SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 50
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
Dr.Iman  Qoraan
Spring  2020
The  Resident  Oral  Microflora
Diversity  of  resident  flora
Synergic  
metabolic  
interactions  by  
microorganisms
Dental  
plaque  
biofilms
Diversity  
of  
nutrients  
supplied
Microbial  
classification  
schemes
Conventional
Morphological  
and  
Physiological
Chemical  
properties  :  
enzymes  ,
carbohydrate  ,
amino  acid,  etc...
Serological  :
antigen-­
antibody  
reactions
Molecular
16S  
ribosomal  
RNA  gene  
amplification
-­Simple
-­Quantitative
-­Sensitivity  tests  
-­Rapid(serological tests)
-­Some  tests  can  be  done  
directly  on  clinical  samples  
(other  than  culture)
-Pure  culture is  needed  
-­Not  all  microorganisms  can    
be  cultured(e.g:  treponema)
Conventional  Identification  Methods
Advantages
Disadvantages
Around 700
microorganism
present in the oral
cavity
Only 50% can be
cultured
Molecular  Identification  Methods
*Accurate
*Rapid
*Sensitive
*Provide  information  about  non  
culturable microorganisms
*Data  sequences  is  limited
*Antimicrobial  sensitivity  is  not  
possible
Pros
Cons
Oral
Microorganisms
Bacteria
Gram
positive
(cocci,
bacilli)
Gram
negative
(cocci,
bacilli)
Obligate
anaerobes
Mycoplasma
Fungi Protozoa
Archea Viruses
Gram  Positive    Cell  Wall  
A.  Mutans  streptococcus  Group
Mutans(different  shapes):  cocci,  coccobacilli,bacilli
Extracellular  soluble/insoluble  glucan,  mutan (insoluble  
glucan),  fructan ,and  intracellular  polysaccharides  
Release  signaling  molecules  that  induce  genetic  transformation  
and  acid  tolerance
Facultative  anaerobic  ,  acidophilic,acidogenic
AntigenI/II  subunit  vaccine
1. S. mutans
c,e,f,k human  
serotypes
Favors  hard  non  
shedding  
surfaces  
(teeth,  denture)
Opportunistic
(dental  caries,  
endocarditis)
Streptococcus  mutans
Gram stain Colonies on blood agar
2.
S.  sobrinus
Inhibited  by  bacitracin
d,g serotypes  are  human  specific
AntigenI/II  is  also  present  (SpaA)
Associated  with  dental  caries
Produce  extracellular  and  intracellular  
polysaccharides
B.  Anginosus  Group
S.anginosus
• Isolated from  
purulent  
infections    like  
maxillofacial  and  
other  body  sites
• Don’t  produce  
extracellular  
polysaccharides
S.intermedius
• Produce  
intermedilysin
affect  neutrophil  
function  in  
abscess  formation
• Don't  produce  
extracellular  
polysaccharides
• isolated  from  
brain  and liver  
abscesses
S.constellatus
• Derived  from  
purulent  
infections
• Don’t produce  
extracellular  
polysaccharides
Anginosus  Group
S. anginosus may be B-hemolytic or none
• Isolated  from  vestibular  mucosa  of  
mouth
• Produce  urease    and  H2O2  which  
inhibit  competing  bacteria
• Do  not  produce  extracellular  
polysaccharides
• Opportunistic    endocarditis  and  
bacteremia
S.vestibularis
• Colonize  mucosal  surfaces  mainly  the  
tongue ,rarely  cause  disease
• Produce  extracellular  fructan,  glucan    
and  levanase
• Levan  (extracllular fructan) make    
mucoid  colonies  on  sucrose  containing  
agar
S.  salivarius
C.  Salivarius  group
D.Mitis  group
S.sanguinis
Colonize  
tooth  
surface
Produce  
extracellular
glucan
Cleave  
arginine  
and  
generate  
ammonia
Produce  
IgA  
prtoease
S.gordonii
Colonize  
tooth  
surface
Produce  
extracellular  
glucan
Cleave  
arginine and  
generate  
ammonia
Cleave  starch  
using  salivary  
alpha  
amylase(binding  
to  amylase  
protect  it  from  
host)  defenses-­
host  mimicry
S.oralis
produce  
neuraminidase
enhance  
adherence  by  
