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Planning
Process Group
Project Management
Processes PMBOK 5th edition
Hossam Maghrabi,PMP
Planning Process Group
Project Boundaries
Planning Process Group
The objective of this Process Group is to describe the strategy and tactics as well as
the course of action or path to successfully complete the project or phase.
 It set up the total scope of the effort, define and refine the objectives, and develop
the course of action required to attain those objectives.
 Its outputs (The project management plan and project documents ) will explore all
aspects of the scope, time, cost, quality, communications, human resources,
risks, procurements, and stakeholder engagement.
 Planning and documentation are an iterative and ongoing activities due to more
information or characteristics are gathered and understood(progressive
elaboration), also a significant changes occurring throughout the project life cycle
trigger a need to revisit one or more of the planning processes and possibly some
of the initiating processes.
 When the Planning Process Group is well managed, it is much easier to get
stakeholder buy-in and engagement.
Planning Process Group
& Knowledge Areas
Develop Project Management Plan:
Data Flow Diagram
It’s the process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and
integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.
The project management plan
defines how the project is
executed, monitored &
controlled, and closed.
Develop Project Management Plan:
Inputs
1. Project Charter
2. Outputs from Other Processes
 Outputs from many of the other processes are integrated to create the project management
plan.
 Any baselines and subsidiary plans that are an output from other planning processes are
inputs to this process.
3. Enterprise Environmental Factors
4. Organizational Process Assets
 Standardized guidelines
 Project management plan template
 Change control procedures
 Project files from previous projects
 Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base
 Configuration management knowledge base
Develop Project Management Plan:
Tools & Techniques (T&T)
1. Expert Judgment, To
– Tailor the process to meet the project needs,
– Determine resources and skill levels needed to perform project work,
– Define the level of configuration management to apply on the project,
– Determine which project documents will be subject to the formal change
control process,
– Prioritize the work on the project to ensure the project resources are
allocated to the appropriate work at the appropriate time.
2. Facilitation Techniques, Like Brainstorming, conflict resolution,
problem solving, and meeting management to used by facilitators to help
teams and individuals accomplish project activities. (Ref. Develop Project Charter T&T )
Develop Project Management Plan:
Outputs
1. Project Management Plan
It integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary plans and baselines from the
planning processes that include,
1. Project baselines (Scope baseline, Schedule baseline, Cost baseline).
2. Subsidiary plans (Scope, Requirements, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Human
resource, Communications, Risk, Procurement, Stakeholder management
plan and Process improvement plan )
2. Project Documents (Refer to pages 103, 104 in PMBOK 5)
 Project scope management includes the processes
required to ensure that the project includes all the
work required, and only the work required, to
complete the project successfully.
Planning Process Group
& Scope Management Knowledge Areas
Product Scope vs. Project Scope
Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the
deliverables of the project and the processes used to
create them.
 Product scope: The futures & functions that
characterize the product, service, or result.
 Project Scope: The work that needs to be
accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result
with the specified features and functions.
Plan Scope Management Process
 It is the process of creating a scope management
plan that documents how the project scope will be
defined, validated and controlled.
 It provides guidance and direction on how the
project’s scope will be managed.
Plan Scope Management
Data Flow Diagram
Plan Scope Management: Inputs
1. Project Management Plan
Approved subsidiary plans of the project management plan are
used to create the scope management plan and influence the
approach taken for planning scope and managing project scope.
2. Project Charter
It provides the high-level project description and product
characteristics from the project statement of work.
3. Enterprise Environmental Factors
4. Organizational Process Assets
Plan Scope Management:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
 Expert Judgment
Knowledgeable and Experienced parties.
 Meetings
Attendees at these meetings may include the project manager, the
project sponsor, selected project team members, selected
stakeholders, anyone with responsibility for any of the scope
management processes, and others as needed.
Plan Scope Management: Output
1. Scope Management Plan:
Includes
– How to prepare a detailed project scope statement.
– How to create a WBS from the detailed project scope
statement.
– How to maintain and approve the WBS.
– How to obtain formal acceptance of the completed
project deliverables.
– How to control requests for changes to the project
scope.
Plan Scope Management: Output
2. Requirements Management Plan : Includes
– How requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and
reported.
– Requirements prioritization process
– Product Metrics and Requirements Traceability Structure.
