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The Protestant Reformation

  1. The Protestant Reformation
  2. Breakdown of Denominations
  3. Early Reformers John Wycliffe (1324-1384) – Interested in authority of clergy. – People should be able to interpret and read the Bible on their own. – Lived during Western Schism (more than one pope). • This caused questioning about Papal Authority.
  4. Early Reformers Cont… Jan Hus (1369-1415) – He wanted Bishops elected and not appointed by Pope. – At the Council of Constance, he made his case but he was burned at the stake for his beliefs. – Spiritual leader of the Moravian Church.
  5. Early Reformers Cont… Erasmus (1466-1536) – “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” – Erasmus remained committed to reforming the Church from within. – He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will. • Which some Protestant Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination.
  6. Important Developments that aid the process to Reformation! The Printing Press!!!! – Books are now available to the masses not just the rich! (Faster production=cheaper books) – People have access to books whenever they want them. • How does this relate to the Reformation? Explain your answer?Printing Press = 3,600 pages per workday Hand Printing = 40 pages per workday
  7. What is the Protestant Reformation? Protestant Reformation- a religious movement in the 1500’s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches. – People grew displeased with the churches… • Financial Corruption • Abuse of Power • Immorality
  8. What happens to spark the Reformation? Pope Leo X needs money to build St. Peter’s Basilica…so he sells indulgences! – Indulgences- were pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul’s time in purgatory = (People could buy forgiveness) – Martin Luther’s Ninety Five Theses
  9. Language Barriers Most uneducated people didn’t understand Latin, but knew the local common language or “vernacular”. – Almost all Bibles were written in LATIN before the Reformation. It was the job of the church clergy to translate the Bible to lay people.
  10. Martin Luther Luther was a German monk and professor of theology (religion) at the University of Wittenberg. One of the many leaders of the Protestant Reformation. – Luther objected to a saying attributed to Johann Tetzel that "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
  11. Luther’s 95 Theses In 1517, the 95 Theses were nailed to a church door. They were written in Latin. – Luther’s intention: NOT TO BREAK WITH CHURCH, BUT REFORM IT! – Criticized: 1.Indulgences 2.Power of Pope 3.Wealth of Church God’s Grace won by FAITH ALONE! – Catholic View: Good Works
  12. Excommunication In 1520 Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther. – Excommunication- expelled him from the church. – Holy Roman Emperor Charles V passed measures to suppress Luther’s writings. – Lutheran princes in Germany issued a protestatio or protest. • Hence the term Protestant!
  13. Other Reformations Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland – Theocracy • A government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired. John Calvin in Switzerland – Predestination • God knows who will be saved, even before people are born, and therefore guides the lives of those destined fore salvation. John Knox in Scotland – Laid grounds for Presbyterian Church
  14. In England, the Reformation began with the King! King Henry VIII – The king who had six wives… • He wants a SON! Lines provided in notes to write down story of King Henry VIII.
  15. The Reformation Parliament Was a gathering that led to the decision that England was no longer under the authority of the pope. Act of Supremacy – Subjects were required to take an oath declaring Henry VIII to be “Supreme Head of the Church of England”
  16. Longstanding Effects of Henry VIII His legitimate children: Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward (dies). – Queen Mary I or “Bloody Mary” • Raised Catholic like her mother Catherine of Aragon; she reestablished the Catholic Church in England. She killed many protestants and had approximately 300 heretics burned at the stake. – Queen Elizabeth I (Ends the House of Tudor) • Raised Protestant and ruled England for 44 years. Ruled during the Spanish Armada, and never married…known as the Virgin Queen.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Lived in Bohemia (Modern Day Czech Republic) Eucharist (Catholic Sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine) The last words of John Hus were that, “in 100 years, God will raise up a man whose calls for reform cannot be suppressed.” Almost exactly 100 years later, in 1517, Martin Luther nailed his famous 95 Theses.
  2. Like the Kindle or Nook to early modern Europeans. A single Renaissance printing press could produce 3,600 pages per workday, compared to forty by hand-printing and a few by hand-copying.
  3. Luther translates the Bible to German and believes that people should be able to interpret the Bible for themselves. Coffer means chest
  4. Pope Leo X by Raphel
  5. King Henry’s older brother Arthur (named after the famous tale King Author and the Knights of the Round Table) dies… Author was married to Catherine of Argon (from Spain) before she married Henry. This becomes the grounds for his annulment (because Catherine can’t produce a son). She does however give birth to a daughter named Mary. She later becomes a queen of England and restores the Catholic Church! History knows her as Bloody Mary. Catherine of Aragon, Henry's first wife.  Catherine, a Princess of Spain, was married to Henry for many years.  Her determination to stay married to Henry, in the face of his desire for Anne Boleyn, would change the course of history forever. Anne Boleyn, Henry's second wife, and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I.  Henry fell passionately in love with Anne while married to Catherine of Aragon.  He waited several years to marry Anne, but, ironically, lost his desire for her once she became his Queen. Jane Seymour, Henry's beloved third Queen.  Gentle, capable Jane gave Henry his long-awaited male heir after one year of marriage.  Sadly, she gave her life to do so. Anne of Cleves, Henry's fourth wife.  This German princess served as Queen for only a few months before she and Henry agreed to divorce by mutual consent. Katherine Howard, Henry's fifth wife.  Henry's marriage to this sensuous teenager brought him brief happiness, but ended in tragedy.  Katherine Parr, Henry's sixth Queen.  This intelligent, loyal, forward-thinking Renaissance woman outlived three husbands, including Henry, and went on to finally marry the man of her choice.