cleaving    sialic  
acid  from  mucin  
Produce  IgA  
protease
Competent  for  
natural  genetic  
transformation
S.mitis
Opportunistic  
pathogen  
misidentified  as  
S.pneumoniae
Cause  infective  
endocarditis
Competent  for  
natural  genetic  
transformation
Nutritionally  variant  streptococci
ØGranulicatella adiacens(S.adiacens):
ü Require  cysteine  ,pyridoxal(vitamin  B6)  for  growth
ü Exhibit  satellitism with  other  bacteria  that  provide  
cofactors
ØAbiotrophia defectiva
Other  Gram  positive  cocci
Ø Enterococcus  faecalis :  isolated  from  immunocompromised
patients,  treatment  failed  periodontal  pocket  
Ø S.pyogenes: isolated  from    saliva of  patients  with  sore  throat
Ø Staphylococcus  and  Micrococci:  Transient  flora,  isolated  from  
denture plaque
Ø Peptostreptococcus stomatis:  anaerobic,isolated from  dental  
abscesses,infected pulp  chambers,root canals  and  advanced  
forms  of  periodontal  disease
Gram  Positive  Rods  and  Filaments
A.  Actinomyces
A.naeslundii
Major  portion  of  
dental  plaque,  
colonize  mouth  at  
infant  age
produce  fructan,  
urease,neuraminidase
have  fimbriae  for  
coaggregation and  
cell-­surface  
interaction
A.israelii
opportunistic
pathogen  cause  
actinomycosis
produce  protective    
granules  that  help  
bacteria  evade  
immune  system  
and  antibiotic  
treatment  and  
disseminate  into  
body
A.odontolyticus
form  red  
pigment
colonize  mouth
at  infant  age
B.  Eubacterium  
Gram  variable,filamentous ,  obligate    anaerobe,  non
culturable
Asaccharolytic
Form  dentoalveolar    abscesses  
C. Lactobacillus  species
Some  
species  
are  cocci
Acidogenic  
and  acid  
tolerant
There    salivary  
levels  are  
useful  to  
monitor  
patient's  
dietary  
behavior  
(carbohydrate  
intake)  and  
cariogenic  
potential  of  a        
mouth
Isolated  
from  
advanced  
caries  
lesions
Lactobacillus  
Other  Gram  Positive  Rods
qPropionibacterium  spp.:obligate  anaerobic,  found  in  
dental  plaque
qBifidobacterium  dentium:isolated  from  dental  plaque
qRothia  mucilaginosa:  produce  extracellular  
polysaccharides,isolated    exclusively from  the  
tongue
qCorynebacterium  matruchutii:  short  fat  cell  and  long  
filament  growing  out(  whip-­handle  cell)
Corynebacterium  matruchutii
Gram  Negative  Cell  Wall  and  Stain
Gram  Negative  Cocci
Neisseria
• Consume  
oxygen  
creating  
anaerobic  
environment  
during  plaque  
formation
Moraxella  catarrhalis
• opportunistic  
pathogen
• B-­lactamase  producer
Veillonella
• Strict  
anaerobic
• unable  to  
metabolize  
carbohydrates
• Convert  lactic  
acid  to  
weaker  acid  
preventing  
enamel
dissolution
Gram  Negative  Rods
q Haemophilus
Ø H.parainfluenzae:  Require  NAD
(nicotinamide adenine  dinucleotide  )
q Aggregatibacter
Ø A.actinomycetemcomitans
Ø Capnophilic (require  5-­10%  CO2)
Ø Opportunistic  pathogen  produce  collagenase,  IgG  
protease  
Ø Cause  aggressive  periodontitis  in  adults
Obligately    Anaerobic  Genera
qBlack  pigmented  anaerobes:
Ø Prevotella  and  Porphyromonas  
Ø Produce  brown-­black  pigment  on  Blood  agar
Ø Require  X-­factor  (hemin)
Ø Isolated  from  subgingival  sites  of  dental  plaques
qFusobacterium
Ø Pleomorphic,long  filamentous
Ø Asaccharolytic  Use  amino  acids  as  energy  source
Ø Some  species  isolated  from  normal  gingival  crevice  others  are  
associated  with  periodontal  disease
Black  pigmented  anaerobes
Fusobacterium
Obligately    Anaerobic  Genera
qHelicobacter  pylori
Ø Associated  with  gastritis,  peptic  ulcers  and  gastric  
cancer
Ø Transiently  found  in  the  mouth following  reflux  from  
