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Assessment of genetic resources
conservation and use in Near
East and North Africa region
Ahmed Amri
International Center ...
Trends in degradation of natural resources in NENA region
• 70% of arable land in the world and 90% in the NENA region
aff...
Flora and endemism in Arab countries
(World conservation center, 1992)
Countries Total species N. Endemic species N. Threa...
Middle East and North Africa region encompasses four major centers of diversity and the
Mediterranean hot spots of endemic...
• Agrobiodiversity continues to support
the livelihoods of rural poor in
drylands and mountainous areas;
• Reservoir of va...
Aegilops, Avena, Hordeum,
Secale and Triticum species
Sources: Katherine Whitehouse, Holly Vincent, Ahmed Amri and Nigel M...
Location of
complementarity analysis
for all priority Cicer,
Lathyrus, Lens, Medicago,
Pisum and Vicia species
diversity h...
-1 1 3 5 7
Grazing pressure
New varieties
New species
Overuse
Urbanization
Drought
Decreased farming
Cutting
Quarries
Fire...
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
EnhancedVegetatio...
Requirements for building efficient, effective, rational
national and global systems for PGRFA conservation
Conservation
U...
State of ratification of major PGRFA related international
agreements by NENA countries
Agreements Number of countries Yea...
Countries
Strategy
Action Plan
Number
institutions
National focal
institution
National PGR
committee
Medium and long-
term...
State of utilization of genetic resources in NENA countries
Countries Documentation Extent of distribution Characterizatio...
Countries No. accessions
1996
No. accessions
2007
No. accessions
at ICARDA
Morocco 3,115 23,000 4479
Algeria 985 663 3733
...
Regional and international collaboration and networking
• Large number of accessions from NENA countries are
available in ...
Major observations from analysis of PGR conservation and use
programs in NENA countries
• Most existing legislations are o...
Emerging needs and priorities (policy and legislation)
• Developing and updating PGRFA National Strategies and Action Plan...
• In-depth assessment of genetic resources conservation and use
programs (contribution to the 3rd Report SoWPGRFA and GAP)...
Other needs and priorities in NENA region
• Sharing data on plant genetic resources collections. Linkages with the
emergin...
Decentralization of Genebank activities at ICARDA
Taxon Accessions held
in Syria
Morocco Lebanon Total unique accessions
i...
Potential areas for ICARDA contribution
• Undertake gap analysis for ex situ an in situ conservation efforts including
joi...
Indigenous Breeds of
Small Ruminants are
Highly Adaptable to
Changes in the
Environment
Hessian Fly Resistant
Assessment of genetic resources conservation and use in Near East and North Africa region
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Assessment of genetic resources conservation and use in Near East and North Africa region

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Veröffentlicht am

Dr. Ahmed Amri

COP22 Session - 8th November 2016, Marrakech

Genetic Resources Regional Strategy: A strategic framework for genetic conservation and sustainable use in MENA .

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Assessment of genetic resources conservation and use in Near East and North Africa region

