Leader & Leadership
A. Introduction To Leader /Definition/
B. Harmony forces of Leader /Power, Trust, Knowledge/
C. How To be an Effective Leader /Be, Know, Do/
A. Leadership Concepts /Definition/
B. How Leadership Occurs?
A. Leader vs. Manager
B. Importance of Leadership in Management
3.1. Great Man, Trait, Behavioral, Transactional, &
Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership
•Transformational, Transactional, Charismatic, Servant
Forms of Leadership
2. Authoritarian Leadership:
3. Participative Leadership:
4. Laissez-Faire Leadership
7.3. Distinctive of Biblical Leadership
7.3 3. Competence
A. Introduction to Leader
Definition of Leader: Leader is the person who leads or
commands a group, organization, or country. The concept of
Leader & leadership are interdependent.
Who is an Effective leader? According to the idea of
transformational leadership, an effective leader is a person
who does the following:
1.Creates an inspiring vision of the future.
2.Motivates and inspires people to engage with that vision.
3.Manages delivery of the vision.
4. Coaches and builds a team, so that it is more effective at
achieving the vision.
Leadership brings together the skills needed to do these
things. We'll look at each element in more detail.
1. Creating an Inspiring Vision of the Future
In business/work, a vision is a realistic, convincing and
attractive depiction/representation of where you want to be
in the future. Vision provides direction, sets priorities, and
provides a marker, so that you can tell that you've achieved
what you wanted to achieve.
To create a vision, leaders focus on an organization's
strengths by using tools such as Porter's Five Forces
A.PEST Analysis,/Political, Economic, Social & Technical/
B. USP Analysis, The Unique Selling/working Proposition
or USP Analysis is a strategy that is implemented to
highlight the special features of a product that is marketed
to the organization’s clients.
C. Core Competence Analysis: are the resources and
capabilities that comprise the strategic advantages of a
D.SWOT Analysis: Strength, Weakness, Opportunities &
Traits to analyze their current situation.
They think about how their industry/Organization is
likely to change, and how their competitors are likely to
They look at how they can innovate successfully, and
shape their businesses and their strategies to succeed in
And they test their visions with appropriate
market/Servise research, and by assessing key risks using
techniques such as Scenario Analysis.
Therefore, leadership/Leader is
proactive – problem solving,
looking ahead, and
not being satisfied with things as they are.
Once they have developed their visions, leaders must make
them compelling/pressuring/ and convincing.
A compelling vision is one that people can see, feel,
understand, and embrace.
Effective leaders provide a rich picture of what the
future will look like when their visions have been realized.
They tell inspiring stories, and explain their visions in
ways that everyone can relate to.
Here, leadership combines the analytical side of vision creation
with the passion of shared values, creating something that's really
meaningful to the people being led.
2. Motivating and Inspiring People
A compelling/forceful vision provides the foundation for
leadership. But it's leaders' ability to motivate and inspire
people that helps them deliver that vision.
Fredrik Arnander, in his 2013 book “We Are All
Leaders”, suggested that leadership is “not a matter of
position, but mindset”.
In an article in Nigeria’s Premium Times, Bamidele
Ademola-Olateju stated:“A leader goes in the front, leads
the way and by his actions; people follow.”
Nelson Mandela, the late, great leader of South Africa,
had this to say:“It is better to lead from behind and to put
others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when
nice things occur. You take the front line when there is
danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership.”
3.Manages delivery of the vision.
Guide for Managers
Managing Delivery of the Vision is the area of
leadership that relates to management Add to My
Personal Learning Plan.
Leaders must ensure that the work needed to
deliver the vision is properly managed – either by
themselves, or by a dedicated manager or team of
managers to whom the leader delegates this
responsibility – and they need to ensure that their
vision is delivered successfully.
4. Coaches and builds a team,
Coaches and builds a team is more effective at
achieving the vision.
A strong, effective team works in harmony to
achieve a specific goal. Techniques, theories and
exercises have been designed for the purpose of
building a cohesive team and can be found on
www.businessballs.com for free. Managers must
take on several roles to facilitate development of an
outstanding team that demonstrates confidence in
the results produced and projects the company
image in a positive and professional way.
B. Harmony forces of Leader
To exercise influence a leader must have
power, i.e. the potential or ability to influence
decisions and control resources.
•According to Dale E. Zand Power,
Knowledge and Trust are three forces that is
known as Leadership triad/harmony.
•But effective leaders use power appropriately,
and know when and how to be directive and
when to delegate.
The 3 Harmony forces Leader needs
are /Power, Trust & Knowledge/.