the  stomach  
Obligately    Anaerobic  Genera
qSpirochaetes
Ø Isolated  from  subgingival  plaque
Ø Their  number  is  diagnostic  for  necrotizing  ulcerative  
periodontitis
Ø Characterized  by  endoplasmic  flagella(axial  filaments)
Ø Difficult to  be  cultured,  need  dark  field  microscope,  
molecular  methods
Ø Treponema  denticola  
ü Proteolytic:  degrade  collagen  and  gelatin
ü Can  be  cultured
Spirochetes  Cell  wall  and  Gram  stain
Fungi
Present  in  
small  
proportion
Imperfect  
yeast  
(divide  
asexually)  
like  candida  
are  
common  
flora
Perfect
(divide  
sexually)  
yeast  are  
transient in  
healthy  
individuals
Perfect
molds  like  
Aspergillus ,
Mucor,
Geotrichum
present  in  
AIDS  
patients
1.  Candida  albicans
is  the  main  oral fungal  
flora
2.  C.  glabrata,  C.  krusei,
C.  tropicalis,
C.guilliermundii,  
Rhodotorulla,  
Saccharomyces    
are  present
3.  Isolated  mainly  from  
dorsum  of  the  tongue  and  
increased with  presence  of  
intra-­oral  devices  like  
dentures  or  orthodontic  
appliances
4.  Carriage  rate  increases  
at  middle  and  old  age
Fungi
Mycoplasma
Disease  associated
M.orale,  M.  salivarium associated  with  salivary  gland    
hypofunction
Isolation
mucosal  surfaces  
RT,UT
Saliva
M.salivarium
M.pneumonaie
Oral  mucosa
M.buccale
M.  orale
Growth  media
Need  enriched  media  with  
protein
Elevated  CO2
Shape  and  size
Lack cell  wall  
Gram negative  pleomorphic
Smallest free  growing  
cells<1um
Mycoplasma structure
Viruses
1.  Herpesviridae
Herpes  simplex  virus  type1  (HSV1)
• Most  virus  isolated  from  saliva  
and  orofacial  areas
• Persist  within  oral  tissues  
• Cause  cold  sores
• Remains  latent  in  trigeminal  
nerve  ganglion
• Reactivated by  stress  or  UV  light
• Mainly  recovered  by  molecular  
methods  
Cytomegalovirus(CMV)
• Isolated  from  saliva
• Latent
• persistent
• Portal  entry  to  oral  cavity  
is  unknown
Cytomegalovirus  infection
Viruses
2.  Coxakievirus  A
Coxakievirus A serotypes  
2,4,5,6,8,9,10,16 isolated  from  oral  
epithelium  and  saliva
Disease
Herpangina(  hand,foot,mouth
disease)
Coxakievirus
Viruses
3.Human  papilloma  virus(HPV)
more  than  100  type
2,4,6,11,16  detected  in  
oral  lesions  of  AIDS  
Isolated  from  tissues  
with  hyperplastic  warty  
like  lesions
(verruca  vulgaris)
Viruses
Hepatits  B  &HIV
HBV
Present  in  saliva  
of  carriers
Cross  infection  
threat
HIV
Present  in  
saliva
Cross  infection  
threat(rare)
Hepatitis B HIV
Other  Viruses
qMumps  and  measles  in  oral  lesions
qBacteriophage
ü Viruses  for  which  bacteria  are  the  natural  hosts
ü Bacteriophage  specific  for  S.mutans,  Lactobacillus,  
Actinomyces,  Veillonella and  Aggregatibacter  sp.
ü Isolated  from  saliva  and  dental  plaque  samples
Protozoa
microscopic  
unicellular  
eukaryotes
Their  life  cycle  
consist  of  
trophozoite
the  motile,  
feeding  form)  
and    cyst
(protective  form)
Some  are  motile  by  
flagella  ,  cilia  or  
pseudopodia  while  
others  are  non  
motile
Reproduce  
asexually  by  
binary  
fission,  
(apicomplexa  
reproduce  
sexually
Protozoa
Trichomonas  tenax
Commensal  in  oral  cavity  
Heterotrophic  (acquire  
carbon  through  ingestion  
of  other  microorganisms  ,  
organic  matter  and  
leucocytes)
Motile  by  flagella  and  
undulating  membrane
Increase  in  patients  with  
periodontal  disease
Entamoeba  gingivalis
First  ameobae  isolated  
from  human
Heterotrophic
Motile  by  pseudopodia
found  in  the  gingival  
pocket(abnormal  depth  of  
the  gingival  sulcus
Trichomonas tenax

