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Food security

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Food security

  1. 1. Food security means : 0 availability, 0 accessibility and 0 affordability of food to all people at all times.
  2. 2. DIMENSIONS OF FOOD SECURITY a) AVAILABILITY of food means food production within the country, food imports and the previous years stock stored in govt. granaries. b) ACCESSIBILITY means food is within reach of every person. c) AFFORDABILITY implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious to meet ones dietary needs.
  3. 3. Food Security is ensured in a country only if 0 Enough food is available for all the persons 0 All persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality and 0 There is no barrier on access to food.
  4. 4. Need for Food Security: 0 For the poor sections of the society 0 Natural disasters or calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami, 0 Widespread crop failure due to drought
  5. 5. How drought affects food security Drought takes place Total production of food grains Shortage of food in the affected areas Prices Some people cannot afford to buy food = Food Insecurity
  6. 6. Why food security? POVERTY
  7. 7. Starvation 0 If such calamity happens in a very wide spread area or is stretched over a longer time period, it may cause a situation of starvation.
  8. 8. Famine 0 A massive starvation might take a turn of famine. 0 A Famine is characterized by 1. widespread deaths and 2. epidemics
  9. 9. Famines and Starvation Deaths in India 0 Bengal Famine, 1943 -killed 1.5 million to 3 million 0 The Bihar famine, 1966-7 - 2,353 deaths due to starvation reported Starvation deaths have also been reported in: 1. Kalahandi and Kashipur in Orissa 2. Baran district of Rajasthan, 3. Palamau district of Jharkhand and many other remote areas during the recent years.
  10. 10. Food Insecure Groups Worst Affected Groups: 0 landless people 0 traditional artisans 0 traditional services providers 0 petty self-employed workers 0 Homeless, beggars etc. 0 Families employed in ill-paid occupations 0 casual labourers (seasonal activities+ very low wages)
  11. 11. 0 SCs, STs and some sections of the OBCs (lower castes among them) –having poor land-base or very low land productivity 0 Migrants ( as a result of natural disasters ) 0 Women and children
  12. 12. States facing problem of food insecurity 0 Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, 0 Jharkhand, 0 Orissa, 0 West Bengal, 0 Chattisgarh, 0 parts of Madhya Pradesh and 0 Maharasthra
  13. 13. Hunger, another aspect of Food Insecurity Inadequate diet for a long time Poor people suffer from chronic hunger Chronic Hunger Due agricultural activities-rural regions & urban areas- casual labour When a person is unable to get work for the entire year Seasonal Hunger
  14. 14. India’s attempts at attaining Food Security Highest Growth Punjab and Haryana Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh Low Growth Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh Bihar, Orissa and the N-E states Green Revolution: Foodgrain Production
  15. 15. India’s Food Security System Buffer Stock Public Distributio n System Food Security System of India
  16. 16. How the Public Distribution System works: Farmers or Producers States Fair Price Shops F.C.I (maintains Buffer Stocks) Grains MSP Allocates Grains Central Issue Price C.I.P Distributes Grains
  17. 17. Government schemes 0 PDS (initial Public Distribution System scheme) 0 RPS (Revamped Public Distribution System) 0 TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System) Special Schemes: 0 AAY (Antyodaya Anna Yojana) 0 APS (Annapurna Scheme)
  18. 18. Benefits from the PDS: 0 Stabilizes prices of food grains 0 Makes food available at affordable prices 0 By supplying food from surplus regions of the country to the deficit ones, it helps in combating hunger and famine 0 Prices set with poor households in mind 0 Provides income security to farmers in certain regions
  19. 19. Problems faced by PDS: 0 Problem of Hunger still exists in many areas of India 0 Footstock in granaries often above specified levels 0 Deterioration in quality of stored food grains if kept for longer time 0 High storage costs 0 Increase in MSP has led to shift from coarse grain to rice and wheat production among the farmers 0 Cultivation of rice has also led to environmental degradation and fall in the water level
  20. 20. 0 Average consumption of PDS grain at the all-India level is very low 0 Malpractices on part of PDS dealers:  Diverting the grains to open market to get better margin,  Selling poor quality grains at ration shops,  Irregular opening of the shops 0 Low Income families earning just above poverty line have to pay APL rates which are almost equal to open market rates – lower incentive to buy from Fair Price Shops
  21. 21. FOOD SECURITY BILL OF 2013 0 The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013 (also Right to Food Act), was signed into law September 12, 2013. 0 This law aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of India's 1.2 billion people. Under the provisions of the bill, beneficiaries are to be able to purchase 5 kilograms per eligible person per month of cereals at the following prices: 0 R = INR- 3 0 W= INR - 2 0 CG= INR- 1