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Fine art report pro forma

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Fine art report pro forma

  1. 1. Photography and Digital Manipulation Report
  2. 2. Summary I will be utilizing architectural photography to create fine art images depicting images of buildings, churches, houses and other similar structures in my fine art project. Architectural Photography mainly involves capturing photos of structures like these, representing them accurately and making them look as visually intriguing as possible rather than taking photos of subjects, although I could always photograph someone stood in front of a building in a low-angle shot. The reason I have decided to utilize architectural photography is because a wide range of options are available in regard to what I can capture, especially in a location such as York where there are lots of buildings, houses and bridges that can be photographed. I also think that images of buildings are very likely to intrigue the customer and evoke emotion. For example, I could represent them so that they look dark and menacing to evoke fear, or I could represent them positively. This shows that there are many ways to create meaning using images of structures. From this report, I hope to gain a great deal of insight into the advantages of capturing images of architecture; this will help me to generate ideas regarding the types of buildings I can photograph and I will also be provided with different ways to create meaning within my images. I will analyse two different photographers as well as images they have captured themselves; this will enable me to obtain useful information about architecture e.g. the best camera angle to use, how to frame my images or use leading/diagonal lines. During my analysis, I will be comparing the techniques both photographers have utilized in their images to find out which ones are the best for me to use whilst taking images of my own.
  3. 3. Page Content 2 Summary 3 Index 4 Techniques and Conventions 5 Techniques and Conventions (Continued) 6 Visual Analysis: Roger Fenton 7 Roger Fenton: Image 1 8 Roger Fenton: Image 2 9 Roger Fenton: Image 3 10 Visual Analysis: Dennis Gilbert 11 Dennis Gilbert: Image 1 12 Dennis Gilbert: Image 2 13 Dennis Gilbert: Image 3 14 Market 15 Conclusion 16 Bibliography Index
  4. 4. Architectural Photography primarily revolves around the accurate representation of buildings and similar structures. An aesthetically pleasing image is needed to intrigue the customer(s), therefore photographers will need to carry out a wide range of techniques to ensure a visually pleasing representation of a building is accomplished, especially in regard to taking the photos and the post-production process e.g. cropping or alteration of lighting. Specific techniques and conventions are required for the photographer and these could be useful for ensuring the images he/she creates are unique, quite distinctive from existing works and reflecting professional standards. Camera Settings: Certain manual camera settings are needed for the photographer to carry out the process of capturing images of structures successfully. The photographer will be required to set the camera to manual mode, which is indicated by the letter ‘M’ on the main dial for the camera. Shooting in manual mode can be considered an advantage because it means that the photographer does not need to rely heavily on the camera itself in regard to metering the scene. This would determine the manner of the optimal exposure. In other words, every DSLR camera has an integrated light meter which measures the reflected light e.g. using ‘Matrix’ or ‘Evaluative’ metering modes. Secondly, the photographer will have to set the aperture to f/11 (with the highest being f/22 and the lowest being f/2) and the ISO to ISO100 (the highest ISO would be above ISO1500). Alteration of both aperture and ISO will determine depth of field and film speed respectively, therefore providing the photographer with a wide angle view and high quality images. Both have the potential to create accurate representations of buildings. Lenses/Focal Length: To capture accurate and detailed images of buildings, the photographer should aim for the widest possible angle of view so that they can depict an entire structure within an image. To accomplish this, a wide angle lens is generally used; these are ideal for capturing large objects such as buildings, as well as the scenery of a countryside in great detail. The wide angle lens would benefit the photographer, especially if he/she is hoping to represent the entirety of a structure within an image with the primary purpose of intriguing someone to buy/stay in the property. Wide angle lenses tend to be 10-34 mm; this focal length ensures that the photographer can capture a visually appealing image whilst being positioned some distance away. Equipment: Certain types of equipment can be used along with the camera itself. A polarizing filter would be an ideal piece of equipment to place onto the front glass element of the camera; this is because polarizing filters not only allow for deeper colours within the image, but also decrease things like reflections and glare from the sun. This can be severe, especially when taking pictures of structures mostly consisting of glass windows. The sunlight reflecting from the windows could potentially decrease the quality of the image because the huge presence of light can cause the image to appear severely overexposed. Using a polarizing filter can prevent this from occurring. UV (Ultraviolet) Filters can also be used to prevent too much light entering the camera. Alternatively, a tripod can be used to stabilize the camera and make it easier for the photographer to capture an image of a building without having to stay as still as possible. Techniques and Conventions
