than LCA.
In [4] local cluster head selection is done and average
packet delivery rate along with number of handovers and
overheads is taken into account for cluster head election. The
election is reduced because it results in consumption of lots of
bandwidth and it is reduced by considering that an unconnected
node chooses to become the CH and forms a cluster.
An extension to OLSR was proposed [5]. In this paper,
inter cluster topology information is exchanged. It is better than
OLSR with regard to generation of overhead and through-put.
This approach which is clustered OLSR uses clustering
approach so as to reduce the protocol overhead making it more
appropriate for large scale networks.
For large scale mobile multi-hop network, a new algorithm
was proposed in [6]. It reduces the cluster reorganizational
overhead and optimizes the cluster route selection. The route
criteria are node number, node density, cluster ranking, cluster
degree.
Cognitive radio mixed sensor and mobile ad hoc network
for dual applications [7] uses heterogeneous nodes with
different capabilities and nodes from different organizations. It
increases network lifetime.
In [8] there is quick convergence and low maintenance cost
of routing and it provides efficient flooding platform. The
algorithm works for finding the cluster header and then the
cluster maintenance. The design goal here is to keep the set of
forwarding node small to increase the efficiency of routing
protocol. For achieving this, it chooses the nodes that have
higher degree.
Inspired from the insect society’s biological model, zone
dependent ant colony routing in MANET [9] is proposed. It is
more efficient than POSANT in terms of overhead comparison.
It works on finding the most effective path for purpose of
routing the data. We also keep track of second most efficient
path if we have huge amount and count of data packets to be
sent thus decreasing the chances of selecting the same path
always.
In [10] a reactive algorithm is proposed with a pre requisite
that the links are Omni directional. it outperforms the algorithm
when the protocol is extended to multi source multicasting.
Optimized layered cluster based routing protocol for ad hoc
networks [11] is proposed in this paper, a hybrid algorithm it is
an enhanced version of LCR (layered cluster based routing. It
is used especially for large and dense networks.
In [12] a hierarchical clustered algorithm is proposed. It
uses packet delivery ratio and normalized routing load, end to
end delay as parameters for routing. Third party route is used to
improve the performance of the routing protocol.
Novel approach for dynamic leader election and key based
security in MANET clusters for secured data distribution [13]
is proposed in this paper. It uses inter cluster handshaking and
key based cryptography for better security and for less
eavesdropping.
In [14] algorithm which is makes of adaptive protocols, is
proposed. It makes use of declarative queries and adaptive
protocol. ND log rules are formed and it has better packet
traversing in various in network traffic conditions.
In [15] Ant based On Demand Clustering protocol is
proposed. It makes use of weakly connected dominant set. It is
a proactive type of algorithm. It has better network good put
and residual energy ratio. The approach used is least cluster
change.
Weighted based clustering scheme for MANET [16] is
proposed in this paper. It has node mobility estimation, node
density calculation as its parameters.
Improvement to the existing CGSR algorithm is done in
[17]. It uses fuzzy logic system and calculates cluster head
possibility of each node in the cluster. It takes three parameters
to make the decision of choosing the cluster head namely node
energy, node movement and distance of the node to the cluster
centroid.
The algorithm in [18] is designed to deal with faulty node
in the network. Fault tolerance cluster head based routing
protocol for ad hoc networks is a hierarchical routing protocol
is propose to give packet delivery fraction guarantee and to
decrease the network overhead when there are faulty nodes. Its
performance is compared and evaluated with other algorithms
such as AODV, DSR and it has shown to be better than these
algorithms.
ISSN: 2312-7694
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The on demand routing based clustering protocol for
MANET [19] does not maintain the table for keeping the
routing information. It uses two more parameters that are node
density and hop factor. The algorithm has three phases namely
route discovery, which consist of finding the route from the
source node to the destination node, second phase being cluster
formation followed by cluster maintenance.
A hierarchical type of algorithm is implemented in [20] in
which cluster having higher height are positioned up in the tree
and the cluster having the lower height are positioned lower in
the tree and each node in the network is associated with a
height. The tree is made in such a manner that the nodes that
are higher they send links to the lower nodes in the tree with
the help of logical links. It uses the concept of multicasting
whereas the messages are transferred to a set of nodes but not
all the nodes which is termed as broadcasting. There is
construction and maintenance of multicast tree in this
algorithm.