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Ähnlich wie Oral microbiology third lecture.pdf

Normal Microbial Flora
Normal Microbial FloraNormal Microbial Flora
Normal Microbial FloraNCRIMS, Meerut
 
5 - Bacteria Pathogens
5 - Bacteria Pathogens5 - Bacteria Pathogens
5 - Bacteria PathogensRachel Belton
 
SEMINAR III ORAL MICROFLORA PART.pptx
SEMINAR III ORAL  MICROFLORA PART.pptxSEMINAR III ORAL  MICROFLORA PART.pptx
SEMINAR III ORAL MICROFLORA PART.pptxPrem Chauhan
 
255018337-cariology-4.ppt
255018337-cariology-4.ppt255018337-cariology-4.ppt
255018337-cariology-4.pptnona798438
 
Dental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimary
Dental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimaryDental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimary
Dental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimarydr.Ihsan alsaimary
 
Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02
Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02
Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02viancksislove
 
Module 13 oral microbiology
Module 13   oral microbiologyModule 13   oral microbiology
Module 13 oral microbiologyHuang Yu-Wen
 
Module 13 oral microbiology
Module 13   oral microbiologyModule 13   oral microbiology
Module 13 oral microbiologyEhsan Lee
 
Gram negative bacteria..
Gram negative bacteria..Gram negative bacteria..
Gram negative bacteria..Abigail Sapico
 
Oral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy
Oral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academyOral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy
Oral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academyIndian dental academy
 
dietary factors in caries
dietary factors in cariesdietary factors in caries
dietary factors in cariesRama Subbareddy
 
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Indian dental academy
 
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Indian dental academy
 
Defense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminar
Defense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminarDefense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminar
Defense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminarHema Duddukuri
 
Pathophysiology of caries and pulpal reactions to caries
Pathophysiology of caries and  pulpal reactions to cariesPathophysiology of caries and  pulpal reactions to caries
Pathophysiology of caries and pulpal reactions to cariesDr. Arbiya Anjum S
 
oral submucous fibrosis
oral submucous fibrosisoral submucous fibrosis
oral submucous fibrosisAdeel Butt
 

Ähnlich wie Oral microbiology third lecture.pdf (20)

Normal Microbial Flora
Normal Microbial FloraNormal Microbial Flora
Normal Microbial Flora
 
Actinomycetales
ActinomycetalesActinomycetales
Actinomycetales
 
Actinomycetales
ActinomycetalesActinomycetales
Actinomycetales
 
5 - Bacteria Pathogens
5 - Bacteria Pathogens5 - Bacteria Pathogens
5 - Bacteria Pathogens
 
SEMINAR III ORAL MICROFLORA PART.pptx
SEMINAR III ORAL  MICROFLORA PART.pptxSEMINAR III ORAL  MICROFLORA PART.pptx
SEMINAR III ORAL MICROFLORA PART.pptx
 
255018337-cariology-4.ppt
255018337-cariology-4.ppt255018337-cariology-4.ppt
255018337-cariology-4.ppt
 
Dental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimary
Dental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimaryDental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimary
Dental &amp; periodontal disease dr . ihsan alsaimary
 
Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02
Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02
Module13 oralmicrobiology-120620072635-phpapp02
 
Module 13 oral microbiology
Module 13   oral microbiologyModule 13   oral microbiology
Module 13 oral microbiology
 
Module 13 oral microbiology
Module 13   oral microbiologyModule 13   oral microbiology
Module 13 oral microbiology
 
Gram negative bacteria..
Gram negative bacteria..Gram negative bacteria..
Gram negative bacteria..
 
