Más contenido relacionado


Más de Hafiz Ammar Siddiqui(16)


2-Game Design (Game Design and Development)

  1. Game Design Game Design and Development By Hafiz Ammar Siddiqui 2
  2. Game Design • The process of planning and creating the content of a game • Art of applying design principles to create a game • Defines that how the game will work from start to end • Explains how overall game is structured and composed • All basic game design components are related to each other which are • Gameplay and experience • Game mechanics • Narrative • Aesthetics • Level design
  3. Gameplay and Experience Game Types Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives Genres and Styles Temporal Aspects Ending Types Playability Learning Immersion Efficiency Satisfaction Emotion Motivation Socialization
  4. Gameplay and Experience • A specific way in which a player interacts with a game • Defines the way a game is played • Explains how a player is involved with a game • A connection between player and game • Gameplay of modern games are usually defined with the help of two major characteristics • Game Types: Define the viewpoints, styles, temporal aspect and ending type of a game • Playability: Set of factors that measure the ease and fun in playing a game
  5. • A viewport is a viewing region in computer graphics (the part which appears on the display) and a viewpoint is a way of representing (or rendering) a viewport with respect to a camera perspective • Game can have viewpoints and camera perspectives in 2D or 3D • A game can have multiple types of viewpoints which can be blended together or selected one at a time • Many games do not use existing popular viewpoints and camera perspectives instead they create their own depending upon the gameplay Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives Game Types
  6. Static Background • Games with a fixed background in the display that does not move • Camera focuses on static background and stays there Candy Crush Peggle Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  7. • Games with a display that scrolls horizontally or vertically or both • Camera slides on vertical and / or horizontal axis • Often camera is fixed and scene with content slides on vertical and / or horizontal axis Cuphead Ori and the Blind Forest Screen Scrolling Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  8. • Games show the scene from the top • Camera usually shows the player and its surrounding area from above Mini Motor Racing Civilization VI Top Down Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  9. • Games with isometric projection from 3D to 2D also known as 2.5D • An angle for rotation is applied to a 2D drawing object to make it look like 3D Clash of Clans X X X can be 30, 45 or 60 degrees Isometric Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  10. • Games with a viewpoint which is rendered from the perspective of player’s character • Camera becomes the eyes of the main player often known as eye camera Battlefield V Call of Duty Modern Warfare First Person Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  11. Red Dead Redemption 2 Death Stranding • Games with a viewpoint which is rendered with a perspective that is some distance away from the player’s character • Camera stays at a distance and follow the main player often known as follow camera Third Person Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  12. God of War • Games with a viewpoint in which camera changes its position and angle with respect to the current context in the game • Mostly designed and built on third person Context Sensitive Viewpoints and Camera Perspectives
  13. • Genre is a specific category of a game which is related by similar type of characteristics, objectives and features • Genre defines the classification of a game based on its attributes • Genre can also have multiple subgenres • Style is grouping of games that have similar challenges with similar methods for winning or besting the challenge • A game can have multiple types of genres and styles which can be blended together or selected one at a time Genres and Styles Game Types
  14. • Action games emphasize on series of actions performed by the player • They provide physical challenges that are mostly based on player’s eye-hand coordination and reaction time • Mostly challenge the reflexes of a player • Usually consists of continuous and fast-paced games that require quick reflexes • Sub categories in action games are Arcade, Platform, Fighting, Shooter, Beat 'em Up, Endless Runner, Stealth, Survival, etc. Action Games Genres and Styles
  15. Mortal Kombat 11
  16. • Adventure games allow player to move at his / her own pace through the various parts of the game while solving challenges and puzzles along the way • They are set in a world that is explored by the player to complete objectives with his / her own choice • Mostly consists of episode based stories • Sub categories in adventure games are Text Based Adventure, Graphical Adventure, Interactive Movie, Visual Novel, etc. Adventure Games Genres and Styles
  17. Machinarium
  18. • Action adventure games are a combination of action games and adventure games where a player explores the world and complete objectives through series of actions • They usually challenge the reflexes of a player, and engage him / her in problem solving missions and quests • They contain both physical and conceptual tasks • They have faster-paced gameplay as compared to adventure games while also solving challenges and often experiencing a detailed storyline Action Adventure Games Genres and Styles