  5. 5. Techniques and Conventions (CONT.)  Subject Matter: Architectural Photography does not deal with the capturing of subjects posing in a specific way; the application is based primarily on photographing buildings and similar structures. There are various topics that can be dealt with using the application. First of all, a company might be hoping to sell a house within an estate. Architectural photographs of a specific property would be taken in order to advertise the property and representing it in a positive manner, putting forward all the qualities and capturing as much of the structure as possible i.e. ensuring the house fits within the frame. This could increase the chances of the customer deciding to buy the house. Another topic that can be explored is the promotion of a holiday resort or hotel which can be accomplished through use of images depicting the locations, with lighting and alteration of colour used to create a positive atmosphere. These architectural images would most likely be found within leaflets, on websites and all over the Internet. This means that the images are very likely to attract a wide range of people and convince them to stay at the resort or hotel. The application can also be used to depict the aspects of a city e.g. landmarks such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris with the likely purpose of convincing people to visit. This puts architectural photography at an advantage compared to other applications because a wide range of structures can be captured and the images can be used by companies with the purpose of advertisement and promotion, as well as to make money through selling properties and convince people to holiday in a specific place.  Lighting: When capturing images of buildings, it is ideal to turn off the pop-up flash on top of the camera. The pop-up flash draws power from the camera’s battery and can give off a harsh and direct light as a photo is taken. The reason this should be turned off is because it will have little to no effect regarding the illumination of buildings, mainly due to their immense size and because the photographer will have to position themselves a fair distance away from the structure (whilst using a wide angle lens). Because the flash won’t have any effect on the subject, it is therefore useless and leaving it on could drain the camera’s battery unnecessarily. Depending on the type of image one hopes to create, high or low key lighting can be employed during the post-production process in order to create meaning. For example, low key lighting can be used to create a dark and foreboding atmosphere for a building, especially if the weather is grim e.g. cloudy or rainy. Another thing in regard to lighting could be the overall exposure of the image, which is usually determined by the alteration of shutter speed on the camera. Using a manual setting on the camera, the correct shutter speed can be chosen by the photographer. The shutter speed determines how long the image sensor is exposed to light, thus also determines whether or not the image will appear under/overexposed. For example, if the shutter speed is fast, the image sensor will only be exposed to light for a short period of time. This will increase the chances of the photographer being able to obtain the correct exposure, and therefore a good quality.  Compositional Techniques: Architectural Photographers may use a variety of compositional techniques within their images. These can be considered very important for the photographer; “Understanding composition is something that every photographer should take time to do” according to the site http://photography.tutsplus.com/articles/14-composition-techniques-that-will-instantly-improve-your-photos--photo-7978. This quote suggests that photographers should aim to create something unique within their own images and ensure their work is quite distinct from that of other photographers. Enhancing the quality of their images is very important if they are to attract customers, especially if the images represent certain forms of architecture e.g. houses. A good example of a compositional technique that can be used for architectural photography is leading lines. This technique utilizes the outlines of a structure within an image; these lines help to lead the customer’s eye into the principle focus of the image. Buildings and similar structures are beneficial for the photographer because their outlines provide the best way for the photographer to align his/her images. Another compositional technique for the photographer to consider is contrast within subject matter; for example, the principle focus of the image may be completely unrelated to its surroundings e.g. a dark-coloured building in relation to the cloudy sky above. This helps to create juxtaposition within the image.
