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Forest and wild life resources

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Forest and wild life resources

  2. 2. biodiversity • Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem or biome. • "Biodiversity" is most commonly used to replace the more clearly defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness. • Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional three levels at which biological variety has been identified: species diversity ecosystem diversity genetic diversity
  3. 3. species • the species are classified into six different species based on iucn they are: 1. normal species 2. endangered species 3. vulnerable species 4. rare species 5. endemic species 6. extinct species
  4. 4. Flora and fauna • Flora and fauna refer to plant and wildlife, respectively. • The indigenous plant and wildlife of a geographical region is often referred to as that region’s flora and fauna. • Both are collective terms, referring to groups of plant or wildlife specific to a region or a time period. • For example, the flora and fauna of a warm region may consist of tropical to warm-temperate vegetation and exotic species of birds.
  5. 5. Depletion of natural resources • Human use up the flora and fauna in different ways such as medicines , dyes, , food , fodder ,etc . • The greatest damage inflicted on the indian forests was during the colonial period . One of the most important reasons for this was construction of railways . Ther have been lot of trees cut for the railway tracks which was built in india . • The other reasons also could be agriculture , commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities
  6. 6. Types of forests There are three different types of forest • Reserve forest • Protected forest • Unclassed forest
  7. 7. If you look around you will be able to find unique type of plants and animals in your area.  India is one of the richest bio diversity country in the world.  Flora and fauna : Over 81,000 species of fauna about 15,000 flowering plants are endemic.
  13. 13.  International union of conservation of nature is an international organisation dedicated to finding pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment challenges.  IUCN supports scientific research ,manages field projects globally and brings governments and non –government organizations , united nations together to develop and implement policy
  14. 14. IUCN Classification:  IUCN CLASSIFIES NATURE AS FOLLOWS:  Normal species  Endangered species  Extinct species  Endemic species  Rare species  Extinct species
  15. 15.  Normal Species: Whose population levels are considered to normal for survival. e.g.: cattle, pine.  Endangered Species: These are the which are in the danger of extinction survival of such organism make it difficult e.g.: Indian rhino ,black buck.  Endemic Species: These are the species that are found only in some particular areas isolated from geographical conditions e.g.: Nicobar pigeon, wild pig.
  16. 16.  Rare Species: Species with small population may move into endangered category if the negative affecting them continues to operate. e.g.: hornbill, Himalayan brown bear.  Extinct Species: These are the species are not found after the search is known as extinct a species may be extinct from local region , country, continent of such species are Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
  17. 17.  The world fastest land mammal ,the cheetah is a unique and specialized unique member of cat family and can move at the speed of 112km/hr. its distinguishing marks are the long teardrop shaped lines on each side of the nose from the corner of its eyes to its mouth  In 20th century cheetah is nearly extinct due to loss in habitat and prey. In India in 1952.
  18. 18. We have transformed nature into a resource obtaining directly or indirectly from the forest and wildlife-fuel wood etc. The damage inflicted on Indian forests is the colonial period due to the expansion of railways , agriculture, commercial activities. Even after the independence agricultural expansion continues,
  19. 19. Between 1951 to 1980,accordind to forest survey of India , over 26,200sq.km , of forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India . Substantial parts of tribal parts , especially in the north and northern eastern parts of the country is due to shifting cultivation . Large scale development projects have also contributed to the loss of forests.
  20. 20. Narmada Sagar project in Madhya Pradesh is an important factor. Mining is another important factor. The Buxa tiger reserve in west Bengal is affected by dolomite mining. Many foresters and environmentalists hold the view that the greatest degrading factors behind depletion of forest resource and grazing and fuel wood collection.
  21. 21. • Habitat destruction , hunting , poaching , over exploitation, environmental pollution , forest fires ,are other factors.
  22. 22. Distribution of forest and wild life resources Reserved Forests Protected forests Unclassed Forests
  23. 23. RESERVEDFORESTS PROTECTED FORESTS UNCLASSEDFORESTS • More than half of the total forests have been declared as reserved forests. They are regarded as the most valuable as far the conservation of forest resources are concerned • Almost one third of the total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the forest department. This forests land is protected from any further depletion. • These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities. • Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Maharashtra have large percentages of reserved forests. • Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan have a bulk of it under protected forests. • All the North-Eastern states and parts of Gujarat have very high percentage of their forests as unclassed forests managed by local communities.
  24. 24. Government’s role in conservation of wildlife  Wildlife protection act 1972  Project Tiger 1972-73  Forest Protection Act 1980-88  Anti Poaching Agencies  State wildlife dept.  State forest dept.  Ministry of Environment and Forest  Army ( if applicable)  Police  Border security Force and Coast guards  Wildlife Conservation Society.
  25. 25. SACRED GROVES • Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. Such belies have preserved several virgin forests in pristine from called sacred groves. • The Mundas and the Santhals of Chhota Nagpur region worship Mahua (Bassi latifolia) and Kadamba(Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees and the Tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and Mango (Mangifra indica) trees during weddings.
  26. 26. MOVEMENTS 1. Chipko Movement – Early 1970 in GHARWAL HIMALAYAS Uttarakhand 2. Beej Bachao Andolan – 1980 Tehri in Uttarakhand 3. Navdanya- 1984 Started by an NGO to protect India's Biodiversity organic farming and SEED SAVING In India Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme furnishes a good example for involving Local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. The programme is been in formal since 1988 in ODISHA when the state passed the first resolution for JFM