Concept of associativity and query stride [21] is used for
making up of the cluster. By the term associativity we mean a
node is connected to how many other nodes of the network.
Query stride means that not all nodes should be considered for
routing and hence only desired nodes are to be considered
which results in better resource utilization and less congestion
in the network. The algorithm is compared with AODV routing
algorithm by means of average packet delay and packet
delivery ratio.
III. ANALYSIS
Many papers are reviewed related to cluster based routing
algorithm. Algorithms that are reviewed are different from one
another in terms of parameters used, type of algorithm and
performance. Result of analysis is mentioned in an appendix in
a table.
IV. CONCLUSION
In this paper, all algorithms are analyzed that are proposed
from 2005 to 2013. From this analysis, we can conclude that
routing in MANET is crucial and one algorithm cannot
outperform others in every way as different algorithms work
differently under different environments. Introducing fuzzy
clustering with QoS could be the future work. The
characteristics that could be worked upon area as follows
performance calculated by number of pockets successfully sent
per unit of time in the network, delay, usage of network
bandwidth, scalability to larger network, adaptability and
efficiency, security. The most general criteria for choosing the
cluster head is the distance measurement from the centroid.
The different parameters that have been taken to choose a
cluster head are namely distance, mobility, energy, trust value.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Hoebeke, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester , An
overview of mobile ad hoc networks: applications and
challenges, journal of communications network. 3(3). p.60-66G.
(references)
[2] E. A. Zanty, “Improving Fuzzy Algorithm for Automatic Image
Segmentation,” Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS),
Coll. Of computer & Inf. Technology, Taif University, Taif,
Saudi Arabia Aljahdali, S, pp. 1-6, on date of conference: 7-9
April 2011.
[3] V.B.Vieu, N.Mikau, QoS in MANETs using a Mobility
Prediction Based Weighted Clustering Algorithm, IEEE, 2005,
390-397.
[4] V.B.Vieu, N. Naseer, N.Mikau, A Weighted Clustering
Algorithm Using Local Cluster heads Election for MANETs,
IEEE, 2006.
[5] F.J.Rose, P.R.M., Cluster based OLSR Extension to Reduce
Control Overhead in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, ACM, 2007,
202-207.
[6] T. Rashid, K.A. Agha, U. Javaid, L. Reynaud, Cluster Quality
based Hybrid Routing for Large Scale Mobile Multi hop
Networks, ACM, 2007, 3054- 3059.
[7] D. R. Vaman, L. Qian, Cognitive Radio Mixed Sensor and
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks(SMANET) for Dual Use
Applications, IEEE, 2008, 3304-3310.
[8] S.Lui, D. Mu, H. Xu, An On Demand Source based Clustering
Multicast Routing Protocol In Ad Hoc Network, IEEE, 2009,
408-412.
[9] M. Bandyopadhyay, P. Bhaunick, Zone Based Ant Colony
Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, IEEE, 2010.
[10] J. Rangarajan, K. Baskaran, Unicast Forwarded Cluster Based
Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks, ACM, 2011, 485-488.
[11] I. Jemini, N. Chaabouni, A. Belghith, M. Mosbah, An
Optimized layered Cluster based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc
Networks, IEEE, 2011, 156-163.
[12] S. Sethi, A. Raut, D. Mishra, Shatabdinalini, A Robust Cluster
Based Routing Protocol for MANET, ACM, 2011, 26-31.
[13] A. Azeez, K.G. Preetha, A Novel Approach for dynamic leader
election and Key based security in MANET for Secured Data
Distribution, ACM, 2012, 52-56.
[14] C. Liu, R. Correa, X. Li, P. Basu, B. T. Loo, Y. Mao,
Declarative Policy based Adaptive Mobile Ad Hoc Networking,
IEEE/ACM transactions on Networking, vol. 20, no. 3,
june2012, 770-783.
[15] K.H. Li, J.S. Leu, J. Hosek, Ant Based On Demand Clustering
Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE, 2013,
354- 359.
[16] A. Bentaleb, S. Harous, A. Boubetra, A Weight based Clustering
Scheme for Mobile AD Hoc Networks, ACM, 2013.
[17] Dr. S. Upadhyaya, A. Saini, Improving the Quality of CGSR
Routing Protocol by Electing Suitable Cluster head Using Fuzzy
Logic System in MANET, IJARCSSE, 2013, 369-375.
