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Shakespearean Tragedy

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Shakespearean Tragedy

  1. 1. Shakespearean Tragedy - HIMANSHI PARMAR
  2. 2. What is tragedy? The Greek word,tragoidia,it means 'the song of the goat'. which is refers to ancient rituals, sacrifice of goat,which is associated with Dionysus,The ancient Greek God According to Oxford Dictionary, "Tragedy is an event causing great sadness,or suffering." Or we can say. "Tragedy is a serious play with an unhappy ending.”
  3. 3. What is a Shakespearean tragedy? "Shakespearean tragedy is a play,which was written by Shakespeare himself,and in his own different style." "Shakespearean tragedy is a play written by other authors,but is in the style of shakespeare."
  4. 4. 10 Tragedies of Shakespeare Shakespear wrote 10 tragedies during his lifetime.. (1)Titus andronicus (2)Romeo and Juliet (3)king Lear (4)Hemlet (5)Othello (6)Julius caesar (7)Macbeth (8)antony and Cleopatra (9)coriolanus (10)Timon of athens
  5. 5. characteristics of shakespearean tragedy.
  6. 6. (1)THE TRAGIC HERO - The Tragedies revolves around one person. - The person or protagonist is either male or female - The hero is someone who is the most tragic person in the play. - Andrew Cecil Bradley, notable 20th century Shakespeare scholar,Shakespearean tragedy is "essentially a tale of suffering and calamity conducting to death". - The hero or heroine of the play's is towering personality in state /kingdom/ Country, and holds the high position. - such kind of figures are kings, princess, military, generals, and others. - Macbeth, we find he is a general or kingsman. Who later on became king. - Hamlet, prince of Denmark, highly educated, sociable, charming and philosophic bent. At the end meet his own tragic end.
  7. 7. (2) STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD AND EVIL - Mostly the supremacy of evil. Suppress the good. - Evil characters are always introduced as having the most solid personality and necessary existence. - Edward Dowden, poet of light century and Literary critic of the same age, noted that, "Tragedy as conceived by Shakespeare is concerned with the ruin or restoration of the soul and of the life of man. In other words, it's subject is the struggle of good and evil in the world". - The main character turns to evil at last and suffers terribly, and fails due to his fatal flaw. - Macbeth, as in starting he is shown as a good character and then turned into the evil. In between, we found him suffering from his own mental confusion, and conflicting mental States.
  8. 8. (3) HAMARTIA - hamartia is a greek word,used for 'sin' or 'error',which derives from the verb hamatanein,it means 'to ear' or ''to miss the mark". - In Shakespearean tragedy this word is used for tragic flaw. - In Shakespearean tragedy, every hero fell, or died just because of his or her own tragic flaw. - Sometimes they fall from high positions or sometimes fate leads them towards death. - good example of Hamartia we found in Macbeth where at last Macbeth died because of his extreme greed and fat also Lady Macbeth soon died.
  9. 9. (4) Conflict 1 - External conflict :- - This type of conflict causes a mess in the mind of a tragic Hero. - Hamlet we see,he wants to kill his uncle,Claudius as a revenge but because of his tight and effective security. Hamlet isn't able to translate his idea into action. 2 - Internal Conflict :- - In Shakespearean tragedy,internal conflicts are reflected as an inner confusion in the mind of the hero. - Internal conflict is mainly responsible for the hero's fall,along with fate or destiny. - Macbeth is a perfect example: somehow,he wants to kill the king, but somewhere, he was confused about his work. - Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle but felt inner conflict, ''Do, or not to Do'' which at the end led him towards his death.
  10. 10. (5)CATHARSIS - Mainly the work of catharsis is to help the audience to release their emotions by tragedy. - For example, if we watch any play, we connect the character personally. - And that gives us some opportunity to feel pity for a certain character and fear for another. - When a villain is working against the hero,we feel disgust for him and when hero like Macbeth, Hamlet and Othello died, we feel sorry for them and the same time we also feel happy that finally they received their punishment.
  11. 11. (6) SUPERNATURAL ELEMENTS - In the play, Supernatural beings are create a kind of atmosphere of wonder,fear,awe etc. - They generally used to advance the story and drive the plot. - In Macbeth. The three witches by their progressive lead the play ahead. - In Hamlet,the ghost of king Hamlet leads the play.
  12. 12. (7)COMIC ELEMENTS - Greek and Roman writers didn’t use comic relief. But Shakespeare wanted to relieve the tension for the reader and lighten up the mood here and there. - gravedigger scene in Hamlet. - Drunken porter scene in Macbeth - “The fool is smarter than the king”, dialogue in King Lear.
  13. 13. Thank you.

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