  6. 6. Francis Frith (October 7, 1822 – February 25, 1898) Francis Frith was a British photographer who ‘dedicated himself entirely to photography’ and captured numerous images within towns and villages in the United Kingdom and places in the Middle East. He possessed great interest in photography and was formerly a successful printer and grocer. He was also a founding member of the Liverpool Photographic Society; a group of keen photographers aiming to promote new ideas and improve their own skills in the area of photography in the year 1853. In 1855, Frith sold his companies so that he could fulfil his own ambitious goals, which involved departing to other countries to shoot and publish his own images of architecture, landscapes etc. Frith has travelled to various places, including Egypt, Palestine, Syria and the Middle East. During his travels, he has captured a huge amount of images depicting things like temples, bridges and churches. In the year 1860, Firth embarked on a massive project to further his goals; it involved capturing images of historical sights at every town and village in the United Kingdom. This shows that Frith was a highly influential person, primarily because of how determined he was in the area of photography. His firm became one of the largest photographic studios in the world as it was based in over a thousand shops selling his images in the form of postcards. Frith mostly utilized the wide angle lens so that he could obtain as much detail regarding a landscape or a large, historical structure as possible; Frith seemed to use this lens in most of his images with the likely purpose of making it easy to capture entire structures. He also used the collodion process; this involved pouring a solution onto a thin iron or glass plate before exposing it to the light. Visual Analysis
  7. 7. Image 1 This is an image of the Egyptian landscape captured by Frith in 1858. The image shows off Frith’s primary intention to capture the monumentality of Egypt, as well as the monumentality of other countries during his travels. The main theme of this image is the Egyptian desert; there is significant focus on things like sand and stone within the photograph. The primary subject of the image seems to be some of Egypt’s monumental structures; including the pyramid and the statue of the Sphinx. A wide angle lens has been used by the photographer to ensure that every aspect of the pyramid and statue are depicted fully and in great detail in relation to the surrounding desert. The image can be considered representational because it shows off landmarks which are easily recognizable. It is clearly a candid, or observational image because the photographer has captured the structures as how they appear naturally; the image is not staged in any way and the elements within it are not influenced at all. The ‘rule of thirds’ principle has clearly been used as well. This is evident due to the fact that the Sphinx appears on one of the intersecting points for the four imaginary lines in the image. The fact that the main focus on the image does not appear in the centre creates tension because a sense of dynamism is created i.e. the space and laws of the material world are implied in different ways within the image. There is presence of an organic shape within the photograph; the pyramid. The pyramid can be considered organic because it is a shape which doesn’t have well-defined edges and is a natural object itself. The shape helps to create a ‘natural’ feel because it represents an aspect of the landscape. The pyramid also strongly relates to architecture because it is a man-made structure that has been photographed along with the Sphinx which is also a man-made structure. Within the image, the contours of the pyramid are shown in detail i.e. the outlines of the structure which represent it as a natural shape. The contours create meaning because they represent the general structure of the landmark in great detail, thus providing an accurate representation of reality. The aspects of the image are balanced because they are all of the same proportions; for example, the pyramid has a significant relationship to the Sphinx statue and the sand around it. They all seem to share the same colours (e.g. brown) and texture (e.g. sand and stone). This helps to establish a relationship between the desert and the structures built within it and It suggests that Frith was attempting to convey how old the structures are in relation to the desert itself. The vantage point for the photographer is clearly a high position overlooking the desert; the position offers a good view of the desert and this benefits the image because a clear and wide perspective has been offered. This ensures that many aspects of the desert fit within the frame. The image has obviously been framed carefully by the photographer, as evidenced by the fact that his position has had a significant impact on the manner in which the principle subjects have been focused. The image creates meaning because it implies how old the man-made structures are in strong relation to their surroundings; it is implied that it has not rained in this location for a long time. The image can also be considered passive, primarily due to the fact that there is not a lot to focus on. The outlines of the pyramid can be considered leading lines because they help to guide the customer’s eye towards the top of the structure; also the highest point within the image.