  1. 1. Assessment of genetic resources conservation and use in Near East and North Africa region Ahmed Amri International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
  2. 2. Trends in degradation of natural resources in NENA region • 70% of arable land in the world and 90% in the NENA region affected by desertification; • Expected decreases by 2020: rangeland by 22%, cropped areas by 21% and forest land by 30%; • Soil loss estimates: normal vegetation cover (10-60 kg/ha); burned forest (200-550 kg/ha); cultivated areas (3280 kg/ha) (Jaloul and Kbabo 1993 Syria); • Per capita holdings: 0.34 ha (1975), 0.19 (1997); • Depletion of ground water due to over-exploitation; • Alarming loss of biodiversity in general and agrobiodiversity.
  3. 3. Flora and endemism in Arab countries (World conservation center, 1992) Countries Total species N. Endemic species N. Threatened species Algeria 3200 250 145 Egypt 2112 70 91 Jordan 2500 - 752 Lebanon* 3050 305 5 Libya 1900 134 58 Mauritania 1100 - 3 Morocco 4500 600 194 Palestine 3000 - 980 Syria* 3050 305 11 Tunisia 2150 170 26 Bahrain 196 0 - Iraq 2921 190 - Kuwait 235 0 1 Oman 1021 74 2 Qatar 221 0 - Saudi Arabia 1737 34 2 Sudan 3000 - - United Emirates 342 0 - Yemen 2336 135 134
  4. 4. Middle East and North Africa region encompasses four major centers of diversity and the Mediterranean hot spots of endemic flora
  5. 5. • Agrobiodiversity continues to support the livelihoods of rural poor in drylands and mountainous areas; • Reservoir of valuable traits for breeding programs around the world including genes for adaptation to climate change adverse effects; • Source of material for rehabilitation of degraded eco- and farming systems; • Several other social and environmental benefits/services. Importance of dryland agrobiodiversity 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Apricot Almond Grape Apple Olive Fig Wheat BarleyChickpea Lentil Lebanon Syria Jordan Palestine Lowest 25% 25%-50% 50%-75% Highest 25% Wealth quartiles 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Mean(JD/Year) Selling crop production Selling livestock products Value of selling live animals Off-farm labor wage from agriculture Off-farm labor wage out side agriculture Government employee Remittance from members working out side the country Lowest 25% 25 - 50% 50 - 75% Highest 25% Wealth quartilies 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 MeanSL/Year Selling crop production Selling livestock products Selling live animals Off-farm labor wage from agriculture Off-farm labor wage out side agriculture Government employee Remittance from members working out side the country Other income
  6. 6. Aegilops, Avena, Hordeum, Secale and Triticum species Sources: Katherine Whitehouse, Holly Vincent, Ahmed Amri and Nigel Maxted (2012) and Maxted et al (2010) Cicer, Lathyrus, Lens, Medicago, Pisum and Vicia species Mapping of species richness for priority species
  7. 7. Location of complementarity analysis for all priority Cicer, Lathyrus, Lens, Medicago, Pisum and Vicia species diversity hotspots Source: Maxted et al. (2010) Complementary analysis for in situ conservation of wild relatives of cereals and legumes Location of complementarity analysis for priority Aegilops, Avena, Hordeum, Secale and Triticum species diversity hotspots
  8. 8. -1 1 3 5 7 Grazing pressure New varieties New species Overuse Urbanization Drought Decreased farming Cutting Quarries Fire Land reclamation 2004 2000 Severity score Major factors affecting agrobiodiversity in NENA region
  9. 9. 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 EnhancedVegetationIndex(EVI) 8-days interval from 2000-2013 MODIS Time Series Spectral Profiles rangelands (Muwaqqar, Jordan 2000-13) Water deficit years (droughts)Water surplus years (good years) Source: P. Patil, C. Biradar and A. Amri (CRP Drylands Systems 2013) Major LULC Type 1985 2002 2013 Croplands 7756.85 8177.69 8499.92 Non-Woody/Grassland 44512.65 33412.05 36507.21 Barren and Sparsely Vegetated 47586.31 58127.76 54251.20 Urban and built-up areas 21.87 124.51 691.28 Woody Vegetation 98.70 158.33 50.73 Waterbody 23.96 0.00 0.00
  10. 10. Requirements for building efficient, effective, rational national and global systems for PGRFA conservation Conservation Use Svalbard Safety backup Base collection Active collection Breeder collection Farmers Traditional genebank networks Making genebanks moreuseful • National commitment (strategy, policy, institutional arrangements); • Better coordination at the national level; • Combining both ex situ and in situ conservation approaches; • Establishment of reliable genebanks; • Safety duplication of collections and related databases; • Linking conservation to utilization (gene mining and evaluation); • International collaboration with fair and equitable benefit sharing.