– How changes to the product will be initiated, how impacts
will be analyzed, how they will be traced, tracked, and
reported, as well as the authorization levels required to
approve these changes ( This is a Change Management
Activities).
Collect Requirements Process
Collect Requirements Process :
1. Is the process of determining, documenting and managing stakeholder’s needs and
expectations to meet project’s objectives.
2. It provide the basis for defining and managing project scope .
The Requirements
1. Or (stakeholder’s needs and expectations) must be quantifiable and documented
in enough detail to be measured once project execution begins
2. The requirements is foundation of the WBS.
3. Cost, schedule, quality planning, and sometimes procurement are all based
upon these requirements.
4. Can be grouped into classifications
1. Business requirements ( The Needs of the organization)
2. Stakeholder requirements (stakeholder’s needs and expectations)
3. Solution requirements (features, functions and characteristics of the product, service)
4. Transition requirements, describe temporary capabilities such as data conversion & training
needs
Collect Requirements Process
Data Flow Diagarm
Collect Requirements Process:
Inputs
1. Project Scope Management Plan
2. Requirements Management Plan
Include The processes that will be used throughout the Collect Requirements
process to define and document the stakeholder needs.
3. Stakeholder Management Plan
Include Stakeholder communication requirements and the level of
stakeholder engagement
4. Project Charter
Include The high-level description of the product, service, or result of the
project
5. Stakeholder Register
Collect Requirements Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
 Interviewing
 Focus groups and facilitated workshops
 Using group creativity and decision-making
techniques
 Questionnaires and surveys
 Observation
 Prototyping
 Benchmarking, or generating ideas by comparing specific
project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products
inside or outside the performing organization, can also be used to collect
requirements
Collect Requirements Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
1. Interviews
Interviewing experienced project participants,stakeholders, and subject
matter experts (one on one conversation) can aid in
identifying and determining the features and functions of the
desired project deliverables.
2. Focus groups
Bring together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to
learn about their expectations and attitudes about a
proposed product, service, or result. Usually conducted by
a trained moderator
Collect Requirements Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
3. Facilitated Workshops
 Are considered a primary technique for quickly defined
cross-functional requirements that affect more than one
department and reconciling stakeholders differences.
 Well facilitated sessions can build trust, foster
relationships, and improve communication among the
participants which can lead to increased stakeholder
consensus.
Collect Requirements Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
4. Group Creativity Techniques
 Brainstorming
 Nominal group technique
 Delphi Technique
 Idea/mind mapping
 Affinity diagram
 Multi-criteria decision analysis.
5. Group Decision Making Techniques
Is an assessment process of multiple alternatives with an expected outcome
in the form of future actions resolution. These techniques can be used to
generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements.
Methods of reaching a group decision (Unanimity , Majority , Plurality , Dictatorship)
Collect Requirements Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
6. Questionnaires and Surveys
Are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate
information from a wide number of respondents.
7. Observations
It is particularly helpful for detailed processes when the people that
use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their
requirements.
8. Prototypes
Is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by
providing a working model of the expected product before
actually building it.
Collect Requirements Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
9. Benchmarking
Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned practices, such
as processes and operations, to those of comparable
organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for
improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
The organizations compared during benchmarking can be
internal or external.
10. Context Diagrams
Context diagrams show inputs to the business system, the actor(s)
providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and
the actor(s) receiving the output.
11. Document Analysis
Collect Requirements process:
Outputs
1. Requirements Documentation
 Describes how individual requirements meet the business need
for the project.
 Before being baseline, requirements need to be unambiguous
(measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent,
and acceptable to key stakeholders
 Requirements documentation can include,
 Requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints.
 Business Requirements.
 Stakeholder requirements.
 Solution requirements.
 Project requirements.
 Transition requirements.
Collect Requirements process:
Outputs
1. Requirements Traceability Matrix
1. It is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the
deliverables that satisfy them.
2. It helps to
 Ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business
and project objectives.
 Track requirements to ensure that the approved requirements are delivered at
the end of the project.
 Provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
Define Scope process
 The process of developing a detailed
description of the project and product.
