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“Grasping the fruits of agricultural trade
liberalization: opportunities and challenges for
Women”
Dr. David Laborde
Senio...
Setting the stage
• Research on Gender, Value Chains and Trade: the need of good data
• Understanding biases
 Ex-ante vs ...
International trade and gender biases
Role of women in agriculture
value chains
Specific contribution of International Tra...
Gender Inequalities at the production
stage: Consequences and Origins
• Large share of the agricultural labor force in dev...
How to make international trade more
inclusive?
How to increase women’s
participation to international trade?
• Specific b...
Women’s empowerment index in
Agriculture
• Check
Based on Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing, Farzana Ramzan,
Emily Hogue...
Women’s empowerment index in
Agriculture (decomposition)
Farm and Trade Policies impacts
• Understand the policy effects on
 Output prices
 Input prices and access (e.g. fertili...
Price distortions and gender
inequalities
Author’s computation
based on Ag-Incentives
Consortium data, and
Uganda LSMS sur...
Domestic vs International
Distortions (I)
Author’s computation
based on Ag-Incentives
Consortium data, and
Uganda LSMS sur...
Domestic vs International
Distortions (II)
Author’s computation
based on Ag-Incentives
Consortium data, and
Uganda LSMS su...
Concluding Remarks
• Addressing gender inequalities in agricultural value chains are important
due to:
 Economic outcomes...
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Grasping the fruits of agricultural trade liberalization: opportunities and challenges for women

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Presentation by David Laborde, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI, at the WTO Public Forum 2016, session “International value chains in agriculture: challenges and opportunities to address gender inequalities”

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Grasping the fruits of agricultural trade liberalization: opportunities and challenges for women

  1. 1. “Grasping the fruits of agricultural trade liberalization: opportunities and challenges for Women” Dr. David Laborde Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI MTID Division with contributions from Dr. Kelly Jones and Tess Lallemant Presentation made during the “International value chains in agriculture: challenges and opportunities to address gender inequalities” session at the WTO PUBLIC FORUM 2016
  2. 2. Setting the stage • Research on Gender, Value Chains and Trade: the need of good data • Understanding biases  Ex-ante vs Ex-post  De jure vs De facto • Discriminate between Market failures vs Policy failures  Is the “Invisible Hand” biased?  Could we correct this bias with the right policies? • Capturing the complexity of the agricultural value chains: different products involved, different roles in the VC for women • Facing the same global situation, different outcomes due to different environment socio-economic environments
  3. 3. International trade and gender biases Role of women in agriculture value chains Specific contribution of International Trade and trade policies Primary producers • Participation to production • Control of production Crop specialization • Cash crops (export oriented) • Food crops (domestic markets, import competing) • Livestocks Processing stage • Industrial processing Female vs male labour specificities • Increased linkages to rich markets • International VC specialization (shrimps, horticulture) • Pros: Formal sector, Cons: additional workload if no behavioral adjustment Trading and Marketing stage • Services (food distribution) and local markets Role of imports • Inputs, including basic food products (e.g. Tanzania and sugar) Consumers Affordable and diversified source of food
  4. 4. Gender Inequalities at the production stage: Consequences and Origins • Large share of the agricultural labor force in developing countries provided by women (on average 43%, 50% in Africa) • Still women are disadvantaged:  in productive asset ownership  control of productive inputs  Nature of extension services (e.g. male providers and female farmers) • Consequences: in average, lower productivity for women farmers due lower access to inputs and human capital • Less policy support?  Lower political capital  Access to import licenses • Intra-household dynamics (see Jones and al. for ongoing research in Uganda and Ghana) :  Increased commercialization and move towards cash crops due to shifts in intra-household allocation (while women often participate in cash crop production, it is almost exclusively men who are responsible for sales and profit allocation)  Role of redistributing “rights” by allocating contracts to man or woman
  5. 5. How to make international trade more inclusive? How to increase women’s participation to international trade? • Specific barriers to trade  Fixed cost to trade • Scale matters  Quantity, homogenous quality  See Dr. Bernard’s presentation • Productivity matters  Farmer heterogeneity, productivity and participation Role of Trade Facilitation How to increase women’s payoff from international trade? • Specific role in VC • Could we generate gender “premium”? The role of specific labels?  See Dr. Minten’s presentation • Two caveats  Address domestic bottlenecks and local constraints  Price response vs behavorial changes
  6. 6. Women’s empowerment index in Agriculture • Check Based on Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing, Farzana Ramzan, Emily Hogue, and Sabina Alkire Check http://www.ifpri.org/topic/weai-resource- center
  7. 7. Women’s empowerment index in Agriculture (decomposition)
  8. 8. Farm and Trade Policies impacts • Understand the policy effects on  Output prices  Input prices and access (e.g. fertilizers vouchers)  Price of assets (land, herds)  income vs wealth effects • Domestic vs International Distortions • Role of product specialization • Illustration with Uganda: balanced environment, balanced outcomes
  9. 9. Price distortions and gender inequalities Author’s computation based on Ag-Incentives Consortium data, and Uganda LSMS survey
  10. 10. Domestic vs International Distortions (I) Author’s computation based on Ag-Incentives Consortium data, and Uganda LSMS survey
  11. 11. Domestic vs International Distortions (II) Author’s computation based on Ag-Incentives Consortium data, and Uganda LSMS survey
  12. 12. Concluding Remarks • Addressing gender inequalities in agricultural value chains are important due to:  Economic outcomes  Social outcomes  Environmental outcomes • Gender inequalities will not be solved in Geneva, Still:  International negotiations should aim to control for ex-post biases  Discipline on policy space should control for gender biases  Role of trade facilitation • Understanding domestic constraints are critical  No uniform “silver” bullet  Price incentives and/or distortions have limited impacts without behavioral changes

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