  8. 8. Image 2 This is one of the many images taken by Francis Frith during his ‘colossal project to capture every town and village in the United Kingdom. Although Frith’s main desire was to photograph historical structures within these locations, he also captured images of interesting sights. This image depicts a row of houses on a street corner. It also creates meaning; the fact that the photograph is black-and white implies the time period in which Frith took the photo, in an age where colour in film and photographs didn’t exist yet. The presence of an old-fashioned looking car within the photo supports this even further. Composition has been used within the photo; all the visual elements have been arranged carefully in the frame so that the image looks visually appealing to the customer. This has been accomplished by the position Frith chose to take, as well as the manner in which he framed the image so that the houses and the street are depicted accurately. Frith has framed the image so that the customer is able to identify both sides of the street as well as the aspects of both sides. Even though there is no colour, it is clearly a sunny day and the sunlight is shown to be reflecting off the windows of the houses. This shows that Frith was also able to position himself so that he could capture the glare from the sun in the windows. There is a lot of detail within the photo regarding the aspects of the buildings e.g. the black and white sidings. The image is passive; there are no people present in the image whatsoever and there isn’t a lot to focus on. This can be considered an advantage because the customer does not have too much to look at and the image itself looks simple. There is some repetition within the photo; the black and white sidings on the facades of the houses seem to repeat numerous times, thus creating a pattern of some kind. It also helps to establish a sense of continuity within the image itself regarding the row of houses and the way they all look. A high aperture setting has clearly been used within the camera e.g. f/9. This is evident due to the fact that the image appears slightly overexposed. The possible reason for this is because the photographer wanted to provide emphasis on the sunny day, especially as there will have been no way to represent the sunlight in full colour due to lack of innovation regarding cameras at the time. The high aperture setting results in specific areas of the photo (particularly the white awnings on the shops) appearing as very bright in comparison to other parts of the photo. Only the available, or ambient light has been utilized by the photographer within the image. There are no lamps present at all within the image that would provide artificial lighting. The use of a high aperture setting has clearly helped Frith to convey the impact of the sunlight on the scene; the sunlight can be considered as a form of natural, ambient lighting. The image is candid/observational. Frith has clearly not staged it in any way and there are no subjects present within the image, posing in a specific manner. The image has been captured as how it appears naturally; the elements within It have not been influenced. The tone of the image is quite grim because of a lack of colour which could add a great deal of quality to the photo and its aspects. The general attitude of the location seems foreboding in some way, mainly due to the fact that there is no one within the image and the place looks abandoned. The effect this helps to create is that the image evokes emotion within the customer because they might find it difficult to relate the aspects of the image with how they see things in real life today.
  9. 9. Image 3 This is another image taken by Francis Frith during his travels across the United Kingdom. The image strongly relates to architecture because there is significant focus on the bridge in the background in strong relation to other structures in the town, as well as people living within the town. The bridge seems to stand out amongst every other aspect of the photo. A wide-angle lens has clearly been used by Frith in this image; every aspect of this section of town is shown in great detail and there are a lot of things present within the frame. Frith clearly took up a vantage point at a high location (possibly from the top of a vehicle) so that he could obtain a detailed and accurate image representing the aspects of everyday life. The image appears very busy as there is a lot to focus on, including the people, the vehicles and the structures. However, the primary subject of the image is the bridge in the background as it is the largest structure that appears within the image. The support cables on the bridge create a sense of repetition because a continuous pattern is created by the same line repeating over and over on the structure. Also in regard to the bridge, there is symmetry. Putting aside all other elements of the image, one could draw an imaginary line down the centre of the structure and realize that the aspects of the bridge visually reflect each other on both sides of the imaginary line. This adds to the aesthetic quality of the image’s primary subject and also makes the location appear intriguing. The presence of lines within the image not only does well to establish the outlines of pavements, paving stones etc. but also creates a strong sense of movement and energy within the photo, especially in regard to the traffic and the people walking in different directions. There is significant contrast within the image, as shown by the strong visual differences between specific areas. For example, many areas of the image appear dark e.g. the vehicles and the shadow cast by the ship on the river compared to the sky above the town which appears bright. This creates a strong sense of juxtaposition within the image regarding how grim the aspects of the street are in relation to the sunny day. The presence of shadows indicates the sunlight casting them from vehicles within the photo. The fact that the image is black and white helps to create meaning because it conveys the aspects of everyday life in a specific period of time in the past. It can be assumed that this image takes place a long time ago e.g. in the 1940s due to the fact that there is no colour within the image. This suggests the level of technological innovation at the time. The image is clearly candid/observational because everyone within the image is not posed in a specific way. It is obvious that the people within the image are not aware that they are being photographed, therefore they are simply captured as going through the aspects of everyday life and also as how they appear naturally. Only the available, ambient lighting has been used within the photo (the sunlight). This therefore ensures that the image is an accurate visual representation of everyday life, not altered in any way.