Leader; with Trust & Knowledge; but
without Power –Expert
Leader with Trust & Power but without
Leader with Power & Knowledge but
without Trust – Laissez-faire
C. How To be an Effective Leader
BE, KNOW & DO
BE – this is all about your character as a leader
and is foundational to your ability to lead.
It gives you the courage to do what is right
regardless of the circumstances or the
As part of BE, you should be aware of your
personal core values as well as your organization’s
For the Army, their values are: Loyalty, Respect, Selfless
Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage.
KNOW – This is about the knowledge and
skill sets you need to be competent as a
leader and cover four areas: Interpersonal
skills, Conceptual skills, Technical skills
and Tactical skills.
DO – Leaders act. They bring together
everything they are, everything they believe,
and everything they know how to do to
provide purpose, direction, and motivation.
This involves the following three leader
actions: Influencing, Operating and Improving
1. Define Leader & describe 4 effective leader works. /2 %/
2. Discuss Porter's Five Forces to create organization' vision. /3 %/
3. Discuss the 3 Harmony forces Leader & explain BE, KNOW
& DO in Leadership/5 %/
A. Definition of Leadership:
Creating an Inspiring Vision of the Future
Motivating and Inspiring People.
B. How Leadership Occurs?
1. Leadership Occurs in a group Context
Groups are the context in which leadership
Leadership involves influencing a
group of individuals who have a
common purpose—it can be small task
group, a community group or a large
group encompassing a entire
So leadership training program that
teach people to lead themselves are not
considered a part of leadership within
2. Leadership Involves Goal Attainment
•Directing a group of individuals
towards accomplishing some task or end.
•Leaders direct their energies towards
individuals towards accomplishing some
task or end.
•Leadership is the ability to inspire
confidence and support among the
people who are needed to achieve
•Whereby an individual influences a
group of individuals to achieve a
•that means it is not a trait or
characteristic that resides inside the
•but a transactional event that occurs
between the leader and his/her followers.
3. Leadership Involves Influence
•It is concerned with how the leader affects
•Without influence leadership does not exists
•Interpersonal influence, directed through
communication towards goal attainment.
•It also implies that leaders affects and is
affected by its followers.
•The influential increment over and above
mechanical compliance/ agreement with
directions and orders.
•The act that causes others to act or respond a
shared direction The art of influencing
people by persuasion or example to follow a
line of action. The principal dynamic force
that motivates and coordinates the
organization in the accomplishment of its
•A willingness to take the blame.It implies
that the leadership is not linear, one way
event but rather an interactive event.
4. Empowering of Leaders
Empowerment refers to passing of
decision-making authority and
responsibility from managers to group
members. Participative management,
Shared decision Making and
delegation are different means of
Four components of empowerment are
1. meaning, value of work goal.
2.Competence /Self efficiency/ individuals belief
in his/her capability to perform a particular task
3.self-determination, individuals feeling of having
4. impact, degree to which the worker can
influence strategic, administrative outcomes
•Apart from these four empowerment internal
commitment is also needed.
4.1.Empowering Leadership Practices
•Foster Initiative and Responsibilities
•Link Work Activities to the goal of the
•Provide Ample/sufficien/t Information
•Allow group members to choose
•Encourage Self Leadership
•Implement team based HR policies
•Establish limit to Empowerment
4.2.Sources and types of Power
1.Position Power (Power granted by the Organization)
A.Legitimate Power: lawful right to make a
B. Reward Power: The authority to give
employees reward for compliance/agreement.
C. Coercive Power: the power to punish for
noncompliance /based on fear/
D.Information Power: stemming from
formal control over information
2. Personal Power: stemming from
characteristic & behavior of the power actor
A.Expert Power-influence other through
specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities
B.Referent Power: ability to influence
others through desirable traits and
C.Prestige/status Power: stemming from
status & reputation.
Note: Expert & Referred Powers contribute to
3. Ownership Power:
Executive leaders accrue power in their capacity as
agents acting on behalf of shareholders. The
strength of this power depends on how closely the
leader is linked to shareholders and board members.
Also it depends upon the magnitude of investment.
4.Power Stemming from Providing Resources:
Organization needs continuous flow of human
resources, money, customers and clients, technology
inputs, and material to continue to function.
5. Power Stemming from Being close to power
Power derived from Capitalizing on opportunities
1. Define Leadership & discuss How it Occurs? 10 %
2. Discuss Four components of empowerment sources and
types of Power -------------------------------- 10%
Assignment from Chapter 2
Chapter - 3
Leader Vs Manager
Discover the qualities that will make you stand out
from the crowd/mass/.