[18] Y. Qin, K. L. Pang “A Fault-tolerance Cluster Head Based
Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE, 2008, 2472-
2476.
[19] C. Hsien Hsu, K. Ten Feng, “On Demand routing based
clustering based protocol for mobile ad hoc network”, 18th
Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and
Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC’07).
ISSN: 2312-7694
Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE)
35 | P a g e
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[20] Tomoyuki Ohta, Toshifumi Kawaguchi, and Yoshiaki Kakuda,
“A New Multicast Routing Protocol Based on Autonomous
Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE, 2005, 297-305.
[21] Yongjin Choi and Daeyeon Park, “Associativity Based
Clustering and Query Stride for On-demand Routing Protocols
in Ad Hoc Networks”, Journal of communications and
networks, VOL.4, NO.1, MARCH 2002,4-13.
TABLE I. ANALYSIS RESULT
S.N. Name Year Essential Characteristics Parameters Used Pre Requisites Performance
Type of
Algorithm
1.
Qos in MANET using mobility
prediction based weighted
algorithm
2005
Implements and
considers prediction,
induces QoS, distributed
in nature.
Number of
updates and
handovers.
Position of
cluster head is
taken in
Cartesian
coordinates.
Better than
WCA
On demand
distributed
clustering
algorithm.
2.
Weighted clustering algorithm
using local cluster head election
for QoS in MANET
2006
Local election, mobility
prediction
Average packet
delay, overhead,
updates,
handovers.
Range of
election to area
2 cluster head
are one hop
neighbor
Better than
WCA
On demand
distributed
clustering
algorithm.
3.
Cluster based OLSR extension to
reduce control overhead in
MANET
2007
Based on OLSR,
exchanges inter cluster
topology information.
Topology control
message ,
multipoint relay
set
Messages and
rules are
formed before
Outperform
OLSR
Hybrid
routing
mechanism
4.
Cluster quality based hybrid
routing for MANET
2007
Optimize cluster route
selection.
node count,
density,
resilience
Need to have
quality
information
Better than
AODV and C-
OADV
Hybrid
routing
mechanism
5.
Cognitive radio mixed sensor and
MANET for dual applications.
2008
More survivability,
keeps cross team data at
lowest level
Multi hop radio
sensor path
routing
All nodes have
cognitive radio
capability
Enhancement
to
homogeneous
MANET
Used mixed
MANET /
sensor
network
mechanism
6.
On demand source based
clustering multicast routing in
MANET
2009
Reduces overhead,
dynamically classify
source in clusters
Cluster selection
head,
maintenance
process
Not applicable
Quick
convergence
On demand
source based
multicast
type
7.
Zone based ant colony cluster
routing
2010
Uses DIR principle,
mobility management
Node number,
zone size,
mobility
Known
Transmission
range, hop
count
Better than
POSANT
Insect
societies
biological
model
8.
Unicast forward cluster based
multicast protocol for ad hoc
network
2011
Efficient multicast in
multi-source
environment
Weight
estimation,
cluster head
selection
Omni
directional
links
Outperform
the algorithm
when in multi-
source
multicasting
Reactive
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Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE)
36 | P a g e
© 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com
S.N. Name Year Essential Characteristics Parameters Used Pre Requisites Performance
Type of
Algorithm
9.
Optimized layered cluster based
routing protocol for ad hoc
network
2011
Enhanced route quality
in LCR, direction
mechanism
Route discovery
and maintenance
Known
transmitter
layer
information
Enhanced
version of
LCR
Hybrid
10.
Robust cluster based routing
protocol for MANET
2011
Third party route reply,
improved performance
Packet delivery
ratio, routing
delay
Not applicable
Better than
CBRP
Hierarchical
11.
Novel approach for dynamic
leader election and key based
security in MANET
2012 Key based cryptography
Inter cluster
handshaking
Not applicable
Better security,
less
eavesdropping
Hybrid
12.
Declarative policy based adaptive
mobile ad hoc networking
2012 Adaptive, declarative
Declarative
queries
ND rules are to
be formed
Better packet
traversing
Adaptive
13.
Ant based On Demand Clustering
Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad
Hoc Networks
2013
Minimal traffic
overhead, use of weakly
connected dominant
sets.
