2. Good Agricultural Practices
• The term “Good Agricultural Practices” is
defined by the United Nations Food and
Agriculture Organization as "practices that
address environmental, economic and social
sustainability for on-farm processes, and result
in safe and quality food and non-food
3. What is GAP?
GAP is simply a set of activities that are used on
the farm to safely produce and harvest food.
These activities are designed to reduce the risk of
contamination of a food product that could result
in illness or injury to the customer.
The most common sources of contamination are
soil, water, surfaces and human hands.
4. Why is GAP required?
• In recent years there have been more and more
instances of people getting sick from eating fruits and
vegetables that were contaminated.
• Fresh produce can be contaminated with microbes,
chemicals or foreign objects. Most illness originating
with fresh produce are caused by microbes.
• It is difficult to determine if harmful microbes are
present on fresh produce.
• The most effective and efficient approach to ensuring
safe produce is by preventing contamination.
• Safe produce is good for people and good for business.
• Ensuring safety and quality of produce in the
• Capturing new market advantages by
modifying supply chain governance.
• Improving natural resources use, workers
health and working conditions, creating new
market opportunities for farmers and exporters
in developing countries.
6. Principles of GAP
It involves taking steps to reduce the possibility of introducing
microbial contaminants into the soil, particularly via manure
and other animal excrements.
It entails making sure all water used in washing, cooling and
processing is of drinkable quality. Packing ice should be made
from drinkable water. Ground and surface water sources need
to be protected from runoff and animal contamination.
7. Clean hands :
It applies to workers and the use of good
personal hygiene in the field and packing
It means ensuring that all packing bins, work
surfaces, storage areas and transportation
vehicles are properly washes and sanitized.
Harvest containers should be cleaned and
8. Key elements of GAP
• Prevention of problem before they occur
• Risk assessments
• Commitment to food safety at all levels
• Communication throughout the production chain
• Mandatory employee education programme at the
• Field and equipment sanitation
• Integrated pest management
• Oversight and enforcement
• Verification through independent, third-party audits.
9. Why GAPs?
• Required by some buyers
• Enhances marketability
• Good business practice
• Continual improvement
10. GAP CERTIFICATION SYSTEM
• GAP certification is a system aimed at ensuring the
safety of agriculture food products and at the same
time preserving the agricultural environments.
• The GAP system effectively manages factors affecting
the agricultural environment such as :
1) Cultivation fields and agriculture water
2) Hazardous elements such as pesticide
3) Heavy metal
4) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
5) Post harvest management (storage, cleaning, drying,
selection, cutting, preparation, packaging, etc.)
11. GLOBALGAP certification for good
• GLOBALGAP is a non-profit private sector body that sets
voluntary standards for the certification of agricultural
products around the globe.
• It is primarily designed to reassure consumers about how
food produced on farm.
• It is translating consumer requirements into good
• The aim is to establish one standard for good agricultural
practice with different product applications capable of
fitting to the whole of global agriculture.
• Consumer confidence in food quality and safety traceability.
• Low incidence of pests, diseases and optimized usage of
• Adoption of internationally recognized Good Agricultural
Practices by the growers.
• Continued improvement through periodic monitoring by an
independent accredited verification body.
13. EUREPGAP CERTIFICATION
• EUREPGAP is a private sector body that sets standards
for the certification of agricultural products around the
• EUREPGAP sets a framework defining essential
elements for the development of good agricultural
practices(GAP) for the world production of chosen
• It also provides a long term, sustainable framework
for agriculture and rural development in Europe.
14. Aims of EUREPGAP
• The EUREPGAP standard is primarily
designed to keep up consumer confidence in
food quality and food safety.
• To minimize the detrimental environmental
impacts of farming operations and optimize
the use of inputs and ensure worker’s health
15. Who are the EUREPGAP members
what is EUREPGAP STRUCTURE?
EUREPGAP members include:
• Retailers and Foodservice organizations interested in supporting
and developing EUREPGAP standards. Members can be nominated
and elected to the Board or the Sector Committees.