Host microbe
Host microbeHost microbe
Host microbe
 
Oral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy
Oral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academyOral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy
Oral microbiology/ rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy
 
dietary factors in caries
dietary factors in cariesdietary factors in caries
dietary factors in caries
 
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
 
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Oral microflora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
 
Defense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminar
Defense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminarDefense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminar
Defense mechanisms of gingiva 4 th seminar
 
Pathophysiology of caries and pulpal reactions to caries
Pathophysiology of caries and  pulpal reactions to cariesPathophysiology of caries and  pulpal reactions to caries
Pathophysiology of caries and pulpal reactions to caries
 
Candidiasis jc
Candidiasis jcCandidiasis jc
Candidiasis jc
 
oral submucous fibrosis
oral submucous fibrosisoral submucous fibrosis
oral submucous fibrosis
 

Mehr von HaithamAboud1

Impression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdf
Impression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdfImpression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdf
Impression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdfHaithamAboud1
 
Introduction to Prosthodontics CD .ppt
Introduction to Prosthodontics CD .pptIntroduction to Prosthodontics CD .ppt
Introduction to Prosthodontics CD .pptHaithamAboud1
 
Rest & Rest Seat.ppt
Rest & Rest Seat.pptRest & Rest Seat.ppt
Rest & Rest Seat.pptHaithamAboud1
 
Anatomic LandmarkT.PPT
Anatomic LandmarkT.PPTAnatomic LandmarkT.PPT
Anatomic LandmarkT.PPTHaithamAboud1
 
Dental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdf
Dental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdfDental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdf
Dental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdfHaithamAboud1
 
first premolar.pptx
 first premolar.pptx first premolar.pptx
first premolar.pptxHaithamAboud1
 
maxillary canine drawing.pptx
maxillary canine drawing.pptxmaxillary canine drawing.pptx
maxillary canine drawing.pptxHaithamAboud1
 

Mehr von HaithamAboud1 (9)

Impression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdf
Impression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdfImpression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdf
Impression_Trays Dental Prosth 2.pdf
 
Introduction to Prosthodontics CD .ppt
Introduction to Prosthodontics CD .pptIntroduction to Prosthodontics CD .ppt
Introduction to Prosthodontics CD .ppt
 
Rest & Rest Seat.ppt
Rest & Rest Seat.pptRest & Rest Seat.ppt
Rest & Rest Seat.ppt
 
Anatomic LandmarkT.PPT
Anatomic LandmarkT.PPTAnatomic LandmarkT.PPT
Anatomic LandmarkT.PPT
 
Dental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdf
Dental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdfDental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdf
Dental Anatomy & occlusion-Dental Decks 2004.pdf
 
first premolar.pptx
 first premolar.pptx first premolar.pptx
first premolar.pptx
 
maxillary canine drawing.pptx
maxillary canine drawing.pptxmaxillary canine drawing.pptx
maxillary canine drawing.pptx
 
1689488.ppt
1689488.ppt1689488.ppt
1689488.ppt
 
RPD1.ppt
RPD1.pptRPD1.ppt
RPD1.ppt
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

Aditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdf
Aditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdfAditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdf
Aditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdfAditi Jagtap Pune
 
Plant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdf
Plant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdfPlant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdf
Plant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medicationValproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medicationMohamadAlhes
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxBibekananda shah
 
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisVarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisGolden Helix
 
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxWorld-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxEx WHO/USAID
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityCEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityHarshChauhan475104
 
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfRole of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfHistory and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfSasikiranMarri
 
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..AneriPatwari
 
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptxTans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptxKezaiah S
 
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxHypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxAkshay Shetty
 
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptxSYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptxdrashraf369
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPrerana Jadhav
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamAkebom Gebremichael
 
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Dr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxSasikiranMarri
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

Aditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdf
Aditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdfAditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdf
Aditi Jagtap (Daughter of Ranjit Jagtap).pdf
 
Plant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdf
Plant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdfPlant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdf
Plant Fibres used as Surgical Dressings PDF.pdf
 
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medicationValproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
 
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisVarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
 
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxWorld-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
 
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityCEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
 
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfRole of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
 
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfHistory and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
 
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
PHYSIOTHERAPY IN HEART TRANSPLANTATION..
 