Least cluster
change
Not applicable
Better network
good put,
Residual
Energy ratio
Proactive
14.
Weighted based clustering scheme
for MANET
2013
Facilitate routing
operation, maintains
clusters locally
Node mobility,
node density
calculation
Not applicable
Better average
number of CH
Hybrid
15.
Improving CGSR routing protocol
by electing suitable cluster head
using fuzzy logic system
2013
Fuzzy logic system,
calculation of cluster
head possibility
Node mobility,
distance, node
energy
Not applicable
Better than
CGSR
Hierarchical

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Analytical Study of Cluster Based Routing Protocols in MANET

  • 1. ISSN: 2312-7694 Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 32 | P a g e © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com Analytical Study of Cluster Based Routing Protocols in MANET Mansi Sharma Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dubey Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering ASET, Amity University ASET, Amity University Noida, U.P., India Noida, U.P., India sharma.mansi2889@gmail.com skdubey1@amity.edu Abstract— There are number of cluster based routing algorithms in mobile ad hoc networks. Since ad hoc networks are not accompanied by fixed access points, efficient routing is a must for such networks. Clustering approach is applied in mobile ad hoc network because clusters are more easily manageable and are more viable. It consists of segregating the given network into several reasonable clusters by using a clustering algorithm. By performing clustering we elect a worthy node from the cluster as the cluster head in such a way that we strive to reduce the management overheads and thus increasing the efficiency of routing. As for the fact that nodes in mobile ad hoc network have frequent host change and frequent topology change routing plays an important role for maintenance and backup mechanism to stabilize network performance. This paper aims to review the previous research papers and provide a survey on the various cluster based routing protocols in mobile ad hoc network. This paper presents analytical study of cluster based routing algorithms from literature. Index Terms— Ad- hoc networks, Cluster head, Clustering, Protocol, Route selection. I. INTRODUCTION Importance of ad hoc networks arises where backbone infrastructure is not possible and the communicating nodes are rapidly moving (mobile) such as in case of everyday situation like students on campus sharing free internet connection, military scenarios and rescue operations and other emergency conditions. IEEE 802.11b defines two main operating modes, namely, infrastructure mode and IEEE ad hoc mode. The essential characteristic feature of ad hoc network is mobility and multi-hop functioning that needs routing mechanism made for moving nodes in a network. A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) could be defined as collective network of mobile devices comprising of laptops, smart phones, sensors and other type of nodes that are mobile in nature, interact with each other with help of wireless links without having a fixed backbone or network infrastructure [1]. Such type of a network could work independently or it could collaborate with multiple attachments either with cellular network or the internet or both. This type of a network, because of above stated properties lacks a centralized administration too as the nodes are self- organizing. The nodes in such a network are required to transfer message to neighboring nodes along with the path from the source node to the destination node. It should be taken into consideration that only those nodes are engaged in routing that are included in the routing path from source to destination. Due to the rapid change in mobility, lack of infrastructure and inter node connectivity, routing is one of the major issues in MANET. The routing protocol in MANET calls for dynamic topology maintenance, multi-hop routing and should be free from loops and needs to be scalable. The limitations due to mobility are rapidly changing topologies and routes for communication between nodes and lack of awareness of possible movement in network whereas the shortcomings due to mobile nodes are limited device capabilities, bandwidth limitations, different types of devices in a network having different configurations and limited battery life of devices. Clustering is dividing of network into clusters so that the elements that exhibit the similar properties can be part of the same cluster [2]. Moreover, we can say that clustering is assigning each data element a corresponding cluster. Outliers are those values which are left isolated because they do not belong to the cluster. Outliers are generally those data points that have different properties that cannot be associated with any cluster. Clustering is finding its application in business driven applications since it can be used to target and analyze the customer behavior, market sales and predict the sales in future. Clustering is used in varied areas such as town planning, weather forecast prediction, customer retention by analyzing and grouping the customers and their buying habits. Application of clustering in routing for MANET is beneficial as partitioning the network in cluster makes it easy to manage and organize it. We choose a cluster head in each cluster by means of which each communication to and fro the cluster must pass through that cluster head. The selection of cluster head from the cluster depends on various parameters such as the distance of the given node to the cluster head, the energy of
