Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Film studies films and production contexts (autosaved)

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Film Studies
Films and Production Contexts
We’re the Millers (2013)
We’re the Millers is an American comedy
film directed ...
the audience who might demand to see something differentwithin
comedyfilms.
‘We’re the Millers’ was written by Bob Fisher ...
One of the most important factors to considerin regard to the production
of mainstream films is the amount of flexibility ...
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Nächste SlideShare
Film industry
Film industry
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 34 Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Anzeige
Anzeige

Aktuellste (20)

Film studies films and production contexts (autosaved)

  1. 1. Film Studies Films and Production Contexts We’re the Millers (2013) We’re the Millers is an American comedy film directed by Rawson Marshall Thurber and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. Based on a story created by Bob Fisher and Steve Faber, the film was released on August 7th 2013 in the United States. The film revolves around a drug dealer (portrayed by actor Jason Sudeikis) who is robbed by a street gang whilst attempting to help two local teens, thus leaving him heavily in debt to his boss,a wealthy drug lord supplier. In order to clear his debt, the protagonist journeys to Mexico and back whilst smuggling an enormous amount of marijuana through customs.In the process, the main character enlists two of his neighbours (Jennifer Aniston and Will Poulter) and a runaway teen (Emma Roberts)who pose as his family in orderto enable him to make it through the customs undetected. Production The production processfor‘We’re the Millers’ took place within the mainstream. This means that the ideas that went into the film will have been understood as conventional; therefore the producers of the film based specific aspects of ‘We’re the Millers’ (particularly the actors, lines and camerawork) on the characteristics of comedyfilms today. As a result, the film conforms to what is generally done or believed in regard to the genre of comedywithin mainstream films. This can be considered beneficialfor the film itself because it will bear many similarities to other mainstream comedyfilms;however it can also have a negative effecton
  2. 2. the audience who might demand to see something differentwithin comedyfilms. ‘We’re the Millers’ was written by Bob Fisher and Steve Faber, two American screenwriters who worked collaboratively on a story that would later be adapted by both screenwriters into a screenplayin the year 2002.The film was announced four years later in 2006 and production took place in North Carolina and New Mexico in the year 2012.It was directed by Thurber. The production of ‘We’re the Millers’ was influenced by a wide range of factors,most notably the subjectmatter (smuggling marijuana illegally) and freedom from damaging publicity. In spite of the subjectmatter, none of the characters within ‘We’re the Millers’ (particularly Sudeikis) were required to consume marijuana during filming in orderto further communicate their character’s attitudes. This decisioncan be considered beneficialbecause it protects the actors/actresses from attracting publicity i.e. the celebrities could have received negative attention from viewers, family members,friends etc. if they were depicted consuming drugs on-screen. During production, the producers will have also been required to considerthe fact that the actors/actresses could have attracted publicity that has the potential to be extremely damaging to their reputation. When it came to capturing scenes of nudity within the film, bodydoubles and prosthetics were employed with the clear purpose of protecting the celebrities from getting damaging publicity. This would significantly benefitthe actor/actress, especiallyif they are not contracted to perform scenes of nudity. Another factor the producers might have beenrequired to considerin regard to the production of ‘We’re the Millers’ could be continuity. A good example is the time and date that is depictedwithin the film. ‘We’re the Millers’ supposedlytakes place on a 4th July weekend, however on the protagonist’s mobile phone, the date is Monday the 1st of July. This indicates a continuity error during production.
  3. 3. One of the most important factors to considerin regard to the production of mainstream films is the amount of flexibility the filmmakers will have in regard to making the film. The amount of flexibility is generally determined by the amount of money that is available during production; this is defined as financial determinants. ‘We’re the Millers’ had a budget of $37 million, and five production companies were involved with the making of the film: New Line Cinema, Newman/Tooley Films, Slap Happy Productions,Heyday Films and Benderspink.Warner Bros.Pictures were involved primarily with the distribution of ‘We’re the Millers’. In order to ensure that more profitwas made i.e. the film grosses more money, the producers of ‘We’re the Millers’ will have attempted to spend the smallestpossible amount of money, however the overall amount would still be large. Because a huge amount of money was available ($37 million), the filmmakers will have had a great deal of flexibility which may have provided them with a greater chance of easily modifying aspects of the film e.g. by enhancing the visual quality of the scenes to make them appear more visually attractive or by choosing an alternate location to film at without using up too many resources during production. Because ‘We’re the Millers’ is a mainstream comedyfilm, it had a high budget,as well as high production values and major distribution networks that will have enabled the producers to distribute the film globally and thus ensure that the film reaches a wide range of people. The financing for ‘We’re the Millers’ will have beenobtained from a film studio, entertainment company or a private investor. The budget is initially prepared by the filmmaker, producerand/or the unit production manager. Prior to the productionof the film, financing will have been secured for pre-productioncosts (such as obtaining locations and equipment), productioncosts (filming) and post-productioncosts (editing and visual effects),thus showing that the productioncompany actively prepares all stages of the productionprocess forfilms. ‘We’re the Millers’ was produced by Chris Bender, Vincent Newman, Tucker Tooleyand Happy Walters. Tooleycan be considered influential in regard to the
  4. 4. productionof the film because he is the CEO of TooleyProductions LLC which acted as one of the productioncompanies for ‘We’re the Millers’. The film was released in theatres on August 7th , 2013.Following its distribution, the revenue from ‘We’re the Millers’ will have been shared amongst the actors/actresses,the director and other companies who assisted with the production of the film. New Line Cinema will have received 50% or less of the domestic box office gross.10% of the fee will have been paid to Warner Bros. Pictures, who distributed the film, whereas the movie theatres will have received a cut also. The actors/actresseswho starred in the film, particularly Sudeikis and Aniston who are highly popular celebrities,will have received a significant amount of the overall box office gross,primarily because of their services during production. Overall, the film was a box-office success as it grossed $270million worldwide. Every actor/actress who starred in ‘We’re the Millers’ was paid $72 during each eight-hour long shooting day. Thurber will have also received a significant portion of the overall domestic boxoffice gross due to his role during the productionof the film. Due to being a well-known celebritywho stars in mainstream movies, Aniston receives $5 million for each film she stars in, including ‘We’re the Millers’ as she possessesa high net worth ($130 million) due to her successfulcareerwithin the industry as an actress. Will Poulter has a net worth of $5 million due to his role as an actor within the industry. This shows that well-known and successfulactors are very expensive to employwithin a film production and that they are paid a significant amount of the overall box office gross of the film(s) they star in. A significant amount of production for ‘We’re the Millers’ took place within the U.S. state New Mexico, mainly due to its similarities to the landscape of Mexico where part of the film is set. New Mexico issued a major tax incentive programme,meaning that there was a significant reduction in regard to taxes within the state. As a result, film production companies will have been encouraged to film there in order to help the economyof the state. This tax incentive programme brought a significant amount of film production companies into the region, thus making New Mexico highly popular with the film industry. Films which have been shot