 Defining which of the requirements collected
will be included in and excluded from the
project scope
Define Scope process
Data Flow Diagram
Define Scope Process: Inputs
1. Project charter
2. Scope Management Plan
3. Requirements Document
4. Organizational Process Assets
– Procedures & Templates
– Historical Data
– Lessons learned from old Projects
Define Scope Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
1. Expert Judgment
To analyze the information needed to develop the project scope
statement
2. Context Diagrams
Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown,
systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering,
value engineering, and value analysis
3. Alternatives Generation
Identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the
project using brainstorming, lateral thinking, analysis of
alternatives, etc
4. Facilitated Workshops
Define Scope Process: Outputs
1. Scope Statement
describes project’s deliverables and the
work required to create those deliverables.
It includes
 Product scope description
 Deliverables’ Acceptance Criteria
 Project Deliverables
 Project Exclusion
 Project Assumptions and Constraints
Define Scope Process: Outputs
Define Scope Process: Outputs
2. Project Documents Updates: may include
– Stakeholder register
– Requirements Documents
– Requirements Traceability Matrix
Create WBS Process
 Is the process of subdividing project deliverables and work
into smaller, more manageable components.
 The WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical
decomposition of the work to be executed by the project
team, to create the required deliverables.
 The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the
project.
Create WBS Process
Data Flow Diagram
Create WBS Process
Work Pakage & Decomposition
 The planned work is contained within the lowest level of WBS
components, which are called work packages.
 A work package can be used to group the activities where work is
scheduled and estimated, monitored, and controlled. In the context of
the WBS, work refers to work products or deliverables that are the
result of activity and not to the activity itself.
 As the work is decomposed to greater levels of detail, the ability to
plan, manage, and control the work is enhanced. However, excessive
decomposition can lead to nonproductive management effort and
difficulty aggregating data over different levels of the WBS.
Create WBS Process:
WBS & Control Account
 A control account is a management control point where scope,
budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to the
earned value for performance measurement.
 Control accounts are placed at selected management points in the
WBS.
 Each control account may include one or more work packages, but
each of the work packages should be associated with only one control
account.
 A control account may include one or more planning packages.
 planning package is a work breakdown structure component below
the control account with known work content but without detailed
schedule activities.
:Create WBS Process
WBS Structure & Forms
:Create WBS Process
WBS Structure & Forms
Create WBS Process:Inputs
 Scope Management Plan
 Project Scope Statement
 Requirements Document
 Enterprise Environmental Factors
 Organizational Process Assets
Create WBS Process:
Tools and Techniques (T&T)
1. Decomposition
– Decomposition of the total work into work packages generally
involves the following activities:
 Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work.
 Structuring and organizing the WBS.
 Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower level detailed
components.
 Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS
components.
 Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the work is
necessary and sufficient.
2. Expert Judgment
Create WBS Process: Outputs
1. Scope Baseline
– Project Scope Statement
– WBS
– WBS Dictionary
2. Project Documents updates
Create WBS Process: Outputs
WBS Dictionary

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PMBOK 5th Planning Process Group Part One

  • 1. Planning Process Group Project Management Processes PMBOK 5th edition Hossam Maghrabi,PMP
  • 3. Planning Process Group The objective of this Process Group is to describe the strategy and tactics as well as the course of action or path to successfully complete the project or phase.  It set up the total scope of the effort, define and refine the objectives, and develop the course of action required to attain those objectives.  Its outputs (The project management plan and project documents ) will explore all aspects of the scope, time, cost, quality, communications, human resources, risks, procurements, and stakeholder engagement.  Planning and documentation are an iterative and ongoing activities due to more information or characteristics are gathered and understood(progressive elaboration), also a significant changes occurring throughout the project life cycle trigger a need to revisit one or more of the planning processes and possibly some of the initiating processes.  When the Planning Process Group is well managed, it is much easier to get stakeholder buy-in and engagement.
  • 4. Planning Process Group & Knowledge Areas
  • 5. Develop Project Management Plan: Data Flow Diagram It’s the process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan. The project management plan defines how the project is executed, monitored & controlled, and closed.
