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SCABIESBy: Jasmine Stough Bio 108 Kalumet, 11 June 2004
Mattos, 2006Sarcoptes scabiei, otherwise known as scabies, is a highlycontagious infestation of microscopic mites that affect humans andanimals alike. Contracting scabies is more common then one maythink, and occurs worldwide. No one is safe from an infestation ofscabies because it can affect any race or social class. Scabies canalso spread at a rapid pace, and this usually occurs in crowdedareas where there is a chance of prolonged contact.(Bandyopadhyay).
Scabies dates back about 2500 years ago ( Scabies Homepage), and was documented all over Europe; however, it wasn’t known as scabies to those who experienced it. In these eras it was known as the “itch”. (Ramos). In earlier times scabies was commonly found among the poor who exhibited bad hygiene, but some of the wealthiest people also experienced encounters. In fact, Napoleon I was said to have suffered from the “itch” his whole life. (Ramos). In 1687 an Italian man named Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo had finally discovered the mite responsible for the inflictions. He came across a person who was itching a lot and broke open one of the pustules. He then took the remnants of what was inside the pustule and examined it under a microscope. He did this numerous times to different people, of different ages, and different times of the yearDavid, Jacques- Louis, 1797. getting the same result each time. (Ramos).
Bonomo studied his findings until he was satisfied and then wrote a letter to Francesco Redi who later published in a book the discovery of scabies. (Ramos). Until Bonomo’s remarkable discovery of this flesh eating mite, people suffered uncontrollable itching and much distress. The treatment Bonomo found effective was a local therapy, sulphur, which Tsaiid, 20 September 2007. was used up until now. He also realized that the local treatment had to be applied for up to two or three days after the itching subsided because un- hatched eggs could hatch and restart the cycle. (Ramos).
Clean Man’s Scabies Clean Man’s Scabies: This is seen inInfant Scabies individuals who bathe regularly, and keep very clean. In this case, the lesions are minimal and hard to see. Itching tends to be not as intense. (Babu, 2006). Infant Scabies: This occurs in babies and young children, and is often misdiagnosed or mistreated. Scabies will affect the whole body of the child, and SCA Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, 2008 there will be a large amount of pustules. Davis, 2010 (Babu, 2006). Scabies Incognito-Steriods Scabies Incognito: Normally, if a strong type of treatment, such as steroids, are applied then the scabies are masked and the lesions are suppressed. (Babu, 2006). Wikidudeman, 2007
Norwegian Scabies Norwegian Scabies: This is an intense case of crusted scabies. In this case, there can be up to hundreds or thousands of mites within the lesions. This occurs commonly in autoimmune deficient Ukster1, 2008. individuals, or people who are mentally challenged. (Babu, 2006). Animal Scabies Animal Scabies: Animals are susceptible to scabies too. Domestic pets that contract scabies are liable to pass it on to the other members of the household as well. (Babu, 2006). Tiny_packages, 2009 .
Unknown, 1876 Scabies are a certain type of mite. Mites are related to the arachnid family the same as ticks and spiders. (Drisdelle). Scabies are creamy white with brown legs and mouthparts. “Sarcoptes scabiei type hominis”, 2008. The adult female is about 0.4 mm long and 0.3 mm wide. The adult male is smaller in both dimensions by one third. Also need a microscope to actually see the mite itself. “Sarcoptes scabiei type hominis”, 2008. They have no armor, no trachea, and no eyes. (Speare, 2008). Scabies mites have no respiratory system. They breathe through the skin. (Drisdelle). They can be very mobile when not inside a host. (Speare, 2008). They have 8 legs with the two in the front as walking legs. (Speare, 2008). Scabies have “suckers” that allow them to attach to surfaces to walk upwards. (Speare, 2008). GerardM, 2005
o The female mite finds a host andburrows down into his or her skin.o As the female is burrowingthrough the host’s skin she leaves atrail of eggs. She can leave two tothree eggs a day for up to twomonths. (Gould, 2009).o The eggs will then hatch about fourdays after they are laid. The newlarvae grow and shed their outer coat Haggstrom, 2011about two times and then becomeadults. (Gould, 2009).
o After fully grown the adult mites burrow through the skin to the surface to find a mate. (Gould, 2009).o Males do not dig burrows. Instead, they stay on the skin’s surface waiting for females to mate with. (Gould, 2009).o After the females mate they return A picture of a burrow inside the skin where they continue to burrow and lay eggs. Then the process starts all over again. (Drisdelle, 2007).o The entire life cycle of the mites are 10- 14 days, and usually they live for about 30 days. (Gould, 2009). Geary, 2006
Scabies can be picked up by several different ways. Most commonly is direct prolonged body-to-body contact. This occurs in homes between family members. Even more commonly between people who JoshLawton, 2005 share beds or are sexual partners. “Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”, 2010. Sharing clothing or bedding is another form of transmission, but not as common. (Gould, 2009). Pinprick, 2005
An individual who has scabies, but isnt exhibiting symptoms can still spread them without knowing. “Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”, 2010. Most common place to contract scabies is: Child care facilities Hospitals Nursing homes PrisonsFrotosGov/Ba, 2011. Freeformkatia, 2008. Ulrichkarljoho, 2009. Miss_millions, 2010
The head, face, neck, palms, and soles arecommon sites for infants that contractscabies. “Scabies Frequently AskedQuestions”, 2010.Symptoms don’t usually show up untiltwo to six weeks after contracted; however,if someone has been re-infested thensymptoms can show up in a week. (Gould,2009). In individuals with weakened immunesystems mites tend to be present in largeamounts, which is commonly known asNorwegian Scabies. “Scabies FrequentlyAsked Questions”, 2010. Steschke, 2005.