  5. 5. within this state include Sicario (2015), Let Me In (2010),Thor (2011)and Maze Runner: Scorch Trials (2015), the majority of which was filmed just outside of Albuquerque, the largest city in New Mexico. ‘We’re the Millers’ was filmed in New Mexico in 2012.This tax incentive programme can be considered beneficialfor film productioncompanies because it provides them with a wide range of options in regard to where they can film. ‘We’re the Millers’ has an overall running time of 110 minutes (1hr 50mins), whereas the extended edition runs for118 minutes (1hr 58 mins). As of recent times, technologicalinnovation has significantly enhanced the visual quality of films and opened up a vast array of opportunities in regard to filmmaking. The presence of audio compressiontechnologies such as Dolby Digital (which was developed by Dolby Laboratories in the 1990s decade) can be considered highly beneficialfor the production of films because it enables digital cameras to capture diegetic sound (audio within the film world) in high-definition. This will have beenhighly advantageous for the productionstage of ‘We’re the Millers’ as the crew will have been able to record sounds such as guns firing, fireworks exploding,dogs barking etc. The presence of sound effects in the final film would potentially increase the level of enjoyment for the audience, as well as ensure that the film reflects aspectsof the real world and thus enables the viewers to relate to what is unfolding on- screen. Other technologies that were presentduring the productionof ‘We’re the Millers included high-resolution scans, editing, Video Duplication and Standards Conversion and encoding, all of which are services that are presentwithin a motion picture lab referred to as ‘Fotokem’.Based in California and founded in the year 1963,Fotokem is considered the largest independentpost-productionfacility on the WestCoast of the
  6. 6. United States. The producers of ‘We’re the Millers’ utilized the Fotokem Laboratory with the purpose of ensuring the successful completionof the film; the facility expanded its services throughout the years in order to meet the demands of the film industry. The editing for ‘We’re the Millers’ took place at the Fotokem Laboratory, along with the creation of the DVD for the film and the closing credits, which are employed with the purpose of listing the cast and crew of a motion picture, as well as highlighting which companies were involved with the film, including distribution companies and sponsors of production. The presence of facilities such as these is highly beneficialfor film companies because the visual quality of films can be significantly enhanced. A digital motion picture camera system referred to as the ‘Arri Alexa’ was employed during the filming of ‘We’re the Millers’, along with the Cooke S4 prime lens and the Angenieux Optimo lens. The Arri Alexa camera system enables the cameramen to capture high resolution images whilst being able to support uncompressed video.This device was clearly beneficialfor the production stage of the film (as well as other films in general) because it is very technologically advanced and quite simple to use, therefore it will have had the potential to enhance the overall visual quality of the film and ensure that it pleases the audience whilst mirroring professionalstandards. Some cinematographers have even considered the Arri Alexa to have ‘brought us to a point where digital is simply better’. The camera
  7. 7. serves as Arri’s first major transition into digital cinematography. The 2012 James Bond film ‘Skyfall’ was also filmed using the Arri Alexa due to its high image quality. Distribution/Exhibition Following the post-productionstage of ‘We’re the Millers’, the film was distributed by Warner Bros.Pictures, a major American film studio and entertainment company. Headquartered in California, the company was founded in the year 1918 by the ‘Warner Brothers’ (Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack). Because it is a major film distributer, Warner Bros. Pictures would have beenvery effective in regard to ensuring that ‘We’re the Millers’ reached a huge amount of people;because the film is a mainstream comedy,it should have universal appeal i.e. something in it for everyone. In order to ensure the film reached its target audience (which is likely to be teenagers and young adults), a major distribution company will have been required.In the process,the product will have successfullygot to the audience. A wide range of other methods will have beenemployed to ensure that the film gains a wide range of audience attention, including the creation of trailers and adverts that appear between television programmes,on YouTube and on social networking sites such as Facebookand Twitter. The officialreveal trailer for ‘We’re the Millers’ was released in May 2013,only a few months prior to its release in August. The trailer does well to introduce the narrative of the film to the audience, as well as its characters and setting, whilst also providing some insight regarding the humour of the film. The presence of a trailer on
  8. 8. YouTube is effective because it ensures that a wide range of people will notice the film and becomeintrigued by it, especiallywhen the viewers notice well-known celebrities suchas Jason Sudeikis, Jennifer Aniston and Will Poulter. Following the distribution of the film, the audience has to interact with the product. This can be considered a highly important factor in regard to the film because it determines how people will react to the film and its content, as well as how the film will be rated by review aggregators e.g. Rotten Tomatoes following the screening of the film. ‘We’re the Millers’ was screened at theatres across the United States, as well as within multiple countries such as the United Kingdom,France and Spain. It grossedmore than seven times its budgetof $37 million, earning a worldwide total of $270 million, thus indicating a positive response from the audience. However, ‘We’re the Millers’ received mixed reviews from film critics who stated that the film was ‘uneven and lazily assembled’,showing that the downside to the film was its narrative which will have been unoriginal and often incoherent at times. Audience polls were also conducted,and the film was provided with an average grade of A- in this case. Trends ‘We’re the Millers’ is a mainstream comedy,therefore its main emphasis is on humour. The film consists of a wide range of elements which do well to evoke amusement within the audience, most notably the presence of exaggerated characteristics, illicit love affairs and a scandal i.e. an action regarded as morally wrong or illegal. Elements of the action genre are also presente.g. daring stunts and fight scenes.A good example is the scene in which the Millers escape a repair shop in their RV after being held hostage by the antagonist Pablo Chacon (Tomer Sisley) and his henchman (Matthew Willig). Prior to their escape,the
  9. 9. protagonist David (portrayed by Sudeikis) strikes Chacon’s henchman in the face with a wrench. However, the blow does not appear to injure the henchman in any way and a fistfight almost ensues between the two. It is made obvious that the filmmakers intentionally exaggerated the physical strength of the antagonist in order to evoke humour within the audience. During their escape,the characters destroythe antagonist’s vehicle and crash through the barrier of a motorway after driving on the wrong side of it. This scene can be considered quite adrenaline evoking and does well to create tension and suspense. It is implied that the filmmakers attempted to mimic ‘hybridization’ in regard to genre, which refers to the fact that directors combine elements from multiple genres to create an intriguing film that differs significantlyfrom other comedyfilms. For many years, Hollywood films have apparently being influenced by the trend towards genre hybridization and it is likely that the producers of ‘We’re the Millers’ intended to follow this trend with the purpose of enhancing the quality of the film and its narrative which revolves primarily around illegal drug smuggling. ‘We’re the Millers’ could be considered highly similar to ‘Horrible Bosses’(2011),primarily due to the presence of shared themes, actors and settings. Both films feature Sudeikis and Aniston in roles that are quite similar to the nature of their characters in ‘We’re the Millers’, with the formerportraying a character who possessesa love interest in a female character and the latter playing a character who is describedas being ‘sexually aggressive with everybody’. Both films also share the theme of crime. Because Sudeikis and Aniston portray