  10. 10. Dennis Gilbert Dennis Gilbert is a British photographer who specializes in capturing images of architecture and representing them accurately and in a positive light so that they are as intriguing as possible for other people to look at. The images he captures tend to convey the breathtaking and immense nature of structures in many different cities; he photographs both the interior and exterior elements of buildings, representing them as equally to each other as possible in regard to quality as shown within his images. As of recent times, Gilbert has been utilizing architectural photography for more than 20 years to produce eye-catching images. He has become internationally recognized and therefore highly well-known. He has travelled to many different countries including Germany, China, Japan, Iceland and South Africa to work on a wide range of projects. These projects primarily involve Parliament and office buildings, as well as concerts. The images he takes are then submitted to publishers globally; Gilbert works in a London-based picture library featuring architectural images. This highlights his employment. His work is known for communicating subject matter successfully in terms of style, atmosphere and texture. Gilbert’s main desire in photography is to create ‘lasting and memorable portraits’ of every building he captures. He generally accomplishes this through using low-key lighting, black and white and alteration of image contrast in order to improve the way people perceive the images, as well as to create historic restorations. To accomplish this further, Gilbert does not superimpose any aesthetics onto his images; this indicates that he bears in mind how accurate his images should be i.e. not misleading in any way. This is important because the application he specializes in is architecture and this primarily revolves around the representation of buildings and similar structures. The images should be accurate, especially if they are being supplied to a company that is trying to sell a property, advertise a hotel for someone to stay in etc. Visual Analysis
  11. 11. Image 1This is one of Dennis Gilbert’s architectural images depicting an exterior section of a building, most likely a place of education. A wide angle lens has been used by the photographer so that a wide perspective of a certain section of the building has been provided. This has had an obvious benefit on the image as the people on the staircase are depicted in strong relation to the aspects of the building. Almost all of the staircase is visible as a result of using the wide angle lens; this highlights the main advantages of using the lens in regard to obtaining great detail. There is clear repetition within the image; the wooden sidings of the building repeat and create an accurate and continuous pattern down the side of the building. This further enhances the quality of the image because it creates a strong sense of rhythm. The image appears somewhat overexposed; most likely as a direct result of choosing a slightly high aperture setting prior to shooting the image. The possible purpose of this might have been to exaggerate the sun’s glare on the side of the building as well as the shadow cast by the stairs. The image also appears to be candid/observational because the people on the stairs seem unaware of the photographer’s presence and also because the image isn’t staged at all. This implies a fully accurate representation of the structure in a manner that isn’t misleading in any way. The central focus of the image seems to be the people climbing the staircase; the staircase appears to be the most prominent aspect of the image i.e. the most out-standing aspect of the building. It looks significantly different in comparison to the rest of the building, therefore there is contrasting effect. The fact that the staircase stands out could convey the fact that it has the most significance on the structure as people can access it. Also, the contrast within the image does well to provide increased aspects for the customer to interact with and also creates juxtaposition. The use of diagonal lines within the image helps to draw the customer’s eye through the photograph to a certain point of the image. In this image, the handrail on the stairs acts as a diagonal line because it helps to ‘guide’ the viewer up the staircase and all the way up to the door which is possibly the main entrance. The diagonal line also does well to create a strong impression of movement, especially