6. The Beginning
The Arts and Crafts Movement began in the mid-nineteenth century in retaliation , when industrialization was at its peak.
With mass migrations happening towards the cities, there was a significant decline in the quality of life as the cities were not
prepared to handle such influx of people.
The heavy use of machinery had a “dehumanizing” aspect.
There was a loss of craftsmanship occurring as the products were being made by machines and not by hand. The quality was
not being maintained either.
7. The End
Several factors contributed to the Arts & Crafts movement's downfall in the 20th century.
• Inherent problem of handcraft - which is labor-intensive
• Forced to adopt machine production, forcing a decline in quality just keep up with the orders
• Sustainability issues on a long-term basis.
• Changing fashion
• World War I.
8. Characteristics of The Arts & Craft Style
The Leaders of the Arts and crafts argued in favor of:
• the Promotion and importance of craftsmanship
• Quality of the product made
• Functionality along with aesthetics
• A revival of traditions (a simpler lifestyle)
9. John Ruskin
• Life: Born on 8th February, 1819, Died 20th January
• Lived and worked in London
• Occupation: Writer, art critic, draughtsman, social
• His style was mostly associated with the Victorian Era
• His literary works influenced many. His open criticism
of technology and mechanization led to the start of
the Arts and Crafts movement.
• He believed that that craftsmen needed to work by
hand in order to maintain a uniqueness in every
piece, something which could not be attained by a
10. William Morris
• Life: Born on 24th March, 1834, Died 3rd October 1896
• Lived and worked in England
• Occupation: Artist, designer, writer, socialist
• His ideas & practice were heavily influenced by John Ruskin
• He believed that the industrial revolution was reducing the
skill of the craftsman, while producing low-quality goods due
to mechanical manufacturing.
• His decorative arts firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
specialized mostly in making wallpaper which featured
designs containing natural imagery
12. Works of William Morris
Morris would leave joints and craftsman deformations exposed to show the purity and quality of work.
13. William Morris & Phillip Webb
In 1859 Morris had commissioned Webb to design a house for
his family in London, named "Red House" due to the deep
color of its brick. Its steep roofs, L-shaped asymmetrical plan,
and overhanging eaves recall the Gothic style, with the brick
introducing a simple, pedestrian touch, which contribute to its
general recognition as the first Arts & Crafts building.
Residences, viewed by the Arts & Crafts practitioners as a
“barrier” against the harsh conditions of industrialization, a
“regenerative spiritual haven”, and the center of the traditional
family unit. It became the building type most associated with
Phillip Webb (1857-1931), Architect of the first Arts & Crafts Building
14. The Red House
The house was to represent a protest against
industrialism through its:
• Absence of decoration
• Simple Vernacularism
• Emphasis on the basic form
• Quality of Materials and Craftsmanship
15. The Red House
Red House was the residence of William Morris and his family, built within commuting distance of central London
but at the time still in the countryside. It was the first house designed by Webb as an independent architect, and
the only house that Morris built for himself. Its asymmetrical, L-shaped plan, pointed arches and picturesque set
of masses with steep rooflines recall the Gothic style, while its tile roof and brick construction, largely devoid of
ornament speak to the simplicity that Morris preached and its function as a mere residence, though the interiors
were in places richly decorated with murals by Edward Burne-Jones. The house represented a sharp contrast to
suburban or country Victorian residences, most of which were elaborately and pretentiously decorated. Its
location allowed Morris to remain in touch with nature, away from London's dirty, polluted core. The design, which
included unusually large servants' quarters, spoke to Morris and Webb's budding Socialist inclinations towards
erasing class distinctions. Unfortunately, the long hours that Morris spent commuting proved too burdensome for
his productivity, and after only five years in the house he sold it and moved his family into London above the shop
for his firm.
