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Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2

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Beliefs in Society AQA Sociology Paper 2

  1. 1. A clear and coherent PowerPoint by Haley Ho
  2. 2.  Substansive – These draw a clear line between religious and non-religious beliefs.  Functional – These define religion in terms of the social or psychological functions it performs.  Social constructionist – This is how members of society themselves define religion.
  3. 3.  Durkheim –Sacred and profound, totemism, collective conscience, cognitive functions. (No sharp division between sacred and profane)  Malinowski – Psychological functions, outcome is important but uncontrollable (fishing) and life crisis (four types)  Parsons – Values and meanings (ultimate questions)  Bellah – Civil religion (America)  Evaluation – Ignores negative aspects
  4. 4.  Religion as ideology – Religion is an ideological weapon used to legitimate the suffering of the poor to make it seem God- given.  Religion and alienation – Workers are alienated because they do not own what they produce.  ‘Religion is the opium of the people’ – Marx  Althusser – Ideological state apparatus  Evaluation – Ignores positive functions
  5. 5.  Evidence of patriarchy – Sacred texts (Eve and Mary), religious laws and customs  No female pope  Woodhead: Religious feminism – The hijab is a symbol of liberation that enables women to enter the public sphere without losing their culture and history.
  6. 6.  Religion upholds traditional belief about how society should be organised, and it keeps things the way they are.  Most religions uphold ‘family values’ and often favour a traditional patriarchal domestic division of labour.  Religion and consensus  Religion and capitalism  Religion and patriarchy
  7. 7.  Calvinist beliefs caused the growth of capitalism (they weren’t allowed to spend money and had to put it back into the family business)  India and China lacked religion, this is why they didn’t become wealthy enough for capitalism.  Not every country with Calvinists developed capitalism.
  8. 8.  Bruce – American civil rights movement, started with Rosa Parks (bus)  Black clergy provided meeting places.  Ideological resource - religion provided beliefs that protesters could draw motivation and support.  The New Christian Right –Take America back to God, made use of the media i.e televangelism
  9. 9.  Maduro believes that religion can bring about change. In liberation theology, religious ideas radicalised the Catholic clergy in defence of peasants and workers, making them see them see that serving the poor was part of their Christian duty.  Gramsci – hegemony (ruling class use religion to maintain control)
  10. 10.  A decline in the proportion of the population going to church.  An increase in the age of average church goers.  Fewer baptisms and church weddings  Greater religious diversity.  Only 6.3% of the adult population attended church on Sundays in 2005.
  11. 11.  Weber: Rationalisation (rational ways of thinking replace religious ones)  Disenchantment – Not as much mystery in the world.  A technological world view – Scientific explanations.  Religious diversity – Berger
  12. 12.  Declining church attendance  Secularisation from within – Religion has turned into some form of therapy, instead of seeking salvation, they seek personal improvement.  Religious diversity – Americans accept that others are entitled to hold their own views.  Criticisms – Religion is not declining, but changing, people can believe and not go to church.
  13. 13.  Religion is changing rather than declining.  Believe without belonging – Davie says that vicarious religion is where a small number of professional clergy practice on behalf of a much larger number of people.  Criticism – People not wanting to go to church shows that their belief is weak.  Spiritual shopping – Hervieu-Leger, we have lost the religion that use to be handed down (Pick and Mix) cultural amnesia
  14. 14.  People are naturally religious, and the demand for religion is still there.  It is human natural to seek rewards and avoid costs.  Religion is attractive because it supplies us with supernatural compensators.  Criticism – religious diversity has led to religious decline.
  15. 15.  Religion meets a need for security, and therefore societies where people feel secure have low level of demand for religion.  Poor societies are more religious as they face life-threating risks.  Rich societies, where people have a high standard of living are at less risk and have a greater sense of security so do no need religion.  Criticism – They only us quantitative data.
  16. 16.  God and globalisation in India- Globalisation has brought rising wealth to some (India’s middle class). These will be the first people to abandon religion.
  17. 17.  Fundamentalists are traditionalist who seek to return to the basic or fundamentals of their new faith.  Fundamentalism has grown as a product of globalisation, in todays society people are faced with risk and fundamentalism provides people with certainty that it promises in an uncertain world.  Criticism – Giddens lumps all fundamentalism together.
  18. 18.  Religion unites people together against external threat.  In Poland the external power was Soviet communism, while in Iran it was Western culture.  Iran – the revolution was led by the religious leaders.
  19. 19.  Churches are large organisations with a monopoly of truth.  Sects are small exclusive groups and are hostile towards wider society and require a high level of commitment, they have poor and oppressed members.  Denomination is between sects and churches.  Cults are highly individualistic, but they do not demand strong commitment.  New Religious Movements – world rejecting, world accommodating, world affirming.  Criticism – Wallis ignores diversity.
  20. 20.  Marginality – sects draw attention from the poor and oppressed.  Relative deprivation – this is where someone feels deprived, compared to others around them.  Social change – Rapid change causes uncertainty, the people who are most affected may turn to sects as a solution.  The Grow of the New Age – They include belief in UFO’s and aliens, astrology, tarot, crystals etc.
  21. 21.  More women than men participate in religious activities and believe in God because they are socialised to be more passive, obedient and caring. Davie – women are closer to death and birth, so they question big questions.  Many Muslims, Hindu’s, and Sikhs come from South Asia, many Christians are of black African Caribbean origin because most ethnic minorities come from poorer countries with traditional beliefs.
  22. 22.  Science can solve and cause problems i.e. Frankenstein.  Open belief system – Popper, science is open to test and criticism.  Science norms: CUDOS – communism, universalism, disinterestedness, organised scepticism.  Religion is a closed belief system because they are not open to criticism and testing.  Science as a closed system – There are some things that science will reject.
  23. 23.  Ideology is a worldview or a set of ideas and values (a belief system)  Marxism and ideology – A minority ruling class who own the means of production and control the state, and a majority working class who are property-less and therefore forced to sell their labour.  Feminism and ideology – Patriarchy, Marks says that science has been able to justify excluding women from education. i.e. Sports makes girls unfeminine.

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