  10. 10. characters that are similar in regard to personality, viewers are very likely to associate ‘We’re the Millers’ and ‘Horrible Bosses’with each other. Both celebrities appearto star in films that fit into the genre of comedy;as a direct result, it would be consideredfairly unusual for the celebrities to be featured within an action/thriller film as major characters because audiences would automatically associate the celebrities with the comedygenre based on the films they have starred in. ‘We’re the Millers’ could potentially have a negative impact on societyas a whole, primarily because of its core themes such as drug-dealing, robbery etc. People who watch this film may be likely to assume that things like these are okay, when in actuality they are serious crimes. Therefore,the film could mislead audiences. Due to the representation of U.S. Army Forces at the customs situated at the borderbetween the United States and Mexico within the film, people might falsely assume that the military of the United States is careless and unwilling to take certain matters seriously. The reason for this is because there is a scene involving the Millers getting pulled over at the customs after attracting suspicionfrom the patrolling soldiers,only for a group of Mexican individuals to crawl out from underneath the vehicle and run into the desert, having illegally escaped into the U.S. Following this, the Millers are allowed to leave with the soldiers remaining oblivious to the huge amount of marijuana stored throughout the Millers’ vehicle and instead turning their attention to the fleeing suspects. Although this scene is meant to evoke humour, it could potentially be seen as offensive towards the military of the United States, as well as the government. People who watch this scene might falsely assume that incidents like these happen regularly in real-life and that skilled soldiers are unable to stop things like illegal immigrants, drug smuggling etc. thus
  11. 11. a great deal of carelessness is implied in regard to the soldiers and this is not a good impression. Regulatory Issues ‘We’re the Millers’ was rated ‘15’ by the British Board of Film Classificationdue to crude sexual content, profanity, drug material and instances of graphic nudity. The primary role of the BBFC is to monitor and classifycinema films, ensuring that the films do not consistof content that is likely to harm or offend the viewers e.g. strong violence, gore or scenes of graphic nudity. ‘We’re the Millers’ features several scenes which had to be cut, mainly due to being too graphic. A good example is the scene involving Aniston’s character who performs stage dancing in a repair shop in order to distract the antagonists and enable her to escape with the rest of the Millers. The BBFC were likely required to take action and shorten the scene in order to ensure that it didn’t offend the viewer(s) in any way. The original scene featured instances of nudity that will have been considered too graphic for a 15-rated film. Synergy ‘We’re the Millers’ appears to mirror films which are considered similarin regard to characters, style and themes. The film’s posterappears to share similar elements with those of ‘Horrible Bosses’ and ‘The Inbetweeners’(U.S. version). All three products appear to mirror each other via content. First of all, they feature an actor/actress who has starred in each film. For example, Jason Sudeikis and Jennifer Aniston have both starred in ‘We’re the Millers’ and ‘Horrible Bosses’which share the same genre of comedy.The celebrities are depicted on the posters forboth films a similar manner; on the ‘Horrible Bosses’ poster,Sudeikis is depicted as an employee in distress with a caption above him referring to the character (as well as his
  12. 12. employer)as a ‘Tool’. The usage of coloured lines at the side of both pictures (each depicting Sudeikis and his boss)which are stacked on top of each other helps to establish the fact that both characters are being referred to as ‘tools’. On the ‘We’re the Millers’ poster,Sudeikis’ character is shown to be in a somewhat relaxed state as opposedto being in distress,thus juxtaposing the characters of both films. On the latter poster,a caption is also present; it refers to Sudeikis’ character as a ‘drug dealer’. This shows that both posters seem to describe the occupation/personality of the characters within the films they represent. ‘The Inbetweeners’postershares similar elements to ‘We’re the Millers’ and ‘Horrible Bosses’as it depicts the protagonists posing in a certain manner and also gives the audience insight regarding the personality of the characters. The posteralso features actor Mark L. Young who also stars in ‘We’re the Millers’ as a character called Scotty P. Mark is shown to be posing in a manner that suggests that he is an ignorant student on the Inbetweeners poster. This somewhat reflects the personality of his character in ‘We’re the Millers’. Overall, it can be consideredvery easy to compare the three films due to the fact that they share the same style on their posters. Horizontal Integration American multinational media conglomerate Time Warner is an organization that owns Warner Bros. Pictures, Warner Bros.Pictures International and New Line Cinema, all of which are film distribution companies.As a result, all three companies operate at the same level of production(the ‘distribution’ stage) and work together. This can be considered highly beneficialfor Time Warner because the organization would not be required to hire outside companies in order to produce a film. The stage of productionwould be organized in a logical and thorough manner, thus allowing for greater flexibility in regard to
  13. 13. distributing the film. Both New Line Cinema and Warner Bros. Pictures distributed ‘We’re the Millers’ in 2013.It is implied that both companies had complete control over the distribution of the film and that collaborating together on a specific stage of the productionprocess would result in increased profits for the parent company (Time Warner). Horizontal integration will have been beneficialfor the production of ‘We’re the Millers’ because it would have resulted in a reduction of productioncosts, as well as reduced competition.New Line Cinema and Warner Bros. Pictures are good examples of horizontal integration because they are quite similar to each other and operate not only within the same industry, but also on the same level of production. Vertical Integration Vertical Integration is defined as an organization that has complete ownership of the means of production, distribution and exhibition in regard to a film that is produced by the same organization. In this particular case, productioncompanies are present at differentlevels of the productionprocess, thus a significant amount of economic and political influence is possessed bythe organization. ‘We’re the Millers’ was produced by multiple companies including New Line Cinema, Heyday Films and Newman/Tooley Films, with the formercompany being an independentfilm studio as well as a distribution company. Both Warner Bros. and New Line Cinema, which operate at the distribution stage and the production stage respectively,are owned by the same organization (Time Warner) and were responsibleforproducing and distributing ‘We’re the Millers’. This shows that both companies had control over multiple levels of the production processas opposedto only one stage of production,thus providing both companies with increased control when it came to producing the film. The production companies were also more likely to have greater societal influence.