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptxTans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
Tans femoral Amputee : Prosthetics Knee Joints.pptx
 
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxHypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
 
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptxSYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
 
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
 

Oral microbiology third lecture.pdf

  • 1. Dr.Iman  Qoraan Spring  2020 The  Resident  Oral  Microflora
  • 2. Diversity  of  resident  flora Synergic   metabolic   interactions  by   microorganisms Dental   plaque   biofilms Diversity   of   nutrients   supplied
  • 3. Microbial   classification   schemes Conventional Morphological   and   Physiological Chemical   properties  :   enzymes  , carbohydrate  , amino  acid,  etc... Serological  : antigen-­ antibody   reactions Molecular 16S   ribosomal   RNA  gene   amplification
  • 4. -­Simple -­Quantitative -­Sensitivity  tests   -­Rapid(serological tests) -­Some  tests  can  be  done   directly  on  clinical  samples   (other  than  culture) -Pure  culture is  needed   -­Not  all  microorganisms  can     be  cultured(e.g:  treponema) Conventional  Identification  Methods Advantages Disadvantages
  • 5. Around 700 microorganism present in the oral cavity Only 50% can be cultured
  • 6. Molecular  Identification  Methods *Accurate *Rapid *Sensitive *Provide  information  about  non   culturable microorganisms *Data  sequences  is  limited *Antimicrobial  sensitivity  is  not   possible Pros Cons
  • 8. Gram  Positive    Cell  Wall  
  • 9. A.  Mutans  streptococcus  Group Mutans(different  shapes):  cocci,  coccobacilli,bacilli Extracellular  soluble/insoluble  glucan,  mutan (insoluble   glucan),  fructan ,and  intracellular  polysaccharides   Release  signaling  molecules  that  induce  genetic  transformation   and  acid  tolerance Facultative  anaerobic  ,  acidophilic,acidogenic AntigenI/II  subunit  vaccine
  • 10. 1. S. mutans c,e,f,k human   serotypes Favors  hard  non   shedding   surfaces   (teeth,  denture) Opportunistic (dental  caries,   endocarditis)
  • 11. Streptococcus  mutans Gram stain Colonies on blood agar
  • 12. 2. S.  sobrinus Inhibited  by  bacitracin d,g serotypes  are  human  specific AntigenI/II  is  also  present  (SpaA) Associated  with  dental  caries Produce  extracellular  and  intracellular   polysaccharides
  • 13. B.  Anginosus  Group S.anginosus • Isolated from   purulent   infections    like   maxillofacial  and   other  body  sites • Don’t  produce   extracellular   polysaccharides S.intermedius • Produce   intermedilysin affect  neutrophil   function  in   abscess  formation • Don't  produce   extracellular   polysaccharides • isolated  from   brain  and liver   abscesses S.constellatus • Derived  from   purulent   infections • Don’t produce   extracellular   polysaccharides
  • 14. Anginosus  Group S. anginosus may be B-hemolytic or none
  • 15. • Isolated  from  vestibular  mucosa  of   mouth • Produce  urease    and  H2O2  which   inhibit  competing  bacteria • Do  not  produce  extracellular   polysaccharides • Opportunistic    endocarditis  and   bacteremia S.vestibularis • Colonize  mucosal  surfaces  mainly  the   tongue ,rarely  cause  disease • Produce  extracellular  fructan,  glucan     and  levanase • Levan  (extracllular fructan) make     mucoid  colonies  on  sucrose  containing   agar S.  salivarius C.  Salivarius  group