in regard to the amount of people heading up the stairs. The image appears to be ‘busy’ because there is a lot to focus on, including the people, the staircase, the metal bars on the windows and the wooden sidings for the building. This shows that there is a lot of visual information within the image for the customer to interact with, and the fact that the staircase is crowded supports the fact that the image is busy even further. There is also an implication of geometric shapes within the image; there is presence of triangles which are formed by the handrails on the staircase. The presence of shapes like these helps to add to the visual quality of the image. The implied vantage point for the photographer is on the ground; Gilbert will have been positioned a fair distance away from the staircase; he will have also framed the image in order to get an accurate and detailed representation regarding the key aspects of the structure, including the windows. The tone of the image is fairly positive; a happy atmosphere encompasses the scene. This is mostly due to the presence of colour within the image, as well as the sunlight. There is no tension whatsoever within the image and only the ambient lighting has been used in regard to the sun. This helps to create a fully accurate representation of reality because the image is not staged through use of things like artificial lamps.
  12. 12. Image 2This is another one of Dennis Gilbert’s images; like the first image, it represents architecture, however this one is different because it depicts an interior location. There doesn’t seem to be a primary focus within the image, but it looks very appealing due to the presence of different colours such as red, green, black and yellow in strong contrast with the other aspects of the building e.g. the stairs. The presence of colours helps to create connotation e.g. green suggests well-being whilst red suggests danger. The colours belong to flags of different countries, most notably Jamaica, Brazil and Mexico which are not fully developed countries. This helps to create meaning because it suggests the number of different countries Gilbert himself has travelled to through the years. The fact that the flags belong to different countries suggests that the location is an airport or government building. This helps to highlight the numerous types of locations Gilbert has captured on camera. The use of diagonal lines within the image(the handrails on the stairs) helps to guide the customer’s eye through a specific part of the image; these lines intersect with other lines so as to create ‘points of interest’ within the image. The use of diagonal lines also helps to create rhythm within the image. The ‘rule of thirds’ technique has been used within the image; the image appears to have been separated into three different sections. The customer’s eye would be drawn to the right section of the image (where the flags and their intriguing colours are) rather than the centre of the image. The fact that the bright colours of the flags draw the customer’s eye to the right side of the image helps to create tension because the customer would remain focused away from the people in the image and what is implied to be going on within it. A relatively slow shutter speed has been used by the photographer e.g. less than ½ a second. Due to a slow shutter speed, the camera has had time to record the movement of the people at the location as they walk in different directions. An illusion has been created of a screenshot of fast-motion (which is sometimes seen within films). This is very effective because it creates a strong impression of time passing a lot quicker than usual; this creates meaning because it represents the day-to-day activities of people working within the location. The image itself appears quite busy as it is depicting the activities of people in the location and also provides the customer with a lot to focus on. This generally means that the image offers a wide range of information and depicts the location as a bustling place rather than somewhere that is empty and looks abandoned. If this was the case, the image would be passive. The image is candid/observational. The location is clearly depicted in the exact way as it appears in real life. The people within the image might not be aware that they are being photographed, therefore the image has not been staged by the photographer. It is therefore a naturalistic image i.e. it imitates something that is not artificial or controlled.