  14. 14. The World’s End (2013) The World’s End is a British comic science-fictionfilm written and directed by Edgar Wright, with Simon Pegg co- writing the film. It was produced by film companies Working Title Films, Relativity Media, StudioCanal and Big Talk Productions and distributed by Universal Pictures and Focus Features. The film stars Pegg,Nick Frost, Paddy Considine,Martin Freemanand Eddie Marsan, all of whom portray a group of adults who encounter an alien invasion whilst attempting a pub crawl (referred to as ‘the GoldenMile’) encompassing 12 differentpubs, with ‘the World’s End’ being the final pub. The film’s primary setting is Newton Haven, a fictional town which serves as the hometown of the main characters. The film was released on the 19th of July 2013 in the U.K. and the 23rd August in the United States. Production The World’s End is a British comedicgenre film with ‘a relationship comedysmuggled inside a sci-fi movie’ as describedby Wright. The directorhas also describedthe film as ‘a sci-fi where even the people who are going to be your saviours are hammered’.The World’s End appears to fall short of the mainstream, much like other films directed by Wright, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, the budgetfor The World’s End was $20 million, with an overall domestic boxoffice gross of$46.1 million. The companies which produced the film are based primarily within the United Kingdom and are not major productioncompanies. Also, the film was not distributed globally, therefore it had a limited distribution. The film appears to challenge audiences on an emotional level, feels quite experimental at times and even takes risks in an artistic manner. For example, the core theme of perpetual adolescence (which refers to the struggle to acceptthe past and become an adult) is present
  15. 15. within The World’s End. However, this theme is only seeminglypresent within the film because Wright desired to utilize similar themes that were featured within Shaun of the Dead (2004)and Hot Fuzz (2007)and that Wright wanted to provide a conclusion of sorts in regard to the themes. This does not imply a great deal of sophisticationin regard to the film. All three films differsignificantly from other comedyfilms,mainly because of the manner in which they combine differentgenres together.As a result, all three films (including The World’s End) are quite unique. The production of The World’s End will have beeninfluenced by a variety of factors including copyright issues,as well as the ‘all persons fictitious disclaimer’which refers to protecting the film company from getting sued for libel due to similarities between aspects of the film and real events, people etc.Throughout The World’s End, a wide range of songs were employed as tunes playing on the radio of the protagonists’ car, as music playing within pubs etc. A good example is the song ‘I’m Free’ by Scottishalternative rock band ‘The Soup Dragons’ which is a cover version of the song of the same name by The Rolling Stones. The song is featured twice within the film. The producers of The World’s End will have been required to considerthe fact that both bands own the rights to the song and are thus entitled to control whether or not it can be used within other films. In order to avoid copyright infringement, the producers of the film will have been required to obtain permissionto employthe song ‘I’m Free’ within The World’s End. There are multiple references to differentfilms presentwithin The World’s End; for example, the final scene of the movie (which features the protagonist entering a bar) involves the protagonist drawing a sword and posing in a manner strikingly similar to the character Aragorn from Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King whilst saying ‘They call me the King’. However, this is only a humorous reference to a well-known film; it would not have been necessaryfor the producers of The World’s End to obtain permissionfrom the production company behind The Lord of the Rings trilogy. There is an exceptionpresentwithin copyright laws
  16. 16. referred to as ‘Fair Use’ which states that an original work can be used as parody in most cases. Another factorthat will have influenced the production of The World’s End is the disclaimerinvolving the depictionof people,events etc. within a film. The World’s End is based within a fictional town in the United Kingdom.The production company will have beenrequired to film in multiple towns throughout the country. Such towns included Hertfordshire,Letchworth and Welwyn. Because the pubs featured within the film e.g. The First Postand The Old Familiar did not exist in real-life, the productionteam shot scenes of action within pubs present at the towns they filmed at. The producers of The World’s End may have been required to considerthe fact that real-life pubs throughout the country might possess the exact same name (or names which are similar) as pubs which are depicted within the film. In order to avoid any legal action from a personwho falsely assumes that a real-life location has been portrayed in a negative manner, the productioncompany will have featured the disclaimerwithin the end credits of the film, thus protecting itself from court action in the process. The World’s End grossed $46.1 million in regard to box office against a $20 million budget.Because the amount of money available for the productionof the film was fairly low, there will have beenfar less flexibility during filming in comparisonto We’re the Millers which had a higher budget ($37 million). The majority of scenes within The World’s End were shot at locations situated primarily within Hertfordshire, a county in Southern England. The production company did not film scenes elsewhere in England; this implies that there were limited options in regard to where The World’s End
  17. 17. could be filmed.The lack of finance in regard to a film production clearly has a negative impact on the overall quality of a film because it hinders the creativity of the filmmaker(s) who are unable to produce a film that features scenes captured from locations in multiple countries. If The World’s End had a higher budgete.g. $100 million, Wright might have been able to further establish the key element of the narrative (global alien invasion) as the film could be based in other countries such as the U.S. or European countries. The World’s End initially began as a screenplay titled ‘Crawl’. During production, the exteriors of real-life pubs located around Hertfordshire were filmed,although their signs were altered in regard to the names of the fictional pubs within the film. Wright stated that each of the 12 pubs were provided with names that provided key foreshadowing elements within the narrative. For example, the 11th pub (which was named the ‘Hole in the Wall’) was partially destroyed when one of the protagonists drove a car through the wall, whereas the interior of the 2nd pub (the Old Familiar) appeared strikingly similar to that of the previous pub which was named ‘The First Post’. Sure enough, this was the first pub the characters entered during the crawl. The production company will have been required to pay fortemporary altered signage in regard to the pubs that were filmed. Productionfor The World’s End is likely to have been funded by the British Film Institute, a film and charitable organization which utilizes funds from the National Lottery in order to provide supportto films made within the U.K. The organization tends to operate across film production and development, as well as audience development. Funding for The World’s End will have been required in order to ensure the successfuldevelopmentof the film, as well as pay to film in public places, alter the signs of pubs etc. Funding will also have been required for the post-productionprocess. Following the production of the film, the revenue of The World’s End will have beenshared amongst the productioncompanies,the director,