  • 16. D.Mitis  group S.sanguinis Colonize   tooth   surface Produce   extracellular glucan Cleave   arginine   and   generate   ammonia Produce   IgA   prtoease S.gordonii Colonize   tooth   surface Produce   extracellular   glucan Cleave   arginine and   generate   ammonia Cleave  starch   using  salivary   alpha   amylase(binding   to  amylase   protect  it  from   host)  defenses-­ host  mimicry S.oralis produce   neuraminidase enhance   adherence  by   cleaving    sialic   acid  from  mucin   Produce  IgA   protease Competent  for   natural  genetic   transformation S.mitis Opportunistic   pathogen   misidentified  as   S.pneumoniae Cause  infective   endocarditis Competent  for   natural  genetic   transformation
  • 17. Nutritionally  variant  streptococci ØGranulicatella adiacens(S.adiacens): ü Require  cysteine  ,pyridoxal(vitamin  B6)  for  growth ü Exhibit  satellitism with  other  bacteria  that  provide   cofactors ØAbiotrophia defectiva
  • 18. Other  Gram  positive  cocci Ø Enterococcus  faecalis :  isolated  from  immunocompromised patients,  treatment  failed  periodontal  pocket   Ø S.pyogenes: isolated  from    saliva of  patients  with  sore  throat Ø Staphylococcus  and  Micrococci:  Transient  flora,  isolated  from   denture plaque Ø Peptostreptococcus stomatis:  anaerobic,isolated from  dental   abscesses,infected pulp  chambers,root canals  and  advanced   forms  of  periodontal  disease
  • 19. Gram  Positive  Rods  and  Filaments
  • 20. A.  Actinomyces A.naeslundii Major  portion  of   dental  plaque,   colonize  mouth  at   infant  age produce  fructan,   urease,neuraminidase have  fimbriae  for   coaggregation and   cell-­surface   interaction A.israelii opportunistic pathogen  cause   actinomycosis produce  protective     granules  that  help   bacteria  evade   immune  system   and  antibiotic   treatment  and   disseminate  into   body A.odontolyticus form  red   pigment colonize  mouth at  infant  age
  • 21. B.  Eubacterium   Gram  variable,filamentous ,  obligate    anaerobe,  non culturable Asaccharolytic Form  dentoalveolar    abscesses  
  • 22. C. Lactobacillus  species Some   species   are  cocci Acidogenic   and  acid   tolerant There    salivary   levels  are   useful  to   monitor   patient's   dietary   behavior   (carbohydrate   intake)  and   cariogenic   potential  of  a         mouth Isolated   from   advanced   caries   lesions
  • 24. Other  Gram  Positive  Rods qPropionibacterium  spp.:obligate  anaerobic,  found  in   dental  plaque qBifidobacterium  dentium:isolated  from  dental  plaque qRothia  mucilaginosa:  produce  extracellular   polysaccharides,isolated    exclusively from  the   tongue qCorynebacterium  matruchutii:  short  fat  cell  and  long   filament  growing  out(  whip-­handle  cell) Corynebacterium  matruchutii
  • 25. Gram  Negative  Cell  Wall  and  Stain
  • 26. Gram  Negative  Cocci Neisseria • Consume   oxygen   creating   anaerobic   environment   during  plaque   formation Moraxella  catarrhalis • opportunistic   pathogen • B-­lactamase  producer Veillonella • Strict   anaerobic • unable  to   metabolize   carbohydrates • Convert  lactic   acid  to   weaker  acid   preventing   enamel dissolution
  • 27. Gram  Negative  Rods q Haemophilus Ø H.parainfluenzae:  Require  NAD (nicotinamide adenine  dinucleotide  ) q Aggregatibacter Ø A.actinomycetemcomitans Ø Capnophilic (require  5-­10%  CO2) Ø Opportunistic  pathogen  produce  collagenase,  IgG   protease   Ø Cause  aggressive  periodontitis  in  adults
  • 28. Obligately    Anaerobic  Genera qBlack  pigmented  anaerobes: Ø Prevotella  and  Porphyromonas   Ø Produce  brown-­black  pigment  on  Blood  agar Ø Require  X-­factor  (hemin) Ø Isolated  from  subgingival  sites  of  dental  plaques qFusobacterium Ø Pleomorphic,long  filamentous Ø Asaccharolytic  Use  amino  acids  as  energy  source Ø Some  species  isolated  from  normal  gingival  crevice  others  are   associated  with  periodontal  disease