  19. Assassin’s Creed Odyssey
  20. • Strategy games require planning, tactics and calculations from the player to solve challenges and objectives • They are totally based on players’ strategic decisions and interventions to bring the desired outcome • Mostly player’s decision making determine the outcome • Sub categories in strategy games are Puzzle, Board, 4X, Real Time Strategy (RTS), Real Time Tactics (RTT), Tower Defense, Turn Based, etc Strategy Games Genres and Styles
  21. Civilization VI
  22. • Role playing games allow player to play the role of a character in the game, which is usually set within a virtual world that is influenced by the storyline • They focus on player’s character development and narrative components • They are heavily based on storyline • Sub categories in role playing games are MMORPG, Action RPG, Tactical RPG, Sandbox RPG, etc. Role Playing Games Genres and Styles
  23. Skyrim
  24. • Simulation games recreate the experience of real world or simulate the aspects of fictional world for a player in the game • They present and imitate real life situations • They are often accompanied with simulators (hardware to help in creating and experiencing a simulation environment) • Simulation games are mostly used to help or train people • They are often used to perform analysis or make some predictions Simulation Games Genres and Styles
  25. Flight Simulator X
  26. • Sports games allow the player to experience the simulation of any particular sports of real world in the game world • Mostly these games characters, teams and objects are updated annually to reflect the changes happened in real world • They challenge the player on planning, precision and accuracy • Popular sub category in sports games is racing game which allows player to drive a car or any other type of vehicle on some kind of track Sports Games Genres and Styles
  27. Fifa 20
  28. • Temporal aspects refers to methods that define how time passes or how events are taking place inside the game • They define that how control is given to or taken away from a player inside the game with respect to time • Time management in the game • Relationship between game time and real world time • Changes in game and its challenges with the passage of time • A game can have multiple type of temporal aspects which can be blended together or selected one at a time Temporal Aspects Game Types
  29. • Following are the most common types of temporal features in modern games • Real-Time: Game time progresses continuously, and actions are performed by the players in real world time • Turn-Based: Game time is divided into turns, and actions are performed by the players on their respective turns • Time Manipulation: Player can manipulate time by taking certain actions, they can pause, rewind, forward, fast forward, etc. • Time Travel: Player can move between different points of time in the same timeline • Timed Action: Player must complete certain action in a given amount of time Temporal Aspects Game Types
  30. • Ending types refers to methods that define how a player finishes the game • It marks the completion of a game from the player’s perspective • Following are the most common types of endings in modern games • Finite: A game with a single terminal ending • Infinite: A game with no definite ending • Branching: A game with multiple endings • Post-Game: A game with bonus content unlocked after completing the game Ending Types Game Types
  31. • Learning: How quickly a player can learn and dominate a game. The learning curve and distribution of tutorials in a game for a player • Immersion: How seamlessly a player is integrated in the virtual world of a game. The perception which is created around a player • Efficiency: How time and resources are managed in a game. The structuring of challenges for a player • Satisfaction: How much a player is satisfied after playing or completing a game • Emotion: How much a game induces feelings in a player. The provocation of different feelings in a short space of time in a player Playability Gameplay and Experience
  32. • Motivation: How much a player is keen to play and complete a game. The degree of motivation which pushes a player continuously to advance in a game • Socialization: How much a game allows a player to socialize with other players Playability Gameplay and Experience
  33. Game Mechanics Space Objects Actions Goals Rules Skills Chance
  34. Game Mechanics • Defines how a game works • Describes the overall behavior of a game • Acts as the building blocks for a game • A system that defines the complete state of a game • Combination of methods that provide interaction with the game state • Relation between objects inside a game space with the help of rules which are triggered by actions using skills and chance in order to achieve goals • It consists of space, objects, actions, goals, rules, skills, and chance
  35. • The universe of a game is called its space • A super set containing all the objects of a game • Defines a place or a combination of places inside a game • It can be a scene, level or a map • Properties of space: • Type: Discrete or continuous on a scale • Dimension: 1D, 2D or 3D • Boundedness: Unbounded or bounded with connected areas Space Game Mechanics