24. One style that in particular shared many theoretical and visual qualities with the Arts & Crafts was Art Nouveau,
which emerged in part from the Arts & Crafts in Europe during the late 1880s. Both the Arts & Crafts and Art
Nouveau placed an emphasis on nature; Both spanned the complete breadth of the various branches of the arts,
with an emphasis on the decorative arts and architecture and their power to physically reshape the entire human
environment; and visually, both styles made use of a rural, homely aesthetic using rough-hewn stone and wood.
It is difficult to fully categorize many designers as belonging to the Arts & Crafts movement or working in the Art
Nouveau style. Many Art Nouveau artists acknowledged their debt to the writings and philosophy of William
Morris. Where the Arts & Crafts emphasized simplicity and saw the machine as deeply problematic, however, Art
Nouveau often embraced complexity and new technology, sometimes to the point of disguising the truth of
materials for visual effect. Its very name of "New Art" spoke to the international attempts to invent a style for the
20th century instead of rejecting the conditions of modern life. As such, Art Nouveau was also less associated
than the Arts & Crafts with the power to completely change attitudes and social mores, but rather was often used
to take the viewer into a dreamy world of pleasure, sometimes tinged with exoticism.
25. The last third of the 19th century saw the development of a fundamentally a new approach to architecture and
interior design. All over Europe there was a need for liberating change of direction, a desire to break away from
set formulas based on imitation of historical styles and a search for original ideas, all of which resulted at the
beginning of the 1890s in the birth of Art Nouveau.
Art Nouveau represents the beginning of modernism in design (Modern Architecture). It occurred at a time when
mass-produced consumer goods began to fill the marketplace, and designers, architects, and artists began to
understand that the handcrafted work of centuries past could be lost. While reclaiming this craft tradition, art
nouveau designers simultaneously rejected traditional styles in favor of new, organic forms that emphasized
humanity's connection to nature.
26. Area of Influence
Art Nouveau art and architecture flourished in major
European cities between 1890 and 1914. It
embraced all forms of art and design.
As it moved through Europe, Art Nouveau took on a
variety of names.
• Nieuwe Kunst In Netherland
• Jugendstil in Germany
• Arte Joven, in Spain
• Secession, in Austria
• Stile Liberty, in Italy
27. Features of Art Nouveau
• flat, decorative patterns;
• intertwined organic forms inspired from nature
• Acceptance of machines in handicrafts
• the use of new materials
• Rejection of revival of Traditional styles
Bed and mirror by Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1898–99)
28. Architectural Characteristics of Art Nouveau
• Asymmetrical shapes
• Extensive use of arches and curved forms
• Curved glass
• Curving, plant-like embellishments
• Stained glass
• Japanese motifs
Door of the Casa Mila (Antonio Gaudi)
29. Categories of Art Nouveau
Majolikahaus (Otto Wagner)
-dependent on the straight line
-gives precedence to the curved line and floral shapes
30. The End of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau fell out of fashion in the 1920s and 1930s. It was replaced by the clean, simple geometries of Art
The extravagant curves of Art Nouveau were seen as old-fashioned and viewed with contempt. Many Art
Nouveau products were put away, spurned, or destroyed. Rooms once decorated in what had been the height of
fashion were redecorated to conform to the latest taste.
It was not until nearly half a century later, in 1952, the first comprehensive exhibition devoted to Art Nouveau was
organized in Zurich, Switzerland. Present day interest in Art Nouveau, and in particular its widespread
appreciation within the last thirty years, has once again firmly established it as an important art movement.
• Victor Horta (6th January 1861 – 8th September
• Born in Ghent (Belgium)
• Major influence on Art Nouveau Architecture
• Designed and constructed the first Art Nouveau
• Four of his buildings are UNESCO World Heritage
Sites for being prime examples of the Art Nouveau
• Hector Guimard (Lyon, March 10, 1867 – New York,
May 20, 1942)
• Most influential Architect of France during his time
• His work became forgotten during the World Wars.
• Guimard’s work was revived again in the 1960s
• Antonio Gaudi (25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926)
• Lived and worked in Barcelona
• Known for the way he used wood and steel in his
• Worked with organic natural forms
• Most notable work is Sangrada Familia (still