• Producer and farmer are interested in showing more commitment
to EUREPGAP than receiving certification, for the scopes of Crops
and Livestock. Members can be nominated and elected to the Board
or the Sector Committees.
• Associate members include Certification Bodies, Consulting
companies, Plant protection or Fertilizer Industries, Universities, etc.
and their associations. Members can be nominated and elected to
the Certification Body Committee (the figure below show the
EUREPGAP Board structure.
16. Why does one need a
• To Maintain consumer confidence in food quality and safety
and to increase consumer’s satisfaction
• To achieve minimum consumer requirements
• To minimize detrimental impact on the environment,
conserving nature and wildlife
• To assure long-term maintenance of agriculture
• To ensure a responsible attitude towards worker health and
• To obtain loyal customers
17. GOOD MANUFACTURING
• Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a system for
ensuring that products are consistently produced and
controlled according to quality standards.
• GMP covers all aspects of production from the starting
materials, premises, and equipment to the training and
personal hygiene of staff.
• Detailed written procedures are essential for each process
that could affect the quality of the finished product.
• There must be systems to provide documented proof that
correct procedures are consistently followed at each step in
the manufacturing process - every time a product is made.
18. Why is GMP required?
• GMP is required because some processing
steps can lead to contamination and illness, it
is important to minimize that possibility.
• Proper good manufacturing procedures can
reduce risks to an acceptable level.
19. GMP contains ten principles
1. Writing procedures
2. Following written procedures
3. Documenting for traceability
4. Validating works
5. Designing facilities and equipment
6. Maintaining facilities and equipment
7. Job competence
9. Component control
10. Auditing for compliance
20. Who needs GMP?
• Chief executives
• General managers
• Plant managers
• Technical managers
• Quality assurance managers
• Food hygiene managers
• Production managers
• Plant engineers
• Distribution managers
• Warehouse managers
• All involved in food legislation and food law enforcement
21. Significance of premises, equipment,
product and process design in an
effective GMP system
• Premises : GMP states that buildings should be located, designed,
constructed, adapted and maintained to suit the operations carried
out in them add to facilitate the protection of materials and products
• Equipment’s : GMP states that equipment should be located,
designed, constructed, adapted and maintained to suit the processes
and products for which it is used; to facilitate the protection of
materials handled from contamination.
• Product and process design : Products and processes should be so
designed to ensure that the end product meets customer
expectation within the intended duration and circumstances of use.
22. Procedures in an effective GMP
• All operations and processes used in manufacture be capable of
consistently yielding finished products that conform to their
specifications and are suitably protected against contamination
• Documentation of manufacturing procedures: The
documentation forms a part of the comprehensive master
manufacturing instructions(MMI) which is specific for each
• An MMI can be confirmed only if, trials are carried out to
establish whether the methods and procedures specified therein
are suitable for factory production, and capable of consistently
• Operating instructions should be written in clear, unambiguous
instructional form, and should form a key part of operator
23. Significance of storage and
movement of product in GMP
• Access to material and product storage areas should be
restricted to persons working in the designated area and to
• Materials and products should be stored under conditions
specified and protected from contamination especially
• Effective cleaning of storage premises and equipment must be
carried out with the frequency and in well-designed cleaning
schedules and instructions.
• Products that have been recalled or returned, and batches that
have been rejected should be marked, physically segregated and
placed in an entirely separate storage facility.
24. Good manufacturing practice
• GMP ensures the integrity of your food manufacturing
process as well as your compliance with food safety
• GMP certification scheme provides independent verification
and certification that the basics practices and pre-requisites
for the implementation of an effective HACCP (Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Point) food safety programme are
• GMP compliance assures sanitary and processing
requirements applicable to all food processing establishments
25. Benefits of GMP
• Operating costs drop as rework and
penalties due to non-compliance reduce
and efficiencies increase.
• It help customers, employees, stockholder,
regulators and competitors develop
sustainable respect for an organization
which demonstrates its proactive
commitment to food safety.