There are four purposes of giving a presentation.
Firstly, to inform your audience about what you
know. In other words, it is called informative
Secondly, to train, all the effectiveness of teaching
and training activities for students and staff solely
depend on the presentation skill of the teacher or
The third purpose of giving a presentation is to
persuade the public, our politicians are a very good
example of that. During the election campaign, the
politicians give persuasive presentations to convince
the public to give them the vote.
Lastly, sales people give presentations about their
products to the customer and clients for the
Before preparing any presentation one must be clear
about the purpose of giving the presentation.
Because, if you know clearly what you have to
deliver it will help you find how to do it.
Once the objective is clearly defined, now you should
focus the contents of your presentation. It means
what is the scope of your talk. What is included and
excluded. The contents must be according to the
objective and the need of the audience. Through
brainstorming, keeping in view your knowledge,
audience and the topic, the parameters can be defined
to cover the topic extensively.
Jim Rohn, the American motivational speaker and writer,
says, Consider your audience. It means who they are,
what they already know about the topic, how old they are
and what language and style they prefer etc. Once you are
fully aware of all the facts it will help you tailor your
presentation according to the needs of your audience.
Time and length
People have their peak and low time according to the time
of the day. Some people tend to be more active and alert in
the morning. Therefore, if you present in the morning you
might get positive feedback from your audience. On the
other hand after lunch and in the evening people are likely
to be drowsy and may not focus on what the presenter
says. There, audience should be energized through
activities and questions to keep them awake. Whereas,
length means the time you are allotted to present. If it
exceeds the timeline, you will lose the interest of the
audience and the required purposes may not be achieved.
One of the important components of success of any
presentation is its structure. About the structure of the
presentation, Jim Rohn says Tell your audience what you
are going to say, then say it all and at the end tell them
again what you have just told them. In other words, it
means introduction, body of the presentation and
Take care of yourself
The presenters health, mood, feelings and emotions
matter a lot because if you are suffering from cough, sore
throat or otherwise sad and sleepy you can not give a
good first impression. So its a good idea to take care of
your health to avoid any physical or mental distraction.
Practice makes perfect
Mock presentations given to a group of friends,
family members, colleagues or in front of a mirror,
will help you grasp the subject and learn the content.
As it is said, practice makes perfect. Rehearsal of
your presentation will also increase your confidence.
The first and the foremost phenomena in verbal
communication is the voice of the presenter. If the
presenter has a loud audible voice the message will get
across clearly and completely to the audience. Usually,
low pitched voices result in the failure of the
presentation and the audience loses the interest in that
presenter. Try to speak loud and clear but, not so loud
that you cause your audience a headache due to your
Pace means the speed of your lecture, speech or
presentation. As a matter of fact, the listeners have their
listening and understanding speed and the speakers
have their speaking pace. Both the speeds must align
with each other. Therefore, speak in a variety of paces if
something is really important or serious, slow down to
make your audience understand it. If you are repeating a
point or giving a summary of your presentation then you
might go with a faster pace. Use a variety of paces but
make sure what you are delivering your audience is
receiving it in the same way.
Pause is a short period in which something such as a
sound or an activity is stopped before starting again.
Pauses are like the punctuation marks in the written
language. We use pauses or break the sequence of talk
so that we might separate the most important to the least
important. Besides, pauses create an impact of your
words on the minds of the listeners. If you are describing
a difficult point or delivering an informative presentation
which is complex too, then you must stop briefly at
certain points. Pauses give time to the audience to think,
realize and absorb the information you are showering
Intonation is the change of voice as per the nature of the
message you want to deliver. Communication experts
believe words are lifeless unless we add our vocal variety
in it. It is your voice that mixes up your words with feelings
and emotions. This mixed voice is called intonation. The
pitch and tone of your voice help you make the right
intonation according to the message you deliver. For
example, if you pass any test or exam you say loudly;
Yaaahhhoooo! Now this interjection is expressed through
your emotional voice which is intonation. Someone rightly
said the voice that comes from heart has a deep impact on
the listeners; this voice of the heart is in fact your intonation
Avoid Artificial Fillers
Artificial filler is either the repetition of a word or a
sentence for example, ok, you know, fine etc or uttering
some meaningless words like errrrr, aaaah, ehhh etc.
Artificial fillers are a must-avoid during the presentation
because they make your presentation funny or boring
for the audience. A presenter must not repeat a word or
a sentence time and again habitually.
Well, it depends on the audience and the presentation
environment because some presentations are delivered
in a strict and serious environment where it is not
appropriate at all to use humour or make the audience
laugh. On the other hand, if its a friendly environment or
training then a presenter must entertain the audience
through some relevant jokes or funny stories. As it is said
Laughter is the best medicine and if a presenter makes
the audience smile and laugh they will remain active,
energetic and will not feel bored. Do not criticize anyone
or make fun of anyone of your audience. This might
worsen the situation as most of the people never like to
be laughed at.
Nonverbal communication is the communication through
body language which is in deed more powerful than the
verbal type of communication. As a presenter, you are
under the spot light. Every one looks at you during the
session thats why a presenter should stand at a place
where he is visible to each and every individual sitting in
front of him. During the presentation you must not stand
still at one place and deliver the whole presentation
there, rather you should change the position according
to the situation but at every position your audience must
be able to see you clearly. Never turn your back towards
Posture means position of body or the way in which
someone usually holds his shoulders, neck and back,
or a particular position in which someone stands or sits
etc. As you present you must mind your posture, it
should be active and energetic. Lazy and inactive
postures result in the concentration loss of the
audience. Not only this, but the speaker becomes less
reliable and unauthentic. Stand straight and
confidently, put your shoulders at a relaxed but active
positive. Positive postures give a very strong
nonverbal message to your audience.
The basic difference between speech and presentation
is that during the speech the speaker stays at one place
and talks but in the presentation the presenter is
animated. The presenter moves around in the room
purposefully, walks and talks with the audience.
Therefore, a presenter must move but the movement
has to be purposeful not a continuous movements or the
nervous movements. While moving do not lose the eye
contact with the audience. Move around but keep
looking at the audience.
During the presentation, your hands communicate
effectively as well. In fact, your hands give meanings to
your words and create an impact on the audience. There
is a complete language known as Sign Language which
is mostly based on hands signals. Do not cross your
hands or rest them at the back just leave your arms
loose by your sides and as you talk according to the
words, sentence or message use your hands and fingers
to make your message more meaningful and impressive
It is said, Face is the index of mind. Whatever we think it
comes on the face through these facial expressions we
communicate the deepest thoughts of our mind and
feelings of our hearts. If you look at someone and smile,
the other person will also smile in response and if you
look at a child angrily, the child will be afraid of you. Our
facial muscles make our face expressions and the facial
muscles get activated when either we arouse our
feelings and emotions in a certain way. Express yourself
through your facial muscles and connect with your
audience deeply and give a memorable presentation.
Your eyes are your lighthouse. As you talk do not look at
the walls, fans or tube lights but the people sitting in front
of you. When you look in to the eyes of the people it
shows that you are giving them your attention and in
response your audience also looks at you. Moreover, eye
contact works like an infrared channel that transfers data
from your mind to the minds of the listeners. But do not
look at one person for more than 5 seconds because it
might make him/her uneasy and it will also turn your eye
contact to staring.
Finally, be confident and practice all the points carefully.
Fake it, until you make it and then it will become your
natural presentation style
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