  13. 13. Image 3 This image, taken by Dennis Gilbert, depicts the Shard; a skyscraper located in Southwark, London. The image has clearly been taken in the evening and also from a great distance away regarding the structure. The building is easily recognizable, therefore this image is more likely to attract the eye of the customer than other images depicting random houses or churches (Gilbert has also captured these on his travels). His implied vantage point within this image is a rooftop a great distance away from the Shard; the likely reason why Gilbert decided to position himself in this way is because he desired to capture all of the structure in relation to surrounding structures. Therefore, contrasting effect is created regarding the size of the Shard and the size of the buildings below which seem tiny compared to it. This does well to enhance the representation of the skyscraper, which is depicted as of having significant importance. The wide-angle lens has clearly been used so that Gilbert could easily capture the whole of the Shard, allowing the entire building to fit within the frame. The image has been framed so that the moon is shown within the image, along with the rooftops of adjacent buildings as well as the Shard itself. This means that there is a lot to focus on within the image regarding the customer. There is use of leading lines within the photo; the outlines of the Shard help to provide a sense of direction and they guide the eye of the customer up the sides of the structure and all the way to the top. The presence of lines in this manner could do well to convey the sheer size of the Shard itself; further emphasizing on the fact that it stands taller than other structures and is ‘dominant’ in this manner. The image is captured as how it appears naturally, therefore it is a candid/observational image. The elements within the image are not influenced whatsoever; the only things that are in focus are buildings, captured as how they appear naturally. The primary focus of this image is the Shard, despite the fact that it is not centrally focused. In fact, tension is created because the eyes of the customer are drawn away from other aspects of the image. The image appears slightly underexposed; and it might be that the image was captured at an earlier time during the day. This is evidenced by the fact that a low aperture setting was selected by Gilbert, therefore too little light was able to enter the image sensor within the camera as the photo was taken. The image creates meaning, primarily because it emphasizes the time of day and how the Shard stands out against the sky as it starts to darken. Due to the fact that the glass façade of the building is in focus, the customer can easily notice the reflections of other buildings in the glass; these buildings are clearly behind the photographer and this implication could create tension because the Shard isn’t the only building in the city, even though it is the only tall structure that is depicted.
  14. 14. MarketArchitectural Prints could be sold at a variety of different places, mostly with the purpose of promoting a location to visit, selling a specific property e.g. a house or advertise a holiday resort. When it comes to designing and constructing buildings, architectural prints could be sold as portraits to architects/builders with the purpose of providing inspiration. The reason why a company might sell architectural images in this way is because they have authorized the production of something i.e. they are commissioning a location to build. Portraits could also be sold with the purpose of advertising a property; most often with the hopes that someone will purchase it. Specific forms of print media e.g. portraits and leaflets can be found in shops, specifically in windows for people walking past to see. The leaflets are often free. The internet is a good place to sell architectural prints because it is massive and millions of people use it; there are a lot of options on the internet as well i.e. many different ways to advertise a product. Online websites are a good place to promote buildings and similar structures; these sites will usually feature a visually pleasing image of a building to intrigue the customer. The website could convince people to buy a property or visit a city e.g. an image might feature the Shard (one of Gilbert’s images) and convince people to visit London because it shows off some of the interesting sights of the city. Stock Photography is also a good way to sell architectural images because they are made commercially available; therefore, anyone can purchase them. Prints like these tend to be sold on a royalty-free basis i.e. not covered by copyright and depict things like events, landscapes and buildings. Things like architecture can be depicted and sold easily in this manner. Architectural images are very likely to appeal to anyone; they are mere depictions of buildings and should not be deemed as inappropriate or disturbing in any way e.g. for young children to look at. When considering the fact that adults tend to be more mature in making decisions and have the money (and also jobs) to buy a house or stay somewhere, architectural prints are more likely to attract them. Adults could then decide what action to take regarding moving somewhere else, especially in regard to what is best for their own children. Both males and females should find that architectural images apply to them, because anyone can purchase a specific property and there would always be something in the property that would appeal to both genders. The same thing applies to people wanting to go on holiday; there is almost always something for everyone. People living at Social Grade ABC1 or Upper Class should find that images of this kind appeal to them, mainly because they are at a certain level of employment which makes them more likely to be able to afford a property, as well as pay for a holiday. People at the ‘working class’ category might find it more difficult and frustrating to afford a property, therefore it is not as easy for them. However, people living at upper class are very likely to be able to afford a property due to having a professional job and being able to earn a great deal of money. When it comes to choosing where to go on holiday, people tend to be influenced by images of architecture which depict a hotel or the resort from a wide angle and use post-production techniques to make it look as appealing as possible. These images would cater for different interests; this means that everyone will have a specific type of place in mind. For example, some people might wish to holiday somewhere within the U.K. whilst someone else might desire to stay at a resort in another country e.g. Spain. Architectural images can depict places to go on holiday in a wide variety of ways to ensure that the holiday resort they are attempting to advertise appeals to as many people as possible. People living within a specific geographical location, specifically an urban area e.g. a city are likely to find that images of skyscrapers and crowded interior locations seem similar to their place they live in, therefore they will be able to relate to the images even more. Therefore, images depicting the aspects of an urban area are likely to appeal to an even greater number of people; these images would also do well to promote a place like a city and convince people to visit.