  11. 11. State of ratification of major PGRFA related international agreements by NENA countries Agreements Number of countries Years of ratification Countries CBD 25 1993-2015 AFG, ALG, BAH, DJI, EGY, IRN, IRQ, JOR, KWT, LEB, LBY, MAUR, MOR, OMA, PAL, PAK, QAT, SAR, SOM, SUD, SYR, TUN, TUR, UAE, YEM Cartagena Protocol 22 2004-2015 AFG, ALG, BAH, DJI, IRN, IRQ, EGY, JOR, KWT, LBY, AUR, MOR, PAL, PAK, OMA, QAT, SAR, SYR, TUN, TUR, UAE, YEM Nagoya Protocol 12 2011-2016 ALG, EGY, JOR, LEB, MAUR, MOR, PAK, SUD, SYR, TUN, UAE, YEM CITES 21 1975-2001 BAH, DJI, EGY, IRN, IRQ, JOR, KWT, LEB, LBY, MAUR, MOR, OMA, PAK, QAT, SAR, SUD, SYR, TUN, TUR, UAE, YEM ITPGRFA 22 2001-2014 AFG, ALG, DJI, EGY, IRN, IRQ, JOR, KWT, LEB, LBY, MAUR, MOR, OMA, PAK, QAT, SUD, SAR, SYR, TUN, TUR, UEA, YEM UPOV 5 2003-2009 JOR, MOR, OMA, TUN , TUR
  12. 12. Countries Strategy Action Plan Number institutions National focal institution National PGR committee Medium and long- term conservation Cryo-conservation Field genebanks Safety duplication Iran Yes 5 Yes Yes Yes (M,L) Yes Yes +/- Turkey Yes 5 Yes Yes Yes (M,L) Yes Yes +/- Pakistan Yes 5 Yes Yes Yes (M,L) Yes Yes No Morocco Yes 5 Yes Yes (1992) Yes (M,L) Yes Yes No Algeria Draft 4 INRAA (2007) No No No Yes No Tunisia Yes 6 NGBT (2007) Yes (2007) Yes (M,L) Yes Yes No Libya No 1 No No Yes (M) No Yes No Egypt Yes 9 NGB (2004) Yes (1994) Yes (M,L) Yes Yes No Syria Yes 2 GCSAR (2001) Yes (2004) No No Yes No Sudan Yes 3 No Yes Yes (M,L) Yes Yes No Lebanon Yes 2 No No Yes (L) No Yes No Jordan Yes 3 NCARTT (2002) Yes (2001) Yes (M) No Yes No Iraq No 1 No No No No Yes No Qatar No 2 No No No No Yes No Kuwait No 2 No No No No Yes No Saudi Arabia No 3 No No Yes (M) No Yes No Oman No 2 No No Yes (M) No Yes No UAE No 2 No No No Yes Yes No Yemen Yes 2 No No Yes (M) No Yes No Institutional arrangements for ex situ conservation in NENA countries
  13. 13. State of utilization of genetic resources in NENA countries Countries Documentation Extent of distribution Characterization Evaluation Breeding activities Inside Outside Agro-morphologic Molecular Morocco Complete Shared Limited Extensive Extensive Extensive +++ Algeria No Shared Limited Extensive Limited Extensive ++ Tunisia No Limited Limited Extensive Extensive Extensive ++ Libya No Limited Limited Limited Limited Limited + Egypt Complete Limited Limited Extensive Extensive Extensive +++ Sudan Partial Shared Limited Extensive Limited Extensive +++ Syria Complete Fair Limited Extensive Extensive Extensive ++ Lebanon No Shared Shared Limited Limited Limited + Palestine No Limited Limited Limited Limited Limited - Jordan Complete Shared Shared Extensive Extensive Extensive ++ Kuwait No Shared Shared Limited Extensive for date palm Fair - Qatar No Shared Shared Limited Extensive for date palm Fair - Saudi Arabia No Shared Limited Limited Extensive for date palm Fair + Oman No Shared Shared Limited Limited Limited - UAE No Shared Shared Limited Extensive for date palm Fair - Yemen Partial Shared Shared Limited Limited Limited + Iran Complete Shared Limited Extensive Extensive Extensive +++ Turkey Complete Shared Limited Extensive Extensive Extensive +++ Pakistan Complete Shared Limited Extensive Fair Extensive +++
  14. 14. Countries No. accessions 1996 No. accessions 2007 No. accessions at ICARDA Morocco 3,115 23,000 4479 Algeria 985 663 3733 Tunisia 504 11,400 4236 Libya 1,750 1934 69 Egypt* 8,914 30,000 1201 Sudan* 4,280 10,000 180 Turkey 26,869 56,000 11,849 Syria 8,750 11,500 9954 Lebanon 0 1,142 1478 Palestine 0 270 93 Jordan 2,642 4,500 5043 Iran 40,000 71,000 7397 Iraq 6,400 1,400 1042 Afghanistan 2,965 1,400 3396 Pakistan 19,208 23,000 3202 Kuwait 0 ? 0 Qatar 0 ? 0 Oman* 238 900 208 Yemen 4,229 4,800 291 Total 130,859 252,909 57,851 Status of ex situ conservation of PGRFA in the NENA countries
  15. 15. Regional and international collaboration and networking • Large number of accessions from NENA countries are available in major global genebanks including at CGIAR; • ACSAD, AOAD, ICBA and ICARDA play a crucial role in conserving genetic resources from NENA; • NENA is represented in the FAO-CGRFA, ITPGRFA, with the establishment of the Regional Commission for Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in NENA region; • NENA-PGRFA network established in 2009 and regional PGRFA strategy developed; • Discussion of PGRFA Arab Initiative  Creation of Arab Center for coordination and information management on PGR.  Creation of sub-regional genebanks.  Establishment or upgrading of national genebanks. • Muscat Declaration and development of “Framework Action Plan for the Implementation of the Benefit- Sharing Fund in NENA Region”
