SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen.×
Aktiviere deine kostenlose 30-tägige Testversion, um unbegrenzt zu lesen.
• It is an autoimmune disorder; production of
thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) results
in diffuse toxic goiter.
• Graves disease occurs in approximately 0.02% of
children (1 : 5,000).
• It has a peak incidence in the 11- to 15-yr old;
there is a 5 : 1 female to male ratio.
• Most children with Graves disease have a positive
family history of some form of autoimmune
Etiology and Pathology:
• Enlargement of the thymus, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, infiltration
of the thyroid gland and retro-orbital tissues with lymphocytes and plasma
cells, and peripheral lymphocytosis are well-established findings in Graves
• In the thyroid gland, T helper cells (CD4+) predominate in dense lymphoid
aggregates; in areas of lower cell density, cytotoxic T cells (CD8+)
• The percentage of activated B lymphocytes infiltrating the thyroid is higher
than in peripheral blood.
• A postulated failureof T suppressor cells allows expression of T helper
cells, sensitized to the TSH antigen, which interact with B cells.
• These cells differentiate into plasma cells, which produce thyrotropin
receptor–stimulating antibody (TRSAb).
• TRSAb binds to the receptor for TSH and stimulates cyclic adenosine
monophosphate, resulting in thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated
overproduction of thyroid hormone.
• In addition to TRSAb, thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibody (TRBAb) may
also be produced, and the clinical course of the disease usually correlates
with the ratio between the two antibodies.
• In whites, Graves disease is associated with
HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3.
• Graves disease is also associated with other
HLA-D3–related disorders such as Addison
disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia
gravis, and celiac disease.
• In family clusters, the conditions associated
most commonly with Graves disease are
autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis and
• The earliest signs in children may be emotional
disturbances accompanied by motor hyperactivity.
• The children become irritable and excitable, and they
cry easily because of emotional lability.
• They are restless sleepers and tend to kick their covers
• Their schoolwork suffers as a result of a short attention
span and poor sleep.
• Tremor of the fingers can be noticed if the arm is
• There may be a voracious appetite combined with loss
of or no increase in weight.
• Recent height measurements might show an
acceleration in growth velocity.
• Hyperactivity, irritability, altered mood, insomnia,
• Heat intolerance, increased sweating
• Fatigue, weakness
• Weight loss with increased appetite (weight gain
in 10% of patients)
• Increased stool frequency
• Thirst and polyuria
• Oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea
• Sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation (rare in children),
• Fine tremor, hyperkinesis, hyperreflexia
• Warm, moist skin
• Palmar erythema, onycholysis
• Hair loss
• Muscle weakness and wasting
• High-output heart failure
• Periodic (hypokalemic) paralysis (primarily in Asian
• Psychosis (rare
MANIFESTATIONS OF GRAVES DISEASE
• Diffuse goiter
Upper eyelid retraction (the most common sign of Graves ophthalmopathy)
Infrequent or incomplete blinking (Stellwag sign)
Lid lag upon infraduction (Von Graefesign) or globe lag on supraduction (Kocher sign)
Widened palpebral fissure during fixation (Dalrymple sign)
Incapacity to close eyelids completely (lagophthalmos)
Prominent stare (Binswanger sign)
Inability to keep the eyeballs converged (Mobius sign)
Limited extraocular gaze (especially upward)
Blurred vision due to inadequate convergence and accommodation
Swollen orbital contents and puffy lids
Enlarged lacrimal glands (visible on inspection and palpable)
Dysfunctional lacrimal glands with decreased quantity and abnormal composition of tears
Corneal injection, ulceration, punctate epithelial erosions, or superior limbic keratoconjunctivi
Decreased visual acuity due to papilledema, retinal edema, retinal hemorrhages, or optic nerv
• Localized dermopathy (rare in children)
• Lymphoid hyperplasia
• Thyroid acropachy (rare in children)
• Many scoring systems have been used to gauge the extent and
activity of the orbital changes in Graves' disease.
• The "NO SPECS" scheme is an acronym derived from the
following eye changes:
0 = No signs or symptoms
1 = Only signs (lid retraction or lag), no symptoms
2 = Soft tissue involvement (periorbital edema)
3 = Proptosis (>22 mm)
4 = Extraocular muscle involvement (diplopia)
5 = Corneal involvement
6 = Sight loss
• Thyroid crisis, or thyroid storm, is a form of
hyperthyroidism manifested by an acute onset,
hyperthermia, severe tachycardia, heart failure,
• There may be rapid progression to delirium,
coma, and death. Precipitating events include
trauma infection, radioactive iodine treatment, or
• Apathetic, or masked, hyperthyroidism is
another variety of hyperthyroidism
characterized by extreme listlessness, apathy, and
• A combination of both forms can occur.