  18. 18. producer(s),actors and the distribution company. Due to their contribution to the film, as well as their occupationas well-known actors/actresses,those who starred as the protagonists of the film e.g. Simon Pegg as Gary King and Rosamund Pike as Sam Chamberlain will have received a significant amount of funding. Pegg possessesa net worth of $10 million, therefore Wright will have been required to pay a significant amount of the film’s revenue to the actor. The director will have also received a significant amount of the overall revenue due to the nature of his job role. The United Kingdom in general is apparently an ideal country to film in, mainly due to the fact that film production companies who are producing a British film (which can be of any budgetlevel) are able to claim a 25% cash rebate in regard to qualifying expenditure within the U.K. i.e. the action of spending funds. The tax relief available for British qualifying films is capped at 80% expenditure, meaning that productioncompanies can spend just over 10% on their films. Tax incentives can be considered beneficialfor films produced within the U.K. because it means that companies can pay less tax in order to take account of money they’ve spent on actors, equipment, accommodationetc. The majority of The World’s End was filmed in this country and it can be stated that the film benefited from being filmed within the U.K. simply because it will have been far cheaperfor the productioncompany as opposed to filming within a major city in the United States, specificallyin an area which would require the production company to enlist the help of the police to stop traffic or pedestrians from entering a place where a scene is being filmed.In this particular case, the film would have cost far more as opposed to if it was being filmed in a different location e.g. the countryside. The majority of scenes forThe World’s End were filmed through usage of Arriflex movie cameras such as the Arriflex 435 and the 16SR;these
  19. 19. products were developed within the 1970s and 1990s and tend to run at 1-150 frames per second.They can be considered highly beneficialin regard to filmmaking, especially when combined with a Panavision Primo lens which enables shooting in high-resolution footage.The availability of cameras in this manner will have highly benefited the productionof The World’s End because the overall visual quality of the film will have been enhanced significantly. Other resources available during productionfor the film were provided by post-productioncompanies based in London,most notably Company 3 and Technicolor.Company 3 specializes primarily in things like colour grading and location services which are provided to films, music videos and television programmes.Following the production process,The World’s End was edited by the post-productioncompany, which will have manipulated things such as image characteristics and colours within the footage obtained during the production stage in a final adjustment attempt prior to the film’s distribution. The presence of this company can be considered advantageous for the film because a great deal of editing will have been provided by a professionalinstitution that possesses a great deal of technical proficiency.The role of Technicolorin regard to the post-production process was the processing ofthe film i.e. editing the original footage and assisting with the post-production process.The World’s End most likely benefited from the assistance of companies such as Technicolor as these companies will have provided
  20. 20. highly saturated colours that drastically increased the overall intensity of colours within the scenes in the film, particularly the glowing blue eyes of the Androids present during its action sequences. Distribution The World’s End has a running time of 1 hour and 49 minutes (109 minutes). The film was distributed globally by Universal Pictures, premiering on July 10th , 2013 at LeicesterSquare in Londonand being released nine days later. Within the United States, The World’s End was distributed by American film productioncompany Focus Features, after which it was released on August 23rd . In orderto promote the film and ensure that it reaches the audience successfully,companies will have been required to create advertisements that would appear between television programmes, within film cinemas and on YouTube. Featuring trailers on YouTube can be considered beneficialbecause millions of people access the site, thus The World’s End would be likely to become popularas a wide range of people would come across it. The film will have also been advertised on social media e.g. Facebookand Twitter; this technique also increases the chances of a wide range of people noticing the trailer and becoming intrigued by it. Exhibition The World’s End earned £2,122,288during its U.K. opening weekend, thus showing that a wide range of people were intrigued by the film. Upon its release within the United States, the film earned $3.5 million, gaining the ‘highest per-theatre average out of all films in theatres throughout the country on its opening day’ in the process.The World’s End also earned the most out of all three films within the Cornetto Trilogy in regard to its opening weekend and eventually gained an overall box office gross of $46.1 million. As well as audiences, review
  21. 21. aggregators such as Rotten Tomatoes interacted with the film, providing it with a rating based on multiple reviews. For The World’s End, Rotten Tomatoes gave an 89% approval rating, along with a score of 81/100 by review aggregator Metacritic. Entertainment Weekly also provided a rating for the film, giving it a B+ due to its humour and emotional aspects. Trends The World’s End is a comedyfilm, therefore its primary emphasis is on humour. It was designed specificallyto amuse the audience and was able to accomplishthis by providing exaggeration in regard to things which are possible in real-life, most notably the presence of androids which representordinary people and apparent feats of great physical strength in regard to the main characters as they engage in hand-to- hand combatwith the androids. As opposed to other genres of film, comedyfilms tend to exaggerate activities that exceed the boundaries regarding what is actually possible in real-life. This is an example of ‘slapstickcomedy’ that exaggerates physical strength. This is quite common throughout the action sequences of The World’s End, in which characters are shown leaping through glass windows, lifting people from the ground etc. Many comedyfilms, particularly Home Alone and Ace Ventura, tend to feature violence that is cartoonish with little to no focus on physical injury whatsoever. The World’s End can be considered similardue to the fact that the androids only spurt blood which looks like blue paint that stains the environment; their limbs and heads can be ripped off easily by human characters, after which they remain mobile e.g. disembodied heads are still able to speak. Although this can be considered somewhatdisturbing, the violence seems cartoonish and only non-human characters are wounded in this manner. The World’s End combines two differentgenres:comedyand science fiction, thus indicating that the film has a hybrid subgenre. The film clearly exploits the conventions of the Sci-Fi genre by representing