Scabies is not normally fatal, but if left untreated some serious health issues may arise. Severe bacterial infections my occur from all the scratching. Scratching tears open the skin and dirt from your nails and other environmental factors can contaminate the wound and cause an infection. “Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”, 2010. Bacterial infections can lead to inflammation of the kidneys called post- streptococcal glomerulonephritis. “Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”, 2010. Some other complications can be lack of sleep due to the increase of itching at night, irritability, depression, and anxiety.
Diagnosis can be made based of an assessment of the rash and appearance. “Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”, 2010. When convenient, taking samples of the mite, mite eggs, and fecal matter is important for proper diagnosis. These items can be obtained by a skin scrapping or removing them from a burrow with a needle. “Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”, 2010. Diagnosis should only be made by either a nurse or a doctor because scabies can easilyDalboz17, 2009. be misdiagnosed. (Gould, 2009).
If you suspect you have come into contact with someone who has scabies, or you start to see symptoms it is very important to see a doctor immediately. Scabies can rapidly spread and affect a lot of people. Scabies is not always a hygiene issue, so don’t be ashamed if you have contracted the mite. Be responsible and take the necessary precautions to prevent the people that come in contact with you from getting it.
Research:Babu, Hanish Dr. “Scabies: The Seven Year Itch”. Skin Care Tips from Dermatologist. Dr. Hanish Babu. 2006. Web. 29 November 2011. <http://www.skin- care-tips-from-dermatologist.com/scabies.htm>.Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata. “Scabies”. Tripod. n.p. n.d. Web. 28 November 2011. <http://dermind.tripod.com/scabies.htm>.Drisdelle, Rosemary. “Scabies mite-Sarcoptes scabiei: An Itchy Contagious Parasite That Lives on Skin and Burrows”. n.p. 10 April 2007. Web. 11 October 2011. <http://rosemary-drisdelle.suite101.com/scabies-mite-sarcoptes-scabiei-a l 8446Gould, Dinah. “Prevention, control and treatment of scabies”. Art and Science dermatology focus. RCN Publishing Company. 21 December 2009. Academic Search Premier. 11 October 2011.Ramos, Marcia. “Giovan Cosimo Bonomo (1663-1696): Discoverer of the etiology of scabies”. Dermato.med. International Journal of Dermatology. 20 March 1997. Web. 29 November 2011. <http://www.dermato.med.br/hds/bibliography/1998giovan-cosimo-bonomo.htm>.“Sarcoptes scabiei type hominis”. MetaPathogen.com/Scabies. Nemose. 2008. Web. 11 October 2011. <http://www.metapathogen.com/scabies/>.“Scabies Frequently Asked Questions”. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. 2 November 2010. Web. 11 October 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/parasite/scabies/gen_info/faqs.html>.“Scabies Homepage”. Stanford.edu. n.p n.d. Web. 28 November 2011. <http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2005/Scabies/SCABIES.html>.Speare, Richard. “Scabies”. Bio.net. n.p. 17 March 2008. Web. 29 November 2011. <http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/parasite/1997-March/002068.html>.
Images:Crispysmith11. The Human Itch Mite. 22 April 2011. Video. YouTube. Web. 29 November 2011.Dalboz17. Adam’s a Doctor. 15 December 2009. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.David, Jacques- Louis. Portrait of General Napoleon Bonaparte. 1797. Oil on canvas. Wikimedia Common. Web. 3 December 2011.Davis, Theresa. Infant Scabies. 15 January 2010. Photograph. Scabieshomeremedy.com. Web. 4 December 2011.Fotos Gov/Ba. Hospital Geral do Estado. 29 November 2011. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.Freeformkatia. Daycare Party. 16 April 2008. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.Geary, Michael. Scabies-burrow. 2 November 2006. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 29 November 2011.GerardM. SOA-Scabies. 1 February 2005. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 4 December 2011.Haggstrom, Mikael. Scabies life cycle. 7 March 2011. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 29 November 2011.Haggstrom, Mikael. Site of Scabies. 7 March 2011. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. 29 November 2011.JoshLawton. Romanian Family. 26 August 2005. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.
Images:Kalumet. Sarcoptes scabei. 11 June 2004. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 28 Novemeber 2011.Mattos, Dalton. Sarna. 2006. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 28 November 2011.Micah & Erin. Scabie Poison. 7 November 2005. Photograph. Flickr. 4 December 2011.Miss_millions. Prison Cells. 1 June 2010. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.Pinprick. Horrible messy bed. 27 November 2005. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.SCA Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget. Woman washing her hair. 7 September 2008. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.Sidnmd. Scabies Mite Live. 3 September 2009. Video. YouTube. 29 November 2011.Steschke. Acarodermatitis Hand. 4 January 2005. Photograph. Flickr. 4 December 2011.Tiny_packages. Male fox with possible mange. 2 March 2009. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.Tsaiid. SV308946. 20 September 2007. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 3 December 2011.
Images:Ukster1. Norwegian Scabies in Homeless AIDS patient. 15 January 2008. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 4 December 2011.Ulrichkarljoho. Last staion nursing home. 7 November 2009. Photograph. Flickr. Web. 4 December 2011.Unknown. Sarcoptes scabiei. 1876. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 29 November 2011Wikidudeman. Rawdealsteriods4. 25 September 2007. Photograph. Wikimedia Common. Web. 4 December 2011.