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A theory of media politics

  1. A theory of Media politics How the Interests of Politicians, Journalists, and Citizens Shape the News Edited By : zarai hichem
  2. 1: Media shapes society  a: The funds of media  b: Accountability and independence of media 10/11/2015 2
  3. 2 :New Realities : ‘Mediatization’ of Politics or Politicization’ of Media Content‘ A: The Effects of Mediatization B: Religion and Society 10/11/2015 3
  4. 3: Media and Politics: The Decline of the Fourth Estate  a: The Price of the Fourth Estate  b: Freedom and Dependence 10/11/2015 4
  5. “ ” Forward: A few years after he left office in 1969, Presient Lyndon Johnson was asked by a TV news producer what had changed in American Politics since the 1930 when he came to Washington as a young Texas congressman. ‘You guys,’[Johnson replied], without even reflecting. ‘All you guys in the media. All of politics has changed because of you. You have broken all the [party] machines. You have given us a new kind of people. ‘ A certain disdain passed over his face. ‘ Teddy,Tunney. They are your creations, your puppets. No machine could ever create a Teddy Kennedy. Only you guys. They are all yours. Your product’ (Halberstam, 1979, pp. 15-16) 10/11/2015 5
  6. Total Foundation Funding for Media in the U.S  From 2009 to 2011, over 1,000 foundations authorized more than $1.86 billion in media-related grants. Trends across the three years show that while the number of funders has remained steady, the number of grantee organizations, total number of grants, and total grant dollars authorized have increased over time. While less than 4 percent of total grant dollars for domestic purposes went to support media-related activities, the share of media-related grantmaking increased between 2009 and 2011. This increase reflects the fact that media-related grantmaking grew at a faster rate than grantmaking overall between 2009 and 2011 (21 percent vs. 5.8 percent, respectively). If treated as a single category, media-related grantmaking would have ranked seventh in domestic grantmaking in 2011 ($687.6 million), placing it just behind environment ($1.5 billion) and just ahead of science and technology ($535 million), religion ($471 million), and the social sciences ($234 million).  It is difficult to determine how these funding estimates compare to previous studies because the nature of earlier studies differed significantly from this one. However, given the scope of this project, this is the most comprehensive estimate to date of foundation giving for media-related activities. 10/11/2015 6
  7. Defining media:  a: Journalism, News, and Information  The field which describes journalism, public information, and public education provided through media outlets. Includes general news and information, reporting on current events, stories and information in specific subject areas, and public service announcements.  B: Media Access and Policy  The right and ability of the public to have direct access to media content and the right and ability of a content provider to have direct access to the public. This includes access to appropriate technologies, full and complete data, a wide range of information sources, and resources that allow transparency and comprehensibility in communication. 10/11/2015 7
  8.  Media Applications and Tools  Electronic technology and software that assist in the creation, structuring, and delivery of information, communications, data, entertainment, artwork, and other content. These technologies are often interactive, digital, networked, and/or user-generated.  Media Platforms  Newspaper, television, cable, video, film, website, or radio production; training and programming; and/or educational programs related to the media. This category also includes associations of writers. 10/11/2015 8
  9. Telecommunications Infrastructure Information and communications technology and the services which provide, maintain, and manage them. This includes telecommunications utilities, equipment, and services, Internet provision and governance, “cloud” data processing and management, and other large-scale digital services 10/11/2015 9
  10. Top Funders and Recipients of Media Funding in the U.S. 10/11/2015 10
  11. Major findings • U.S. funding for international media development in 2006—public and private—exceeded $142 million • U.S. government funding totaled nearly $69 million • U.S. private sector funding totaled over $60 million • Funding from government supported nonprofit organizations—the National Endowment for Democracy and U.S. Institute of Peace— totaled $13 million. 10/11/2015 11
  12. Accountability and Independence of media  Media accountability in whatever form it comes must balance the rights of the individual and the community and the rights of the press to free expression. It must be framed in the notion that both the freedom and the regulation are indispensable if we want news media to provide citizens with the service they need to be informed participants in democratic life.  Accountability should also be based upon the principle of self-rule. That is why many press councils and media commissions are set up by the media themselves. But to be credible and to build public confidence they must operate with a high degree of independence from media and provide a set of rules under which people featured in the news media can complain if something is inaccurate, intrusive or unfair. They must also be open to participation from the communities that media serve 10/11/2015 12