  36. • Type: Discrete • Dimension: 2D • Boundedness: Bounded Chess by Apple Space Game Mechanics • Type: Continuous • Dimension: 3D • Boundedness: Unbounded Temple Run 2 Space Game Mechanics
  37. • Anything that can be seen or manipulated in a game is an object • Something that can be drawn or updated • Space acts as a super container of objects in a game • Properties of object: • Attributes: Contain information about the object • State: Set of current values of object’s attributes • Behaviors: Functionality that an object can perform depending on its state • Game state is a set of current states of all the objects in its space Objects Game Mechanics
  38. • Chess board • White pawns and pieces • Black pawns and pieces Chess by Apple Objects Game Mechanics • Player’s characters • Coins, power ups, etc. • Environment, path, tress, etc. Temple Run 2 Objects Game Mechanics
  39. • Interaction of a player with a game by doing some activity on objects is an action • Define what a player does in a game • What operations a player can do in a game • Verbs of a player in a game • Choices a player can make in a game • Possible activities of a player • Actions can change the state of a game and the state of objects • Usually actions define the basic controls of objects in a game Actions Game Mechanics
  40. • Player’s turn • Move pawn or piece left, right, forward, backward, diagonal, etc. Chess by Apple Actions Game Mechanics • Player’s movement • Move left or right • Jump or slide Temple Run 2 Actions Game Mechanics
  41. • Objective in a game that a player will try to achieve by performing actions is a goal • Winning conditions in a game • Guidelines of goal: • Should be well defined, measurable and incremental • Can be broken down into different steps if its too large • Provide some feedback and closure • Give reward in any form after completion such as coins, badges, level ups, etc. • Must be attainable and not boring Goals Game Mechanics
  42. • Checkmate opponent’s king first Chess by Apple Goals Game Mechanics • Obtain high score Temple Run 2 Goals Game Mechanics
  43. • Regulation that a player follows in a game while performing actions in order to achieve goals is a rule • How a player can perform operations in a game • Laws and rulings in a game • Fundamental principles of a game • Consequences of the actions • Constraints on the actions and the goals • Restrictions in a game, what player can and can’t do Rules Game Mechanics
  44. • Rook only moves in straight direction • Bishop only moves in diagonal direction • Etc. Chess by Apple Rules Game Mechanics • Player runs on the path • Player falls down if there is no path • Etc. Temple Run 2 Rules Game Mechanics
  45. • Player’s ability acquired through some effort to do something well in a game is a skill • Player’s capacity to perform well in a game after experience • Skills are improved gradually as the player spends time in a game • Expertise or talent used in playing the game • Types of skill: • Physical: Strength, dexterity, coordination, and physical endurance • Mental: Memory, observation, problem solving and decision making • Social: Communication, coordination and guessing opponent moves Skills Game Mechanics
  46. • Mental skills • Social skills Chess by Apple Skills Game Mechanics • Physical skills only Temple Run 2 Skills Game Mechanics
  47. • Element of surprise for a player in a game is a chance • Randomness factor inside a game • Uncertainty of events happening in a game • Unpredictable changes in state of a game • Output of game is influenced by some randomization • Properties of chance: • Outcome: It is either discrete or continuous • Type: It can be either completely random or controlled by some probability or biasness Chance Game Mechanics
  48. • No chance Chess by Apple Chance Game Mechanics • Chance • Random procedurally generated path • Obstacles and coins appear randomly Temple Run 2 Chance Game Mechanics
  49. Narrative Storytelling Textual Pictorial Textual and Pictorial Cutscenes In-game Conversations Storyline Linear Endless Non Linear Open End
  50. Narrative • Story of a game that tells how the game progresses • Game has an interactive story where a player is continuously active and often involved in the decision making throughout the storyline • Explains what is happening and why things happen the way they do in a game • Series of connected or related events inside a game • Script of a game which can contain the dialogues and actions • Narrative is mostly categorized into two types • Embedded: Narration that does not depend on player’s interaction with the game • Emergent: Narration that depends on player’s interaction with the game
  51. • Storytelling by using paragraphs or sentences on game screen • Can be with or without sound Textual Storytelling Mass Effect Andromeda
  52. • Storytelling by using images and illustration on game screen • Can be with or without sound Pictorial Storytelling Angry Birds
  53. • Storytelling by using combined textual and pictorial method • Can be with or without sound Textual and Pictorial Storytelling XCOM Enemy Within / Enemy Unknown
  54. • Storytelling by using in-game movies or animations with sound on game screen • Non-interactive sequences in a game, also known as cinematics Cutscenes Storytelling Uncharted 4