  • 6. Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs 1. Project Charter 2. Outputs from Other Processes  Outputs from many of the other processes are integrated to create the project management plan.  Any baselines and subsidiary plans that are an output from other planning processes are inputs to this process. 3. Enterprise Environmental Factors 4. Organizational Process Assets  Standardized guidelines  Project management plan template  Change control procedures  Project files from previous projects  Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base  Configuration management knowledge base
  • 7. Develop Project Management Plan: Tools & Techniques (T&T) 1. Expert Judgment, To – Tailor the process to meet the project needs, – Determine resources and skill levels needed to perform project work, – Define the level of configuration management to apply on the project, – Determine which project documents will be subject to the formal change control process, – Prioritize the work on the project to ensure the project resources are allocated to the appropriate work at the appropriate time. 2. Facilitation Techniques, Like Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management to used by facilitators to help teams and individuals accomplish project activities. (Ref. Develop Project Charter T&T )
  • 8. Develop Project Management Plan: Outputs 1. Project Management Plan It integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary plans and baselines from the planning processes that include, 1. Project baselines (Scope baseline, Schedule baseline, Cost baseline). 2. Subsidiary plans (Scope, Requirements, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Human resource, Communications, Risk, Procurement, Stakeholder management plan and Process improvement plan ) 2. Project Documents (Refer to pages 103, 104 in PMBOK 5)
  • 9.  Project scope management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Planning Process Group & Scope Management Knowledge Areas
  • 10. Product Scope vs. Project Scope Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the deliverables of the project and the processes used to create them.  Product scope: The futures & functions that characterize the product, service, or result.  Project Scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
  • 11. Plan Scope Management Process  It is the process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated and controlled.  It provides guidance and direction on how the project’s scope will be managed.
  • 13. Plan Scope Management: Inputs 1. Project Management Plan Approved subsidiary plans of the project management plan are used to create the scope management plan and influence the approach taken for planning scope and managing project scope. 2. Project Charter It provides the high-level project description and product characteristics from the project statement of work. 3. Enterprise Environmental Factors 4. Organizational Process Assets
  • 14. Plan Scope Management: Tools and Techniques (T&T)  Expert Judgment Knowledgeable and Experienced parties.  Meetings Attendees at these meetings may include the project manager, the project sponsor, selected project team members, selected stakeholders, anyone with responsibility for any of the scope management processes, and others as needed.
  • 15. Plan Scope Management: Output 1. Scope Management Plan: Includes – How to prepare a detailed project scope statement. – How to create a WBS from the detailed project scope statement. – How to maintain and approve the WBS. – How to obtain formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables. – How to control requests for changes to the project scope.
  • 16. Plan Scope Management: Output 2. Requirements Management Plan : Includes – How requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and reported. – Requirements prioritization process – Product Metrics and Requirements Traceability Structure. – How changes to the product will be initiated, how impacts will be analyzed, how they will be traced, tracked, and reported, as well as the authorization levels required to approve these changes ( This is a Change Management Activities).
  • 17. Collect Requirements Process Collect Requirements Process : 1. Is the process of determining, documenting and managing stakeholder’s needs and expectations to meet project’s objectives. 2. It provide the basis for defining and managing project scope . The Requirements 1. Or (stakeholder’s needs and expectations) must be quantifiable and documented in enough detail to be measured once project execution begins 2. The requirements is foundation of the WBS. 3. Cost, schedule, quality planning, and sometimes procurement are all based upon these requirements. 4. Can be grouped into classifications 1. Business requirements ( The Needs of the organization) 2. Stakeholder requirements (stakeholder’s needs and expectations) 3. Solution requirements (features, functions and characteristics of the product, service) 4. Transition requirements, describe temporary capabilities such as data conversion & training needs
  • 19. Collect Requirements Process: Inputs 1. Project Scope Management Plan 2. Requirements Management Plan Include The processes that will be used throughout the Collect Requirements process to define and document the stakeholder needs. 3. Stakeholder Management Plan Include Stakeholder communication requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement 4. Project Charter Include The high-level description of the product, service, or result of the project 5. Stakeholder Register
  • 20. Collect Requirements Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T)  Interviewing  Focus groups and facilitated workshops  Using group creativity and decision-making techniques  Questionnaires and surveys  Observation  Prototyping  Benchmarking, or generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization, can also be used to collect requirements
  • 21. Collect Requirements Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 1. Interviews Interviewing experienced project participants,stakeholders, and subject matter experts (one on one conversation) can aid in identifying and determining the features and functions of the desired project deliverables. 2. Focus groups Bring together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. Usually conducted by a trained moderator
  • 22. Collect Requirements Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 3. Facilitated Workshops  Are considered a primary technique for quickly defined cross-functional requirements that affect more than one department and reconciling stakeholders differences.  Well facilitated sessions can build trust, foster relationships, and improve communication among the participants which can lead to increased stakeholder consensus.