  • 31. Obligately    Anaerobic  Genera qHelicobacter  pylori Ø Associated  with  gastritis,  peptic  ulcers  and  gastric   cancer Ø Transiently  found  in  the  mouth following  reflux  from   the  stomach  
  • 32. Obligately    Anaerobic  Genera qSpirochaetes Ø Isolated  from  subgingival  plaque Ø Their  number  is  diagnostic  for  necrotizing  ulcerative   periodontitis Ø Characterized  by  endoplasmic  flagella(axial  filaments) Ø Difficult to  be  cultured,  need  dark  field  microscope,   molecular  methods Ø Treponema  denticola   ü Proteolytic:  degrade  collagen  and  gelatin ü Can  be  cultured
  • 33. Spirochetes  Cell  wall  and  Gram  stain
  • 34. Fungi Present  in   small   proportion Imperfect   yeast   (divide   asexually)   like  candida   are   common   flora Perfect (divide   sexually)   yeast  are   transient in   healthy   individuals Perfect molds  like   Aspergillus , Mucor, Geotrichum present  in   AIDS   patients
  • 35. 1.  Candida  albicans is  the  main  oral fungal   flora 2.  C.  glabrata,  C.  krusei, C.  tropicalis, C.guilliermundii,   Rhodotorulla,   Saccharomyces     are  present 3.  Isolated  mainly  from   dorsum  of  the  tongue  and   increased with  presence  of   intra-­oral  devices  like   dentures  or  orthodontic   appliances 4.  Carriage  rate  increases   at  middle  and  old  age Fungi
  • 36. Mycoplasma Disease  associated M.orale,  M.  salivarium associated  with  salivary  gland     hypofunction Isolation mucosal  surfaces   RT,UT Saliva M.salivarium M.pneumonaie Oral  mucosa M.buccale M.  orale Growth  media Need  enriched  media  with   protein Elevated  CO2 Shape  and  size Lack cell  wall   Gram negative  pleomorphic Smallest free  growing   cells<1um
  • 38. Viruses 1.  Herpesviridae Herpes  simplex  virus  type1  (HSV1) • Most  virus  isolated  from  saliva   and  orofacial  areas • Persist  within  oral  tissues   • Cause  cold  sores • Remains  latent  in  trigeminal   nerve  ganglion • Reactivated by  stress  or  UV  light • Mainly  recovered  by  molecular   methods   Cytomegalovirus(CMV) • Isolated  from  saliva • Latent • persistent • Portal  entry  to  oral  cavity   is  unknown
  • 40. Viruses 2.  Coxakievirus  A Coxakievirus A serotypes   2,4,5,6,8,9,10,16 isolated  from  oral   epithelium  and  saliva Disease Herpangina(  hand,foot,mouth disease)
  • 42. Viruses 3.Human  papilloma  virus(HPV) more  than  100  type 2,4,6,11,16  detected  in   oral  lesions  of  AIDS   Isolated  from  tissues   with  hyperplastic  warty   like  lesions (verruca  vulgaris)
  • 43.
  • 44. Viruses Hepatits  B  &HIV HBV Present  in  saliva   of  carriers Cross  infection   threat HIV Present  in   saliva Cross  infection   threat(rare)
  • 46. Other  Viruses qMumps  and  measles  in  oral  lesions qBacteriophage ü Viruses  for  which  bacteria  are  the  natural  hosts ü Bacteriophage  specific  for  S.mutans,  Lactobacillus,   Actinomyces,  Veillonella and  Aggregatibacter  sp. ü Isolated  from  saliva  and  dental  plaque  samples
  • 47.
  • 48. Protozoa microscopic   unicellular   eukaryotes Their  life  cycle   consist  of   trophozoite the  motile,   feeding  form)   and    cyst (protective  form) Some  are  motile  by   flagella  ,  cilia  or   pseudopodia  while   others  are  non   motile Reproduce   asexually  by   binary   fission,   (apicomplexa   reproduce   sexually
  • 49. Protozoa Trichomonas  tenax Commensal  in  oral  cavity   Heterotrophic  (acquire   carbon  through  ingestion   of  other  microorganisms  ,   organic  matter  and   leucocytes) Motile  by  flagella  and   undulating  membrane Increase  in  patients  with   periodontal  disease Entamoeba  gingivalis First  ameobae  isolated   from  human Heterotrophic Motile  by  pseudopodia found  in  the  gingival   pocket(abnormal  depth  of   the  gingival  sulcus