4. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION
1. Psychological phenomenon.
2. Positive or negative.
3. Complex process.
4. Dynamic process.
5. Motivation and job satisfaction are
6. Results in goal directed behaviour.
7. Financial or non financial.
5. TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Based on reward.
Achieved by the
They have feeling of
Based on fear or force
Punishes if the
employee don’t act
Fear act as a push
Causes anger and
6. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy.
Herzberg’s two factor theory.
McGregor theory X and Y.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory.
Porter and Lawler Expectancy
7. ABRAHAM MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Maslow categorized human needs into five categories.
Hierarchy of needs refers to the systematic arrangement of
human needs in the order to their importance.
Esteem or ego
Self fulfillment needs
Physiological needs: it includes various needs
like food, clothing, drinking, shelter, rest, exercise,
It is useful to survive.
Safety needs: it includes needs like safety of loss
of job, property, shelter, provision for old age,
insurance against risk.
It is useful for security purposes.
Social need: man is social animal
it includes love, warmth, friendship, affection,
involvement, relationships etc.
It is useful to survive in a society.
Esteem or ego needs: it includes
2. Self confidence
3. Feeling of being unique
Self fulfillment needs or self actualization:
1. a person tries to do whatever he is capable of
2. tries to bring out something hidden in him.
“The self fulfillment needs is helpful to face challenge
and give satisfaction self and are good for the
10. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THEORY:
It is helpful for the manager to understand how to
This theory is very simple, common and easily
It includes both interpersonal and intrapersonal
variations in human behaviour.
This theory is dynamic.
There is lack of cause and relationship between need
Some people say that this hierarchy of need simply
does not exist.
It is difficult for the researchers to test this theory.
11. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
It has also focused on the way of increasing job
satisfaction rather than only motivating workers to
perform. The factors are classified into two
Hygiene or maintenance
12. EXPLANATION :
Motivational factors: these factors help to build
strong motivation and high job satisfaction. They
are also known as “satisfiers”.
These factors bring satisfaction, efficiency and
productivity. It will not lead to dissatisfaction.
Hygiene factors: ‘hygiene’ relate to the work
environment. These factors does not bring any kind
of motivation to the employees but the absence
leads to the job dissatisfaction. There are following
1. Company policies
2. Technical supervision
3. Interpersonal relation with supervisor
4. Interpersonal relation with peers
5. Interpersonal relation with subordinates
7. Job security
8. Personal life
9. Working conditions
14. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
Meaning: it is based on the
concept of human needs and their
It is based on the hierarchy of
The theory is based on long
experience about human needs.
Meaning: it is based on the use of
motivators which include
achievement, recognition and
opportunity for growth.
It is based on two factors i.e.
motivation and hygiene factors.
The theory is based on actual
information collected by interview.
Douglas Maslow's hierarchy
Herzberg’s two factor
15. MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y
His theory is based on the dual nature of human
Theory X: In this, superior sets objectives for
subordinates and there is little participation of
subordinates in setting objectives and plans.
Workers dislike to work independently
They prefer to be directed
They avoid accepting responsibility and are
They lack creativity
They avoid taking decision
16. Theory Y: McGregor realized that management need to
develop practices based on accurate understanding of
human nature and motivation and Theory Y came into
1. Workers are ambitious
2. They are directed by themselves
3. High degree of creativity
4. Focuses on both higher and lower needs.