  16. 16. Major observations from analysis of PGR conservation and use programs in NENA countries • Most existing legislations are on protecting areas and research and development efforts focusing on intensification of farming systems with little attention to management of agrobiodiversity in situ/on-farm; • NPGR programs are at different stages of development and differ in the scope and organization and few have clear budget commitments. Several institutions are working on PGR conservation but with limited coordination; • More breeding efforts needed and expanded to crops of regional importance; • Limited role of NGOs and little involvement of local communities. • Insufficient expertise in areas related to biodiversity; • Limited capacity building opportunities; • Limited public awareness actions
  17. 17. Emerging needs and priorities (policy and legislation) • Developing and updating PGRFA National Strategies and Action Plans PGRFA involving all key stakeholders and to be in harmony with international agreements; • Establishing an institutional mechanism officially recognized by national governments in NENA region for harmonization of views, policies and legislations to promote seed trade and enhance the regional exchange of PGRFA, information and technologies and allow effective contribution international agreements and conventions; • Encouraging a better integrated cooperation between international instruments, international research centers and funding bodies for supporting PGRFA conservation and utilization initiatives; • Assisting and encouraging governments to address farmers’ rights and benefit sharing issues; • Developing national and regional expertise on policies and legislations
  18. 18. • In-depth assessment of genetic resources conservation and use programs (contribution to the 3rd Report SoWPGRFA and GAP); • Undertake gap analysis to guide future collecting missions and establishment of protected areas; • Enhance breeding and pre-breeding efforts; • Strengthening formal and informal seed production and delivery programs; • Expanding training and enhancing capacity in all facets of PGRFA utilization, characterization, evaluation, breeding and seed production. • Encouraging partnerships, coordinated efforts, and sharing roles and tasks for efficient conservation of genetic resources including arrangements for safety duplication, trans-boundary and complementary network of natural reserves based on excellency; Emerging needs and priorities (Use of Genetic Resources )
  19. 19. Other needs and priorities in NENA region • Sharing data on plant genetic resources collections. Linkages with the emerging global portal and exchanging know-how and experiences; • Rationalizing germplasm conservation activities at national and regional levels; • Effective communication and information sharing. • Assisting national programs to undertake impact assessments on the contribution of PGRFA and farmers to sustain food security; • Diversifying farming systems through the use of new and adapted PGRFA and promoting under-utilized species to sustain agricultural development; • Improving market access and opportunities for poor farmers; • Recognizing the role of International and Regional organizations and the essential role played by ICARDA’s genebank in conserving the genetic resources from NENA region.
  20. 20. Decentralization of Genebank activities at ICARDA Taxon Accessions held in Syria Morocco Lebanon Total unique accessions in 2016 Bread wheat 14,100 3487 5037 14639 Durum wheat 19,635 4312 3655 20496 Primitive wheat 912 459 124 954 Aegilops 4057 120 3953 4774 Wild Triticum 1584 116 2250 2079 Barley 28,465 6007 5136 29981 Wild Hordeum 1989 228 354 2324 Chickpea 14,214 3326 2893 15195 Wild Cicer 270 277 547 Lentil 10,496 4618 335 13907 Wild Lens 587 426 602 Faba bean 9542 3397 10034 Lathyrus 3996 1735 4277 Pisum 6106 149 8893 Medicago 8398 1321 5677 Trifolium 4536 5088 6366 Vicia 6144 637 6115 Range and pasture 5802 2130 7166 Others 219 211 225 Total 141,052 22,673 39,108 154,251 Safety duplication Syria: Active and base collections (250,000) Second level Safety duplication at Svalbard Safety duplication Lebanon: Collections of faba bean, Lathyrus, forage and range species and crop wild relatives (45,000) Morocco: Collections of cultivated species of barley, wheat, lentil and chickpea (75,000 acc.)
  21. 21. Potential areas for ICARDA contribution • Undertake gap analysis for ex situ an in situ conservation efforts including joint collecting missions; • Assess the status of national efforts for conservation of agrobiodiversity for improvement and for contribution to the State of the World third report PGRFA; • Ensure for safety duplication of genetic resources; • Provide elite germplasm for releasing new varieties of cereals and legumes; • Encourage partnerships, coordinated efforts, and sharing roles and tasks for efficient conservation of genetic resources including arrangements for safety duplication, trans-boundary and complementary network of natural reserves; • Provide training and technical backstopping.
  22. 22. Indigenous Breeds of Small Ruminants are Highly Adaptable to Changes in the Environment
  23. 23. Hessian Fly Resistant

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