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  14. Major findings In short, a media accountability system needs to serve a number of purposes. I can identify at least seven:  To advocate journalistic independence and media freedom in society  To promote the right of the public to be informed  To campaign for conditions that will enable journalists to serve their public better  To foster better understanding within society at all levels about the role played by independent journalism in democratic life  To support journalists in their work and to encourage professional solidarity  To mediate complaints from the public in a transparent service, free of charge and to provide remedies for unethical conduct by journalists  To help build trust between journalists and the public to ensure that media can resist political and economic pressure. 10/11/2015 14
  15. The effects of Mediatization  instead of serving as mediators between political institutionsand citizens, the media are increasingly becoming a key player in the politicalarena; indeed, it is impossible to imagine modern politics wThe notion of ‘mediasociety’ used in this context hints at consequences of political transformations,as do neologisms like ‘media democracy’, ‘electronic democracy’ or‘videocracy’ (see Mazzoleni 1995). Although they are different, they name oneand the same tendency and emphasize the dependency of political action uponithout the existenceand influence of the media (Mazzoleni and Schulz 1999) 10/11/2015 15
  16. Religion and Society  Religion and Societal Problems Most American adults (62%) reject the notion that religion causes more problems in society than it solves. Majorities of most Christian traditions as well as a large majority of Muslims (68%) reject this idea. By contrast, nearly half of all Jews (49%) and more than half of Buddhists (56%), Hindus (57%) and the unaffiliated (59%) say religion causes more problems than it solves. A majority of Jehovah’s Witnesses (51%) also say religion causes more harm than good in society. Atheists stand out for the degree with which they believe religion is a problem. Nearly half of all atheists (49%) say they completely agree that religion is more likely to cause problems than to provide solutions in society Among the general public and several of the largest religious groups, those who exhibit higher levels of religious commitment are more likely to reject the notion that religion causes more problems than it solves. For instance, three-quarters of Americans (76%) who attend religious services at least once a week reject the idea that religion is, on balance, a negative influence in society, compared with slightly more than half (53%) of those who attend services less often. 10/11/2015 16
  17. Media and Politics: The Decline of the Fourth Estate  a: The price of the Fourth Estate 10/11/2015 17
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  19. Freedom Vs Dependence  A: Challenges to media freedom and pluralism at Member State level While media freedom and pluralism have been universally accepted as fundamental to the common values prevailing within the European community, in practice a whole range of potential challenges to them have been documented in recent reports and systematic studies. These include issues highlighted by recent court cases, official enquiries and national as well as European parliamentary debates: • Media legislation being implemented in such a way that freedom of expression is restricted, with significant concern over possible political influence on the setup and membership of Media Councils, as well as the influence of politicians on public service broadcasting, for example through the appointment system • Libel/defamation laws potentially being used to restrict the freedom of the press to report on possible misconduct by public and private figures, or – conversely – to muzzle politicians and prevent them from freely expressing their opinions • Potential conflicts of interest arising from journalists’ closeness to business interests 10/11/2015 19
  20. How social media shapes sociopolitics ? 10/11/2015 20
  21. Conclusion Media and politics are in a tense relationship in a functioning democracy. Despite their divergent missions, it is a symbiotic correlation. Political forces turn to the public to motivate their actions, to campaign for their ideas and to win people’s trust. Media, in turn, have to inform people about politics and to exercise control over politicians when the latter perform their duties. They need each other and, at the same time, they benefit from each other. Without access to current affairs, media would be deprived of topics to cover, and without media, politicians would hardly find a way to the people. 10/11/2015 21
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