  • 2. ISSN: 2312-7694 Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 33 | P a g e © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com the node, movement of the node and other factors. Different cluster based routing algorithm shall be analyzed in this paper from the literature. We have organized this paper in sections in which: Section 2 reviews literature survey; Section 3 reviews the analysis; Section 3 reviews the future scope; Section 4 gives the conclusion; and finally, appendix reviews the analysis table. II. PREVIOUS WORK In [3] mobility management and prediction information is used for routing. It is an on demand distributed clustering algorithm. Since MANET is a network that is constantly changing, the addition and subtraction of nodes to and fro the network affects overall permanence of the network. In algorithm proposed, the duration between the messages sent is increased and it has better performance than LCA. In [4] local cluster head selection is done and average packet delivery rate along with number of handovers and overheads is taken into account for cluster head election. The election is reduced because it results in consumption of lots of bandwidth and it is reduced by considering that an unconnected node chooses to become the CH and forms a cluster. An extension to OLSR was proposed [5]. In this paper, inter cluster topology information is exchanged. It is better than OLSR with regard to generation of overhead and through-put. This approach which is clustered OLSR uses clustering approach so as to reduce the protocol overhead making it more appropriate for large scale networks. For large scale mobile multi-hop network, a new algorithm was proposed in [6]. It reduces the cluster reorganizational overhead and optimizes the cluster route selection. The route criteria are node number, node density, cluster ranking, cluster degree. Cognitive radio mixed sensor and mobile ad hoc network for dual applications [7] uses heterogeneous nodes with different capabilities and nodes from different organizations. It increases network lifetime. In [8] there is quick convergence and low maintenance cost of routing and it provides efficient flooding platform. The algorithm works for finding the cluster header and then the cluster maintenance. The design goal here is to keep the set of forwarding node small to increase the efficiency of routing protocol. For achieving this, it chooses the nodes that have higher degree. Inspired from the insect society’s biological model, zone dependent ant colony routing in MANET [9] is proposed. It is more efficient than POSANT in terms of overhead comparison. It works on finding the most effective path for purpose of routing the data. We also keep track of second most efficient path if we have huge amount and count of data packets to be sent thus decreasing the chances of selecting the same path always. In [10] a reactive algorithm is proposed with a pre requisite that the links are Omni directional. it outperforms the algorithm when the protocol is extended to multi source multicasting. Optimized layered cluster based routing protocol for ad hoc networks [11] is proposed in this paper, a hybrid algorithm it is an enhanced version of LCR (layered cluster based routing. It is used especially for large and dense networks. In [12] a hierarchical clustered algorithm is proposed. It uses packet delivery ratio and normalized routing load, end to end delay as parameters for routing. Third party route is used to improve the performance of the routing protocol. Novel approach for dynamic leader election and key based security in MANET clusters for secured data distribution [13] is proposed in this paper. It uses inter cluster handshaking and key based cryptography for better security and for less eavesdropping. In [14] algorithm which is makes of adaptive protocols, is proposed. It makes use of declarative queries and adaptive protocol. ND log rules are formed and it has better packet traversing in various in network traffic conditions. In [15] Ant based On Demand Clustering protocol is proposed. It makes use of weakly connected dominant set. It is a proactive type of algorithm. It has better network good put and residual energy ratio. The approach used is least cluster change. Weighted based clustering scheme for MANET [16] is proposed in this paper. It has node mobility estimation, node density calculation as its parameters. Improvement to the existing CGSR algorithm is done in [17]. It uses fuzzy logic system and calculates cluster head possibility of each node in the cluster. It takes three parameters to make the decision of choosing the cluster head namely node energy, node movement and distance of the node to the cluster centroid. The algorithm in [18] is designed to deal with faulty node in the network. Fault tolerance cluster head based routing protocol for ad hoc networks is a hierarchical routing protocol is propose to give packet delivery fraction guarantee and to decrease the network overhead when there are faulty nodes. Its performance is compared and evaluated with other algorithms such as AODV, DSR and it has shown to be better than these algorithms.
