1. IDENTIFYING INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS :
7.5 DEVELOP INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
7.6 DEVELOP ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
ROXAN MAE C. UGRIMINA
TANAUAN SCHOOL OF FISHERIES
TANAUAN CITY DIVISION
2. An instructional goal is a
clear statement of
observable behaviors that
learners are to demonstrate
as a result of the instruction.
5. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
This is where you outline the instructional activities you
want to present to your learners to help them achieve your
Dick and Carey use the term Instructional Strategy to
describe the process of sequencing and organizing content,
specifying learning activities, and deciding how to deliver
the content and activities.
6. An instructional strategy can perform several functions:
• It can be used as a prescription to develop instructional
• It can be used as a set of criteria to evaluate existing
• It can be used as a set of criteria and a prescription to
revise existing materials.
• It can be used as a framework from which to plan class
lecture notes, interactive group exercises, and homework
7. Key Factors to consider when selecting
• Take into consideration individual needs and
Choose materials that present information in a variety
of ways. Using mixed media (text, video, images, real
world examples, graphs, etc.) make information more
interesting and address learners’ different learning
8. Key Factors to consider when selecting
• Make sure the materials support learning
Provide a wide range of materials that will enrich and
support the curriculum and course objectives. The
instructional materials should reinforce and
supplement, not substitute for, the teacher’s
9. Key Factors to consider when selecting
• Make the materials clear and accessible:
Make sure learners have sufficient
background knowledge to comprehend the
10. The creation of an instructional strategy is an important part of
the overall instructional design process.
Gagne calls the planning and analysis steps the "architecture"
of the course, while the instructional strategies are the "bricks
13. This is where you deal with how to actually instruct
As a teacher, you have to combine your knowledge of
learning and design theory in order to create an
effective plan for presenting your instruction.
14. To create the instructional strategy you will call
upon all of the information you've gathered during
the earlier design stages, including the goal
statement, instructional analysis, learner and
context analyses, objectives, and assessment items.
15. Dick and Carey describe four elements of an instructional
• Content Sequence and Clustering
Content sequencing refers to determining the order in which objectives should be addressed
in a lesson or course. The task analysis may be helpful in determining what skills or related
or need to be learned prior to other skills.
Clustering refers to determining how objectives will be presented, individually or in clusters.
Sequencing and clustering should be determined by the following factors: (a) learners' age,
(b) complexity of the material, (c) the ability to vary activities to meet the objective, and (d) the
time required to complete the instructional tasks.
16. Dick and Carey describe four elements of an
2. Learning Components
The 10 Components of the Dick and Carey Model
• Identify the instructional goals- the skills, knowledge, and/or
attitude that a learner will be expected to acquire.
• Conduct instructional analysis – identify what a learner must
recalto perform a particular task.
• Analyze learners and contexts- what are the general characteristics
of the learners including prior knowledge and skills need to meet
• Performance objectives- writing an objective for the learner
consists of three parts: the behavior, the condition, and the
degree. Objectives must be measurable in order to accurately
assess the performance.
17. Dick and Carey describe four elements of an instructional
2. Learning Components
The 10 Components of the Dick and Carey Model
5. Develop the assessment tools- types of tests could pre-test- post-test, practice items, etc.
6. Develop instructional strategies- pre-instrcution activites, content presentation,
participations and assessment.
7. Develop and select instructional materials.
8. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction- identify areas of the instructional
materials that are in need of improvement.
9. Revise instruction based on poor test items and/or poor or unsuccessful instruction methods.
10. Design and conduct summative evaluation.
18. how will students be grouped?
When deciding upon grouping, consider:
• requirements for social interaction explicitly stated in the objectives
• requirements for social interaction in the performance environment
• the importance of collaboration in the learning environment (read Palloff and
Pratt's Collaborating Online: Learning Together in Community to learn about the
importance of community in the online environment)
• the restraints of the delivery system (e.g. more time needs to be allotted for
online collaboration than F2F collaboration).
• personal philosophy of learning
3. Student Groupings
Dick and Carey describe four elements of an instructional
19. Dick and Carey describe four elements of an instructional
The delivery system refers to the systems necessary to allow a particular instructional
system to operate as it was intended and where it was intended. Examples include:
• Television broadcasting
Once the delivery system is specified, media are chosen for instructional deliver and
4. Selection of Media and Delivery Systems
20. Included within the Learning Components element are Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction,
a set of strategies that should be included in most instructional programs in order to
facilitate the acquisition of skills and knowledge. They are designed to help learners get
from where they are to where you want them to be. The nine events are:
• Gaining attention
• Informing learner of objectives
• Stimulating recall of prior learning
• Presenting the stimulus material
• Providing learning guidance
• Eliciting the performance
• Providing feedback about performance correctness
• Assessing the performance
• Enhancing retention and transfer
21. When creating an instructional strategy, Dick and Carey suggest following a slightly
different sequence. Their process has five phases:
• Sequence and cluster objectives.
• Plan preinstructional, assessment, and follow-though activities for the unit.
• Plan the content presentations and student participation sections for each objective
or cluster of objectives.
• Assign objectives to lessons and estimate the time required for each.
• Review the strategy to consolidate media selections and confirm or select a
Once you have an instructional strategy you will have a prescriptive plan to guide the
development of your multimedia program.
24. • Learner-centered assessment is linked very closely to the traditional
notion of criterion-referenced tests.
• The name criterion-referenced is derived from the purpose of the test: to
find out whether the criteria stated in an objective have been achieved.
• The importance of criterion-referenced assessment from an
instructional design standpoint is that it is closely linked to instructional
goals and a matched set of performance objectives, therefore giving the
designers an opportunity to evaluate performance and revise
instructional strategies if needed.
25. How to Make Student Assessments Useful
1. Make sure your assessments are
valid and reliable
There are many assessments that are pretty flawed with ambiguous
wording, unclear instructions, or obscure cultural references that are
unreliable and possibly biased. So when designing assessments, be aware
of those pitfalls.
26. How to Make Student Assessments Useful
2. Give productive feedback
Productive feedback is more than a score or letter grade, but it’s
also more than just a couple words. Teaching students involves
giving “corrective,” timely, and criterion-referenced feedback that
encourages them through their learning.
27. How to Make Student Assessments Useful
3. Use Backward Design
Step One: Identify your goals: What do you want the students to
know, be able to reason, or be able to do?
Step Two: Design your assessment: Keep strategies and evidence
of learning in mind.
Step Three: Create strategically aligned lesson plans:
28. 4. Remember that your words
How to Make Student Assessments Useful
It is also the most important part of the job to ensure our
teaching is effective and our students are learning and
29. How to Make Student Assessments Useful
5. Motivate students to be
responsible, active learners
Motivating students to learn transfers the responsibility for learning to
them, leaving the teacher as the knowledge base, resource, and facilitator.
When they believe their success is your goal, not just to “get through the
next chapter” or “proctor the test”, they will be more inclined to ask for
support, be creative, and want to learn more.