  55. • Storytelling by using in-game conversations during the actual gameplay • Usually consist of dialogs from game characters In-game Conversations Storytelling Days Gone Mass Effect Andromeda
  56. Linear Types of Story Endless Types of Story • Story where a player start at one point and go straight to the end in a sequence with single (finite) ending • Story where a player start at one point and keep on going infinitely in a sequence with no (infinite) ending Non Linear Types of Story Open Ended Types of Story • Story where a player start at one or multiple points and it changes due to the decisions made by a player in a sequence with either a single (finite) ending or multiple (branching) endings • Story where a player start at one or multiple points and it allows a player to progress in different directions without a sequence with either a single (finite) ending or multiple (branching) endings
  57. Aesthetics Artistic Style Typography Interface Sound Tracks and Effects Tactile
  58. Aesthetics • Visual, aural and haptic experience that a player encounters in a game • Way a game presents itself to a player • Overall look and feel of a game • Make a game look more appealing • How the content of a game is presented • Define an overall theme for a game • Contributes in stimulation of feelings inside a player • Modern games contain many different and multiple type of aesthetics
  59. • Every game follows a particular artistic style which uses specific drawing techniques for creating visuals inside a game • The manner in which graphics of a game are portrayed • A style is defined by characteristics that describe the artwork • Defines that how the artwork looks inside a game • The visual appearance method of art • Presents the recognizable mood in graphics • Modern games create their own art style documentations and follows them Artistic Style Aesthetics
  60. Cell Shaded Art Style (Borderlands 3, Telltale Batman) Pixel Art Style (Stardew Valley, FEZ)
  61. Low Poly / Flat Shaded Art Style (Morphite, Astroneer) Photorealistic Art Style (Metro Exodus, Battlefield V)
  62. • It is the visual appearance of text that defines letter, typeface and font design in a game • Used to present textual information, titles, scores, statistics, interface labels, etc. in a game • Usually compatible with the overall art style and genre of a game Typography Aesthetics Anthem Splinter Cell Convictions
  63. • It provides the interaction between the player and the game • Consists of windows, menus, controls, tabs, icons, buttons, text fields, etc. in a game • Usually compatible with the overall art style and genre of a game Interface Aesthetics Anthem Red Dead Redemption 2
  64. • Aurals (natural or artificially reproduced) to support visuals or create effects in a game • Consists of music, speech, sound effects, etc. in a game • Usually compatible with the overall art style and genre of a game Sound Tracks and Effects Aesthetics • It provides the interactivity through tangible means using bodily sensations in a game • Consists of touch, force touch, joysticks, controllers, vibrations, etc. in a game • Usually aligned with the overall gameplay Tactile Aesthetics
  65. Level Design Level Types Level Components
  66. Level Design • Process of planning and creating space (level) inside a game that is available to a player during a specific object or through out the complete game • Activity of creating playable content for a player in a game • Guidelines of level design: • Each level must have at least one entry point • Each level must have at least one exit point (if story type is not endless) • Design of all levels should be consistent and compatible with the genre of a game • Level should be pleasing, engaging and guide the player throughout the storyline • Level should cover its boundaries in a natural way • Level should not repeat the content over and over again
  67. • Linear: Player only follows a scripted path or area inside a level (for linear story type) • Endless: Player moves continuously inside a infinite level (for endless story type) • Open World: Player can roam freely inside a level (for non linear / open ended story type) Level Types Level Design Linear (Need For Speed: The Run) Open World (GTA V)
  68. • Landscape: Terrains (soils, deserts, snow, etc.), skies (clear, cloudy, foggy, smoky, etc.), landforms (plains, mountains, hills, plateaus, valleys, islands, etc.), water bodies (sea, rivers, lakes, ponds, etc.), and vegetation (grass, trees, plants, flowers, forests, etc.) • Environment: Weather (sunny, cloudy, rainy, windy, snowy, etc.), lightning (day, night, afternoon, evening, etc.), natural elements (fog, smoke, fire, etc.) and ambience (war, fantasy, retro, science fiction, medieval, dark, horror, post apocalyptic, etc.) • Objects: Structures (cities, towns, buildings, etc.), items (furniture, vehicles, etc.), paths (roads, streets, passages, etc.), and pickups (weapons, coins, power ups, health packs, etc.), units (players, enemies, etc.) • Regions: Zones (safe zones, battle zones, etc.), Points (checkpoints, spawn points, etc.) Level Design Level Components
  69. God of War
  70. God of War
  71. References • The Art of Game Design - Jesse Schell • Game Design Essentials - Briar Lee Mitchell • Challenges for Game Designers - Brenda Brathwaite, Ian Schreiber • What We Talk About When We Talk About Game Aesthetics - Simon Niedenthal