  22. 22. things such as apocalypse and alien invasion in a comedic manner. For example, the scene involving the protagonists confronting the Network (portrayed by Bill Nighy), an alien entity that attempts to persuade the characters to join the ‘galactic community’ and be replaced by androids clearly satirizes standard conventions of the Sci-Fi genre; the entity, which is supposedlya malicious being that possesses greatpower, appears to lose its temperas it reacts to the attitude of the characters and even curses at one point. Edgar Wright clearly attempted to follow the trend of hybridization, which has influenced a wide range of comedyfilms in the past e.g. the Men in Black franchise which utilizes conventions of both Sci-Fi and comedy.This decisionwas likely influenced by the fact that the previous two films within the Cornetto Trilogy (Shaun of the Dead and Hot Fuzz) also featured hybrid subgenres such as zombie apocalypse/comedyand action/comedyrespectively,thus Wright attempted to provide a conclusionto the trilogy as well as ensure that all three films were similar. The World’s End possesses awide range of similarities to Shaun of the Dead and Hot Fuzz, which were also directed by Wright and Simon Pegg.All three films share similar themes, most notably friendship, community and desire.For example, Pegg portrays a character in Shaun of the Dead who has a love interest, whereas in The World’s End he plays a character that longs for a time period in the past. All three films fit into the comedygenre and feature the same actors playing the same roles; Simon Pegg and Nick Frost portray the protagonists of all three films. Both actors also portray
  23. 23. characters that are bestfriends in all three films, although they do have contrasting personalities.The characters portrayed by Nick Frost in all three films seem innocent, whereas those played by Pegg tend to be troublesome.This does well to create juxtaposition betweenthe two characters in all three films,thus providing increased aspects for the audience to interact with. The World’s End could have a potentially negative impact on societydue to its representationof teenagers,who are depicted as immature and troublesome,as well as people in general. Although the individuals within the fictional town of Newton Haven are actually androids, the implication of large amounts of people attacking others can be quite offensive because it reflects disorderand confusion.A good example is the scene involving the protagonist Gary, who races to the 11th pub after abandoning the other protagonists. The androids pursue the character. Throughout the film, there is also a constant focus on alcohol and intoxication which can be considered quite negative because it could potentially endorse the behavior and mislead people.The film could also have a negative impact on public affairs i.e. government relations due to the narrative of the story which revolves around alien invaders who desire to improve the planet by replacing its inhabitants with androids. This action was influenced by the fact that humans are considereduncivilized by the invaders, who attempt to make the world a better place. The ending of the film could also have a negative impact on government relations because it involves an electromagnetic pulse which wipes out all moderntechnology and causes widespread devastation, resulting in the collapse of civilization. Humanity is ‘sent back to the Dark Ages’as stated by the character Andy (portrayed by Frost). An implication is created of governments worldwide collapsing and this could be
  24. 24. considered anegative impressionon public affairs, especially as it a devastating event such as this is depicted in a comedic manner. Regulatory Issues The World’s End was rated ‘15’ by the British Board of Film Classificationdue the presence of very strong language (including 3 uses of the C-word) and strong sexual referencesthroughout the course of the film. The role of the BBFC in regard to The World’s End will have been to monitor things such as discrimination, imitable behavior and violence, as well as the tone and impact of the film i.e. the way it makes the audience feel. The majority of the violence depicted within The World’s End is highly comical,although it is quite over-the-top and could still potentially be disturbing to more sensitive viewers because of the presence of human-like characters being dismembered,decapitated and crushed, with blue liquid (which serves as the blood of the androids) staining the environment and spraying all over the characters. The BBFC will have been required to considerthe fact that although most of the violence throughout the film is inflicted upon the various non- human characters, the blue paint that is shed by them looks exactly like gore and could be just as disturbing. Another thing the BBFC might have considered was the graphic portrayal of violent and/or dangerous acts which could harm the public or even make the violence look appealing to the viewer(s). The violence depicted in The World’s End could also be seen as sadistic i.e. with the protagonists taking pleasure from inflicting pain and humiliation on non- human characters. The production of The World’s End is likely to have been influenced by the potential responsesthe film would receive from the BBFC due to its content; the fight sequences and themes within the film, for example, could pose a risk to the behavior of individuals, along with society as a whole. According to the BBFC,a film that contains material which could risk harm to individuals in real-life would be refused an 18 certificate;therefore the producers will have been required to be careful when it came to including scenes of graphic violence within The
  25. 25. World’s End. The presence of rules such as these can be considereda disadvantage in regard to the film because the creativity of the filmmaker will have been hindered. Synergy The World’s End clearly shares similar elements with the other two installments of the ‘Cornetto Trilogy’: Shaun of the Dead and Hot Fuzz, both of which feature the same actors (who portray the protagonists of both films)that star in The World’s End as the primary characters. In the promotional posters forall three films, the protagonists are depicted in the same long, full-body shots that help to establish them in relation to the primary settings of all three films which are zombie apocalypse, crime and alien invasion. These themes are represented by the nature of the locations depicted within all three posters;for example, the posterfor The World’s End depicts the androids that appear within the film, as hinted by their glowing blue eyes.This clearly shows that all three films share a strikingly similar style which makes them appear almost visually identical. The films also mirror each other via the style of their title, specificallyin regard to placement, size and font. On all three posters, the title of each film is positioned close to the centre of the image in big, bold capital lettering that would do well to attract the eye of the customer. This ensures that all three films are easily recognizable to the audience, mainly due to possessing a similar visual style which helps to imply that they belong to the same trilogy.
