Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Developing the curriculum chapter 5

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 19 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Andere mochten auch (19)

Anzeige

Ähnlich wie Developing the curriculum chapter 5 (20)

Aktuellste (20)

Anzeige

Developing the curriculum chapter 5

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5: MODELS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Developing the Curriculum Eighth Edition Peter F. Oliva William R. Gordon II
  2. 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-2 AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: • Analyze each model for curriculum development in this chapter and decide which models, if any, meet the necessary criteria for such a model. • Choose one model and carry out one or more of its components in your school. • Distinguish between deductive and inductive models for curriculum development. • Distinguish between linear and nonlinear models for curriculum development. • Distinguish between prescriptive and descriptive models for curriculum development.
  3. 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-3 SELECTING MODELS • Models, which are essentially patterns serving as guidelines to action, can be found for almost every form of educational activity. • Unfortunately, the term model as used in the education profession often lacks precision. A model may: ○ propose a solution to a piece of a problem ○ attempt to solve to a specific problem ○ create or replicate a pattern on a grander scale.
  4. 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-4 VARIATION IN MODELS • Individual models are often refined or revised due to the current trends that are impacting the educational climate. • Therefore, practitioners have a responsibility to understand the essential components of curriculum models.
  5. 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-5 MODELS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • By examining models for curriculum development, we can analyze the phases their originators conceived as essential to the process. • Using a model in such an activity as curriculum development can result in greater efficiency and productivity
  6. 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-6 MODELS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • The three models described in this chapter are mostly linear; that is, they propose a certain order or sequence of progression through the various steps. • The term “linear” is used for models whose steps proceed in a more or less sequential, straight line from beginning to end.
  7. 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-7 MODELS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • The three models discussed in this book are either deductive or inductive: ○ A deductive model proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives, for example). ○ An inductive model starts with the development of curriculum materials and leads to generalization.
  8. 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-8 MODELS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • The three models presented in this chapter are prescriptive rather than descriptive: ○ they suggest what ought to be done (and what is done by many curriculum developers). • Curriculum workers should exercise judgment as to the entry points and interrelationships of components of the models.
  9. 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-9 • The three models addressed in this chapter are: 1. The Tyler Model 2. The Taba Model 3. The Oliva Model MODELS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
  10. 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-10 THE TYLER MODEL • The Tyler Model is: ○ one of the best known models for curriculum development. ○ known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases. ○ deductive for it proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives).
  11. 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-11 THE TYLER MODEL • Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: ○ the learners ○ contemporary life outside the school ○ subject matter. • After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens: ○ the philosophical screen ○ the psychological screen
  12. 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-12 THE TYLER MODEL • In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become what are now popularly known as instructional objectives.
  13. 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-13 THE TABA MODEL • Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. • Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather than by engaging initially in creating a general curriculum design.
  14. 14. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-14 THE TABA MODEL • Taba advocated an inductive approach to curriculum development. • In the inductive approach, curriculum workers start with the specifics and build up to a general design as opposed to the more traditional deductive approach of starting with the general design and working down to the specifics.
  15. 15. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-15 THE OLIVA MODEL • The Oliva Model is a deductive model that offers a faculty a process for the complete development of a school’s curriculum. • Oliva recognized the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout our society.
  16. 16. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-16 THE OLIVA MODEL In the Oliva Model a faculty can fashion a plan: • for the curriculum of an area and design ways in which it will be carried out through instruction • to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that cut across areas of specialization such as career education, guidance, and class activities. • for a faculty to focus on the curricular components of the model to make programmatic decisions. • to allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional components.
  17. 17. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-17 CONSIDERATIONS Curriculum Planners might agree that the model should show the following: • major components of the process, including stages of planning, implementation, and evaluation • customary but not inflexible “beginning” and “ending” points • the relationship between curriculum and instruction • distinctions between curriculum and instructional goals and objectives • reciprocal relationships among components
  18. 18. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-18 CONSIDERATIONS • Continued: ○ a cyclical pattern ○ feedback lines ○ the possibility of entry at any point in the cycle ○ an internal consistency and logic ○ enough simplicity to be intelligible and feasible ○ components in the form of a diagram or chart
  19. 19. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-19 A FINAL THOUGHT: • Those who take leadership in curriculum development should become familiar with various models and try them out. In doing so, they can select or develop a model that is most understandable and feasible for them and for the persons with whom they are working.

×