  15. 15. ConclusionI will use a wide range of different compositional techniques within my images during my fine art project. Based on the research I have undertaken, I will attempt to make my images look as visually and aesthetically pleasing as possible. This can be easily accomplished through framing my images carefully so that all of a specific structure is captured and not just a specific section. I will be using the wide-angle lens to obtain a wide perspective of a building and capture it in relation to its surroundings; this will enable me to provide contrasting effect within low-angle shot my images. Another good camera technique to utilize is the which would enable me to represent buildings as imposing and dominant structures. I will also utilize a low shutter speed and a fairly low aperture setting (unless it is a sunny day). Selecting a low shutter speed will allow me to obtain high-quality images of buildings, as well as avoid camera shake which could have an impact on the quality of my images. These camera techniques will have a strong benefit on my images, primarily because I will be able to capture visually intriguing images for my fine art project. There is a wide range of compositional techniques that can be used in my images. I will be using leading lines when capturing images of interior locations e.g. hallways, as well as diagonal lines when capturing images of stairways (both interior and exterior). The use of lines in this manner would help to guide the customer’s eye through an image; I intend to use the leading lines technique so that I can establish the outlines of certain structures and create a sense of direction within an image; this would apply to random people within an interior location e.g. a train station. I will also use repetition within my image; this will allow me to create patterns within an image e.g. using lines and geometric shapes such as triangles. These shapes could be found on a bridge and would most likely allow me to provide rhythm within my image. Providing contrast within my images is a good way to intrigue the customer because juxtaposition would be created; this could allow more aspects for the customer to interact with. Another good compositional technique to use in my images is the ‘rule of thirds’ principle. The main reason why I have decided to use the rule of thirds is because I want to create tension; this can be accomplished if the primary subject e.g. a tall structure is positioned to the left or right of the image rather than the centre because it would draw the eye of the customer away from other aspects of the image (such as surrounding structures). Obtaining information about architectural photography was beneficial because it provided me with a great deal of information regarding compositional techniques, as well as insight as to what conventions I could employ to improve the quality of my images and make them look visually appealing to the customer. My research has also given me a great deal of confidence; I didn’t have as much knowledge regarding compositional techniques and their benefits before I conducted my research on existing images and artists. My research has, in essence, allowed me to expand on the amount of options I could use when it comes to creating a series of aesthetically pleasing images in many different ways.
  16. 16. Bibliography 1) Architectural Photography: Camera Settings http://blog.nicgranleese.com/2012/08/07/manual-settings-for-architectural- photography/ 2) Architectural Photography: Nic Granleese http://www.nicgranleese.com/ 3) The 25 Greatest Architectural Photographers Right Now http://uk.complex.com/style/2013/02/the-25-greatest-architectural-photographers- right-now/ 4) When it comes to composition, Simon Bray states: “Understanding composition is something that every photographer should take time to do”. (31 Oct. 2011). http://photography.tutsplus.com/articles/14-composition-techniques-that-will- instantly-improve-your-photos--photo-7978. 5) Francis Frith https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Frith

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