  • 3. ISSN: 2312-7694 Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 34 | P a g e © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com The on demand routing based clustering protocol for MANET [19] does not maintain the table for keeping the routing information. It uses two more parameters that are node density and hop factor. The algorithm has three phases namely route discovery, which consist of finding the route from the source node to the destination node, second phase being cluster formation followed by cluster maintenance. A hierarchical type of algorithm is implemented in [20] in which cluster having higher height are positioned up in the tree and the cluster having the lower height are positioned lower in the tree and each node in the network is associated with a height. The tree is made in such a manner that the nodes that are higher they send links to the lower nodes in the tree with the help of logical links. It uses the concept of multicasting whereas the messages are transferred to a set of nodes but not all the nodes which is termed as broadcasting. There is construction and maintenance of multicast tree in this algorithm. Concept of associativity and query stride [21] is used for making up of the cluster. By the term associativity we mean a node is connected to how many other nodes of the network. Query stride means that not all nodes should be considered for routing and hence only desired nodes are to be considered which results in better resource utilization and less congestion in the network. The algorithm is compared with AODV routing algorithm by means of average packet delay and packet delivery ratio. III. ANALYSIS Many papers are reviewed related to cluster based routing algorithm. Algorithms that are reviewed are different from one another in terms of parameters used, type of algorithm and performance. Result of analysis is mentioned in an appendix in a table. IV. CONCLUSION In this paper, all algorithms are analyzed that are proposed from 2005 to 2013. From this analysis, we can conclude that routing in MANET is crucial and one algorithm cannot outperform others in every way as different algorithms work differently under different environments. Introducing fuzzy clustering with QoS could be the future work. The characteristics that could be worked upon area as follows performance calculated by number of pockets successfully sent per unit of time in the network, delay, usage of network bandwidth, scalability to larger network, adaptability and efficiency, security. The most general criteria for choosing the cluster head is the distance measurement from the centroid. The different parameters that have been taken to choose a cluster head are namely distance, mobility, energy, trust value. REFERENCES [1] J. Hoebeke, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester , An overview of mobile ad hoc networks: applications and challenges, journal of communications network. 3(3). p.60-66G. (references) [2] E. A. Zanty, “Improving Fuzzy Algorithm for Automatic Image Segmentation,” Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), Coll. Of computer & Inf. Technology, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia Aljahdali, S, pp. 1-6, on date of conference: 7-9 April 2011. [3] V.B.Vieu, N.Mikau, QoS in MANETs using a Mobility Prediction Based Weighted Clustering Algorithm, IEEE, 2005, 390-397. [4] V.B.Vieu, N. Naseer, N.Mikau, A Weighted Clustering Algorithm Using Local Cluster heads Election for MANETs, IEEE, 2006. [5] F.J.Rose, P.R.M., Cluster based OLSR Extension to Reduce Control Overhead in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, ACM, 2007, 202-207. [6] T. Rashid, K.A. Agha, U. Javaid, L. Reynaud, Cluster Quality based Hybrid Routing for Large Scale Mobile Multi hop Networks, ACM, 2007, 3054- 3059. [7] D. R. Vaman, L. Qian, Cognitive Radio Mixed Sensor and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks(SMANET) for Dual Use Applications, IEEE, 2008, 3304-3310. [8] S.Lui, D. Mu, H. Xu, An On Demand Source based Clustering Multicast Routing Protocol In Ad Hoc Network, IEEE, 2009, 408-412. [9] M. Bandyopadhyay, P. Bhaunick, Zone Based Ant Colony Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, IEEE, 2010. [10] J. Rangarajan, K. Baskaran, Unicast Forwarded Cluster Based Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks, ACM, 2011, 485-488. [11] I. Jemini, N. Chaabouni, A. Belghith, M. Mosbah, An Optimized layered Cluster based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE, 2011, 156-163. [12] S. Sethi, A. Raut, D. Mishra, Shatabdinalini, A Robust Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET, ACM, 2011, 26-31. [13] A. Azeez, K.G. Preetha, A Novel Approach for dynamic leader election and Key based security in MANET for Secured Data Distribution, ACM, 2012, 52-56. [14] C. Liu, R. Correa, X. Li, P. Basu, B. T. Loo, Y. Mao, Declarative Policy based Adaptive Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, IEEE/ACM transactions on Networking, vol. 20, no. 3, june2012, 770-783. [15] K.H. Li, J.S. Leu, J. Hosek, Ant Based On Demand Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE, 2013, 354- 359. [16] A. Bentaleb, S. Harous, A. Boubetra, A Weight based Clustering Scheme for Mobile AD Hoc Networks, ACM, 2013. [17] Dr. S. Upadhyaya, A. Saini, Improving the Quality of CGSR Routing Protocol by Electing Suitable Cluster head Using Fuzzy Logic System in MANET, IJARCSSE, 2013, 369-375. [18] Y. Qin, K. L. Pang “A Fault-tolerance Cluster Head Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE, 2008, 2472- 2476. [19] C. Hsien Hsu, K. Ten Feng, “On Demand routing based clustering based protocol for mobile ad hoc network”, 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC’07).