• These symptom complexes are rare in children.
• Serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free
T4, and free T3 are elevated.
• In some patients, levels of T3 may be more elevated than
those of T4.
• Levels of TSH are suppressed to below the lower range of
• Antithyroid antibodies, including thyroid peroxidase
antibodies, are often present.
• Most patients with newly diagnosed Graves disease have
• Measurement of TSI or TBII is useful in confirming the
diagnosis of Graves disease.
• Radioiodine is rapidly anddiffusely concentrated in the
thyroid, but this study is rarely necessary.
• Children who experience an acceleration of growth might
also have advanced skeletal maturation.
• Bone density may be reduced at diagnosis but returns to
normal with treatment.
1. Antithyroid drugs
1. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and
2. Methimazole (Tapazole).
• Both compounds inhibit incorporation of trapped inorganic
iodide into organic compounds, and they might also
suppress TRSAb levels by directly affecting intrathyroidal
• Methimazole is at least 10 times more potent than PTU,
longer serum half-life (6-8 hr vs 0.5 hr); PTU generally is
administered 3 times daily, but methimazole can be given
• Unlike methimazole, PTU is heavily protein bound and has a
lesser ability to cross the placenta and to pass into breast
milk; theoretically, PTU is the preferred drug during
pregnancy and for nursing mothers.
• Due to reports of severe liver disease in patients treated
with PTU, with some patients requiring liver transplant or
potentially suffering a fatal outcome, the consensus is to use
only methimazole to treat children with Graves disease.
• The initial dosage of methimazole is 0.25-1.0
mg/kg/24 hr given once or twice daily.
• Smaller initial dosages should be used in early
• Rising serum levels of TSH to greater than
normal indicates overtreatment and leads to
increased size of the goiter.
• Clinical response becomes apparent in 3-6 wk,
and adequate control is evident in 3-4 mo.
• The dose is decreased to the minimal level
required to maintain a euthyroid state.
• Transient granulocytopenia (<2,000/mm3) is
common; it is asymptomatic .
• Transient urticarial rashes are common.
• They may be managed by a short period off
therapy, and then restarting the antithyroid
• The most severe reactions are hypersensitive
and include agranulocytosis (0.1-0.5%),
hepatitis (0.2-1%), a lupus-like polyarthritis
syndrome, glomerulonephritis, and an ANCA-
positive vasculitis involving the skin and other
• Radioiodine treatment or surgery is
- when adequate cooperation for medical
management is not possible,
- when adequate trial of medical management
has failed to result in permanent remission, or
- when severe side effects preclude further use
of antithyroid drugs.
• It is an effective, relatively safe first or alternative therapy
for Graves disease in children >10 yr of age.
• Pretreatment with antithyroid drugs is unnecessary; if a
patient is taking them, they should be stopped a week
before radioiodine administration.
• Many pediatric endocrinologists prefer to select a dose of
radioiodine to ensure complete ablation of thyroid tissue.
• A dose of 300 μCi/g of thyroid tissue, or a total dose of
approximately 15 mCi, will achieve this goal.
• Essentially all patients treated at this dose will become
hypothyroid; the time course to hypothyroidism averages
11 wk, with a range of 9-28 wk.
• Because the full effects of treatment may not be complete
for 1-6 mo, adjunctive therapy with a β-adrenergic
antagonist and lower doses ofantithyroid drugs are
• Subtotal thyroidectomy, a safe procedure when performed
by an experienced team, is done only after the patient has
been brought to a euthyroid state.
• This may be accomplished with methimazole over 2-3 mo.
• After a euthyroid state has been attained, a saturated
solution of potassium iodide, 5 drops/24 hr, are added to
the regimen for 2 wk before surgery to decrease the
vascularity of the gland.
• Complications of surgical treatment are rare and include
hypoparathyroidism (transient or permanent) and paralysis
of the vocal cords.
• The incidence of residual or recurrent hyperthyroidism or
hypothyroidism depends on the extent of the surgery.
• Most recommend near-total thyroidectomy.
• The incidence of recurrence is low, and most patients
• A β-adrenergic blocking agent such as propranolol
(0.5- 2.0 mg/kg/24 hr orally, divided 3 times daily)
or atenolol (1-2 mg/ kg orally given once daily) is a
useful supplement to antithyroid drugs in the
management of severely toxic patients.