  • 23. Collect Requirements Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 4. Group Creativity Techniques  Brainstorming  Nominal group technique  Delphi Technique  Idea/mind mapping  Affinity diagram  Multi-criteria decision analysis. 5. Group Decision Making Techniques Is an assessment process of multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions resolution. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Methods of reaching a group decision (Unanimity , Majority , Plurality , Dictatorship)
  • 24. Collect Requirements Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 6. Questionnaires and Surveys Are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a wide number of respondents. 7. Observations It is particularly helpful for detailed processes when the people that use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. 8. Prototypes Is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
  • 25. Collect Requirements Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 9. Benchmarking Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance. The organizations compared during benchmarking can be internal or external. 10. Context Diagrams Context diagrams show inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and the actor(s) receiving the output. 11. Document Analysis
  • 26. Collect Requirements process: Outputs 1. Requirements Documentation  Describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.  Before being baseline, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders  Requirements documentation can include,  Requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints.  Business Requirements.  Stakeholder requirements.  Solution requirements.  Project requirements.  Transition requirements.
  • 27. Collect Requirements process: Outputs 1. Requirements Traceability Matrix 1. It is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. 2. It helps to  Ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives.  Track requirements to ensure that the approved requirements are delivered at the end of the project.  Provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
  • 28. Define Scope process  The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.  Defining which of the requirements collected will be included in and excluded from the project scope
  • 30. Define Scope Process: Inputs 1. Project charter 2. Scope Management Plan 3. Requirements Document 4. Organizational Process Assets – Procedures & Templates – Historical Data – Lessons learned from old Projects
  • 31. Define Scope Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 1. Expert Judgment To analyze the information needed to develop the project scope statement 2. Context Diagrams Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis 3. Alternatives Generation Identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project using brainstorming, lateral thinking, analysis of alternatives, etc 4. Facilitated Workshops
  • 32. Define Scope Process: Outputs 1. Scope Statement describes project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. It includes  Product scope description  Deliverables’ Acceptance Criteria  Project Deliverables  Project Exclusion  Project Assumptions and Constraints
  • 34. Define Scope Process: Outputs 2. Project Documents Updates: may include – Stakeholder register – Requirements Documents – Requirements Traceability Matrix
  • 35. Create WBS Process  Is the process of subdividing project deliverables and work into smaller, more manageable components.  The WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team, to create the required deliverables.  The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project.
  • 36. Create WBS Process Data Flow Diagram
  • 37. Create WBS Process Work Pakage & Decomposition  The planned work is contained within the lowest level of WBS components, which are called work packages.  A work package can be used to group the activities where work is scheduled and estimated, monitored, and controlled. In the context of the WBS, work refers to work products or deliverables that are the result of activity and not to the activity itself.  As the work is decomposed to greater levels of detail, the ability to plan, manage, and control the work is enhanced. However, excessive decomposition can lead to nonproductive management effort and difficulty aggregating data over different levels of the WBS.
  • 38. Create WBS Process: WBS & Control Account  A control account is a management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement.  Control accounts are placed at selected management points in the WBS.  Each control account may include one or more work packages, but each of the work packages should be associated with only one control account.  A control account may include one or more planning packages.  planning package is a work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities.
  • 39. :Create WBS Process WBS Structure & Forms
  • 40. :Create WBS Process WBS Structure & Forms
  • 41. Create WBS Process:Inputs  Scope Management Plan  Project Scope Statement  Requirements Document  Enterprise Environmental Factors  Organizational Process Assets
  • 42. Create WBS Process: Tools and Techniques (T&T) 1. Decomposition – Decomposition of the total work into work packages generally involves the following activities:  Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work.  Structuring and organizing the WBS.  Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower level detailed components.  Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components.  Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the work is necessary and sufficient. 2. Expert Judgment
  • 43. Create WBS Process: Outputs 1. Scope Baseline – Project Scope Statement – WBS – WBS Dictionary 2. Project Documents updates
  • 44. Create WBS Process: Outputs WBS Dictionary