  • 4. ISSN: 2312-7694 Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 35 | P a g e © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com [20] Tomoyuki Ohta, Toshifumi Kawaguchi, and Yoshiaki Kakuda, “A New Multicast Routing Protocol Based on Autonomous Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE, 2005, 297-305. [21] Yongjin Choi and Daeyeon Park, “Associativity Based Clustering and Query Stride for On-demand Routing Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks”, Journal of communications and networks, VOL.4, NO.1, MARCH 2002,4-13. TABLE I. ANALYSIS RESULT S.N. Name Year Essential Characteristics Parameters Used Pre Requisites Performance Type of Algorithm 1. Qos in MANET using mobility prediction based weighted algorithm 2005 Implements and considers prediction, induces QoS, distributed in nature. Number of updates and handovers. Position of cluster head is taken in Cartesian coordinates. Better than WCA On demand distributed clustering algorithm. 2. Weighted clustering algorithm using local cluster head election for QoS in MANET 2006 Local election, mobility prediction Average packet delay, overhead, updates, handovers. Range of election to area 2 cluster head are one hop neighbor Better than WCA On demand distributed clustering algorithm. 3. Cluster based OLSR extension to reduce control overhead in MANET 2007 Based on OLSR, exchanges inter cluster topology information. Topology control message , multipoint relay set Messages and rules are formed before Outperform OLSR Hybrid routing mechanism 4. Cluster quality based hybrid routing for MANET 2007 Optimize cluster route selection. node count, density, resilience Need to have quality information Better than AODV and C- OADV Hybrid routing mechanism 5. Cognitive radio mixed sensor and MANET for dual applications. 2008 More survivability, keeps cross team data at lowest level Multi hop radio sensor path routing All nodes have cognitive radio capability Enhancement to homogeneous MANET Used mixed MANET / sensor network mechanism 6. On demand source based clustering multicast routing in MANET 2009 Reduces overhead, dynamically classify source in clusters Cluster selection head, maintenance process Not applicable Quick convergence On demand source based multicast type 7. Zone based ant colony cluster routing 2010 Uses DIR principle, mobility management Node number, zone size, mobility Known Transmission range, hop count Better than POSANT Insect societies biological model 8. Unicast forward cluster based multicast protocol for ad hoc network 2011 Efficient multicast in multi-source environment Weight estimation, cluster head selection Omni directional links Outperform the algorithm when in multi- source multicasting Reactive
  • 5. ISSN: 2312-7694 Mansi Sharm et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 36 | P a g e © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.02 August 2014 www.ijccse.com S.N. Name Year Essential Characteristics Parameters Used Pre Requisites Performance Type of Algorithm 9. Optimized layered cluster based routing protocol for ad hoc network 2011 Enhanced route quality in LCR, direction mechanism Route discovery and maintenance Known transmitter layer information Enhanced version of LCR Hybrid 10. Robust cluster based routing protocol for MANET 2011 Third party route reply, improved performance Packet delivery ratio, routing delay Not applicable Better than CBRP Hierarchical 11. Novel approach for dynamic leader election and key based security in MANET 2012 Key based cryptography Inter cluster handshaking Not applicable Better security, less eavesdropping Hybrid 12. Declarative policy based adaptive mobile ad hoc networking 2012 Adaptive, declarative Declarative queries ND rules are to be formed Better packet traversing Adaptive 13. Ant based On Demand Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 2013 Minimal traffic overhead, use of weakly connected dominant sets. Least cluster change Not applicable Better network good put, Residual Energy ratio Proactive 14. Weighted based clustering scheme for MANET 2013 Facilitate routing operation, maintains clusters locally Node mobility, node density calculation Not applicable Better average number of CH Hybrid 15. Improving CGSR routing protocol by electing suitable cluster head using fuzzy logic system 2013 Fuzzy logic system, calculation of cluster head possibility Node mobility, distance, node energy Not applicable Better than CGSR Hierarchical