  26. 26. Horizontal Integration Founded in the year 1912,Universal Studios is an American film organization that is considered ‘the oldestsurviving film studio in the United States’. A subsidiary of Universal Studios is Working Title Films, a productioncompany based within the United Kingdom which played an important role in regard to the productionprocess of The World’s End. Along with Working Title Films, the French productioncompany StudioCanal (which co-produced The World’s End) has strong links to Universal Studios due to both companies being owned by the same organization temporarily (between 2000 and 2004).As a result, Universal Studios owned both productioncompanies,both of which operated during the production stage of The World’s End. This is a good example of Horizontal Integration which will have benefited the film because of increased efficiencyin regard to the productionof the film due to the presence of multiple productioncompanies.The parent company would also benefit due to increased profits as it expands and dominates the market (thus market share is increased).However, horizontal integration will have also been considered a disadvantage in regard to the process of productiondue to the creation of oligopolies,which refers to the majority of companies being controlled by a single company. Vertical Integration Universal Studios also had complete control over the production,distribution and exhibition of The World’s End due to the fact that it owned Working Title Films, as well as Focus Features which is an American film productionand distribution company. Focus Features was involved primarily with the distribution of The World’s End, whereas Working Title Films was involved with the production. The World’s End will have most
  27. 27. likely benefited from the presence of multiple companies operating at differentlevels of the productionprocess due to increased flexibility in regard to its production,as well as the creation of institutional synergies i.e. only the companies that were owned by the organization will have been required for production and it won’t have been necessaryto employother companies.Another advantage will have beenthe presence of rationalized operations throughout production which will have made the productionmore efficient.It is also implied that Universal Studios will have had greater societal and public influence due to owning multiple film productioncompanies. The Usual Suspects (1995) ‘The Usual Suspects’is a 1995 neo-noir mystery film produced by Bad Hat Harry Productions,Blue Parrot and Spelling Films International. Released on January 25th , 1995,it was directed by Bryan Singer, an American film director, producerand writer. He was the founder of Bad Hat Harry Productions,the company that helped to produce the film. ‘The Usual Suspects’ revolves around a con-man (Roger‘Verbal’ Kint) and his partners in crime who are interrogated following the destruction of a ship docked at the Port of Los Angeles and stars StephenBaldwin, Benicio del Toro, Kevin Pollak and Kevin Spacey. Production ‘The Usual Suspects’was shot on a $6 million budget(which is considerablyless than the budgets of ‘We’re the Millers’ and ‘The World’s End’). The productionof a film is primarily influenced by the amount of money that is available, therefore because a small amount of money was available during the productionof The Usual Suspects,the producers will have had decreased flexibility and this will have had a negative impact on the film, specificallyin regard to the visual quality.
  28. 28. However, most filmmakers would attempt to spend as little as possible during production in order to ensure that more profit is made; despite a low budget, The Usual Suspects had an overall box office gross of$34.4 million. It was first shown at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival out of competition,where it received a generally positive response from the audience. During the pre-productionprocess of the film, the producers had a difficulttime in regard to making the film due to a lack of cast members;therefore,well-known actors such as ChristopherWalken, TommyLee Jones,Charlie Sheen, Johnny Cash and Al Pacino received requests from the productioncompany to star as characters within the film. Eventually, the productioncompany was able to assemble a cast, all of whom received salaries that were well below their usual pay; although each cast memberis entitled to receive a fixed share of money due to their contribution to the film, the actors agreed nonetheless due to the fact that they were willing to work with each other on a film with an intriguing narrative. Well-known actors such as Kevin Spacey (who starred in The Usual Suspects)tend to have a high net worth i.e. personal finance and/or value, with Spacey possessing anet worth of $80 million, therefore this type of actor is bound to receive a huge amount of money. The Usual Suspects has an overall running time of 1hr and 46mins (106mins).The technologies that went into the production of the film included Panavision camera systems and lenses,as well as special effects that were provided by the Fotokem Laboratory located in Burbank, California. In order to shootthe scenes forthe film, a sync- sound 35mm motion picture camera will have been employed.Due to the level of technologicalinnovation in regard to productionat the time, the decreased availability of resources during filming will have had a negative impact on the film, particularly its quality. The post-production process ofThe Usual Suspects will have benefited significantly from high-resolution scans, encoding,editing system rentals and editing, all of which were provided by the Fotokem Laboratory based in California.
  29. 29. Distribution/Exhibition The Usual Suspects was distributed by Gramercy Pictures and Polygram Filmed Entertainment, both of which have strong relations with Universal Studios, a major American film studio. The film was promoted by Gramercy Pictures via an advertising campaign prior to its release in the summer of 1995,and in order to raise audience anticipation, billboards and posters on the sides of buses depicting the film were present. The quote ‘Who is KeyserSoze?’ (a character within the film) was shown on the posters;the quote does well to communicate the theme of mystery within The Usual Suspects.The film was also advertised via word of mouth marketing i.e. the exchange of information between people through oral communication. Due to the nature of the time period,it is likely that the producers will have struggled to ensure that the film reached the audience because social networking sites such as Facebookand Twitter were not available, therefore it will have been unlikely that the film would reach millions of people at the time. The video sharing website YouTube also did not exist at the time, thus the producers will have had a decreasedrange of options in regard to distributing the film. The Usual Suspects was released in multiple cinemas, eventually making $23.3 million in the U.S. The film received mixed reviews, with some referring to the film as having ‘a simple plot’ and containing ‘strong and fascinatingly ambiguous characters’ and others stating that the plot is ‘easily predictable’and ‘confusing and uninteresting’. This shows that people had a wide range of opinions on The Usual Suspects.The film has a rating of 88% on Rotten Tomatoes,which implies a highly positive response to the film by the review aggregator.
  30. 30. Trends During the 1990s decade,the mystery/thriller genre was quite common, therefore it is likely that the producers of The Usual Suspects intendedto produce a film belonging to the same genre due to the fact that they could make more money; if a specificgenre of film has become increasingly popular, there is a good chance that a wide range of people would be attracted to the genre and watch a film containing similar elements.Throughout the 1990s,a wide range of neo-noir crime-thriller films (particularly from the U.S. and the U.K.) were released including L.A. Confidential (1997), Seven (1995),Scream (1996)and Eyes Wide Shut (1999),the latter of which was directed by Stanley Kubrick. Social and Political Issues The Usual Suspects could potentially have a negative impact on society, primarily due to the presence of violent themes and deception throughout the film’s plot. The film seems to revolve around a group of criminals who desire to become rich and are willing to break the law in order to accomplishthis. It is almost implied that the actions of the protagonists are positive; therefore the film could potentially mislead the audience who might assume that the behavior depicted within the film is acceptable.The film could also influence people to commitillegal acts such as drug smuggling; drugs such as heroin and cocaine are represented within the film and as of recent times, these are classed as illegal recreational drugs especially within the United States.
  31. 31. Regulatory Issues The Usual Suspects was given an 18 rating by the BBFC due to the presence of strong violence, drugs and frequent usage of profanity particularly the F-word. The BBFC will have been required to consider the potential impact the film would have on its audience, as well as whether or not any aspects of the film (particularly scenes of violence) would need to be removed and/or censored in order to ensure that the film did not cause harm to the public or offend anyone. Due to the presence of strong language and violence, the BBFC were required to give the film an 18 certificate.It is implied that the violence within the film was consideredextreme by the BBFC because a 15 certificate usually allows strong bloodyviolence, however the violence within the Usual Suspects will have been consideredhighly disturbing, thus necessitating the 18 certificate.Because the film is rated 18, only adults will have been permitted to view the film at cinemas and this can be considereda disadvantage as the audience for the film is somewhat hindered; the reason for this is because parents would not take their children to see the film and those who are sensitive to violence within films would refuse to watch the film also. As a result, the film will have beenless popular than other neo-noir crime-thriller films at the time. The Usual Suspects was directed by Bryan Singer, who is also the founder of American film and television productioncompany ‘Bat Hat Harry Productions’.This film company was responsible forthe productionstage of The Usual Suspects and as of recent times, has also produced the X-Men film series (2000-present), Superman Returns (2006)and Jack the Giant Slayer (2013). It is implied that Singer had complete controlover the productionof The Usual Suspects due to the fact that he owned the productioncompany responsible forproducing
  32. 32. the film; this can be considered quite beneficialforthe film because it allowed for increased flexibility during the productionprocess. Similarities and Differences Budgets:A notable differencebetweenthe three aforementioned films is the amount of money which was available during the processof production; this would determine the amount of flexibility the producers would have whilst making the films, as well as the amount of options in regard to where the production company can film. ‘We’re the Millers’ (2013)had a budgetof $37 million, therefore the productioncompany (New Line Cinema) will have had increased options in regard to where they could film, as well as the technical aspects of the post-production process,particularly access to studios such as Fotokem in California. We’re the Millers was filmed at North Carolina and New Mexico in the year 2012,both of which are entirely differentlocations. This implies that the production company was able to film in multiple countries as opposed to differentregions of a single country; this was the case for The World’s End which had a budgetof $20 million, considerablyless than that of We’re the Millers. The World’s End was filmed primarily in the United Kingdom,although differenttowns and villages were used for the setting of the fictional Newton Haven. The visual quality of the film differs from We’re the Millers, possiblydue to the fact that differenttypes of cameras were used to capture action sequences forboth films. With a budgetof only $6 million, The Usual Suspects differs significantly from We’re the Millers and The World’s End; its visual quality is low and there will have been limited options in regard to where the production company (Bad Hat Harry Productions) could film. The locations chosenfor the film were Los Angeles,New York City and San Pedro (a location within Los Angeles),all of which are situated in a single country; the United States. Overall, the amount of money that was available during the production process ofall three films clearly influenced their quality, and the more money that was available, the more flexibility the producers will have had whilst producing the film.
  33. 33. Box Office Gross:In the year 2013,both We’re the Millers and The World’s End were released.Although they belong to the same genre, both films differsignificantly due to their themes; We’re the Millers revolves around drug dealing/smuggling and The World’s End is based around a pub crawl and an alien invasion. However, the two films are similar because they made a huge amount of money compared to their original budgets and grossed a significant amount within their respective countries (the U.S. and the U.K.), even almost managing to secure a top spotduring their opening weekends.The World’s End grossed $46.1 million, landing in fourth place behind Lee Daniels’ The Butler, We’re the Millers and The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones,with We’re the Millers grossing more than seven times its budgetof $37 million. This shows that each film exceededbox office expectations and earned a significant amount of money in their opening weekends. Technologies ofProduction: Another notable difference between all three films is the level of technologicalinnovation at the time period in which the films were produced.The Usual Suspects was created over 11 years ago at a time when things such as computergenerated imagery, editing techniques and specialeffects were not as enhanced as they are as of recent times. As a direct result, The Usual Suspects appears less visually intriguing compared to The World’s End and We’re the Millers, with a lack of specialeffects,lighting, variety of camera shots and angles and presence of low-quality non-diegetic sounds. It is implied that earlier versions of a specific camerasystem were employed during the production of The Usual Suspects and that as time progressed, cameras and lenses became more enhanced, as well as software presentin post-productionstudios in the U.S. Both We’re the Millers and The World’s End were released quite recently (just over three years ago), therefore they appear far more visually intriguing in comparisonto The Usual Suspects which was released almost a decade prior. In recent times, films tend to have better visuals due to the presence of new technologies,as well as greater funding. Methods of Distribution: In order to raise audience awareness for a film, production companies are required to utilize social networking sites, trailers on YouTube, television/cinema advertising and billboards (as well as posters on the sides of buses or in windows) to ensure that a
  34. 34. wide range of people find out about the film and becomeintrigued by it, thus increasing the chances that the film will be popular. The production companies forWe’re the Millers and The World’s End utilized methods such as these in order to promote their films and therefore,there will have beena good chance that millions of people would find out about them. The Usual Suspects differssignificantly from the aforementioned films because it was released in a differenttime period (the 1990s decade)when things like social media and YouTube did not exist and alternate methods were employed to promote films, as well as certain events or products.One such method of distribution that was used to promote the Usual Suspects was Word of mouth marketing, which refers to the direct interaction of consumers with each other in order to create excitementor anticipation in regard to a product or event, thus this can be considered as a form of hype which is oftenseen as a goal of public relations as well as goodwill. The Harry Potter film series is a good example because it also involved a strong marketing buzz, along with the Blair Witch Project.

×