Leaders are people who do the right thing;
managers are people who do things right. –
Professor Warren G. Bennis
The word "leadership" can bring to mind a variety
of images. For example:
•A political leader, pursuing a passionate, personal
•An explorer, cutting a path through the jungle for
the rest of his group to follow.
•An executive, developing her company's
strategy to beat the competition.
Leaders help themselves and others to do
the right things.
They set direction, build an inspiring
vision, and create something new.
Leadership is about mapping out where
you need to go to "win" as a team or an
organization; and it is dynamic, exciting,
•Yet, while leaders set the direction, they must also
use management skills to guide their people to the
right destination, in a smooth and efficient way.
•In this article, we'll focus on the process of
•In particular, we'll discuss the "transformational
leadership" model, first proposed by James
MacGregor Burns and then developed by Bernard
•This model highlights visionary thinking and
bringing about change, instead of management
processes that are designed to maintain and steadily
improve current performance.
Importance of Leadership in Management
•When it comes to business management,
leadership plays an effective role in
accomplishing the set objectives of an
•The onus/responsibility is on people
working as the top brass to identify the
strengths and weaknesses of the human
resources management and utilize them
effectively to achieve the goals set by the
•In most of the cases, the failure of a
business firm can be attributed to the
failure of leadership which holds its
•Inability of the leaders to develop an
effective strategy and more importantly,
implement it, can only lead to
diminishing returns as far as investment
in human resource is concerned.
•Other than decision making, the leader
also has to motivate and guide his team
•As a CEO of an organization, the
individual on that post is also expected to
boost the morale of his employees by
understanding their strengths,
weaknesses, problems they are subjected
•Lack of coordination between two
departments in a company is a perfect recipe
for disaster, and therefore, the leadership has
to shoulder the responsibility of coordinating
between two or more departments in a said
•In order to get things done from employees,
the management has to create a work friendly
environment and this can only be done when
people at the leadership level know its
•Leadership theories explain the concept and
practices adopted to become a leader.
•It gives precise information on the
leadership qualities and attributes one must
have to become a leader.
•Let us get into the details of leadership
1. Great Man Theories
One of the leadership theories that often
figures in various leadership books the Great
Man theory states that there are two basic
assumptions; that leaders are born and not
made, and the second assumption is that great
leaders will come up when there is a need.
•This theory was developed from an
early research which included the study
of great leaders.
•The early leaders came from the
privileged class and held hereditary
•Very few people from the lower class
had the opportunity to take a lead.
•The Great Man theory was based on the idea that
whenever there is a need of leadership, a Great
Man would arise and solve the problems.
•When the Great Man theory was proposed, most
of the leaders were males and therefore, the
gender issues were not negotiable. Even the
researchers were male, which was the reason for
the name of the theory being 'Great Man Theory'.
2. Trait Theories
•One of the important leadership theories in
education, traits theory of leadership assumes
that leaders have inherited
traits/personality in them which make these
people suitable for leadership.
•Many say that leaders are people who can
fully express themselves while others
cannot, and this is what makes them
different from other people.
These traits/persenalities/ are:
•Intelligence and judgments based on actions
•Physical stamina and a vital driving force
•Better understanding of the followers and their demands
•Avidness to accept responsibilities
•Ability to deal with people
•Capability to motivate people
•These are some of the few qualities and
attributes of a leadership.
•When this theory was researched earlier,
researchers believed that a leader has all
the listed traits in him/her.
•The meaning of this theory is that the
same leadership attributes are applicable
for leadership on a battlefield and the
leadership in a school.
•However, if a person has some of these
traits and not all, then it is not possible for
him to be a leader!
•Apart from this question, there was again
the problem of gender in a leadership.
•Even if you make an exhaustive list of
leadership traits, these attributes are defined
taking into consideration a male leader. This
gave rise to the new leadership theory called
the behavioral theory.
3. Behavioral Theories
•After the trait theory, the researchers started
exploring the behavior of the leaders and
made assumptions that the traits and the
leadership qualities are not inherited, they can
be learned and mastered by any person.
•Thus, this theory meant that leaders are not
born, leaders can be made and so it became a
famous management leadership theory and
•In the behavior theory, you need to assess a
successful leader along with the actions of that
•As a successful leader is assessed, a leader with
failure is also assessed, therefore, a second aspect
of this theory was built.
•Apart from the leadership theories and styles
which were pronounced earlier, the basic leadership
ideas remained the same.
•Here are the four styles of leadership based on the
A. Concern for People: the characteristics of the
leaders who aimed upon solving the problems of
their followers and look after their needs,
development and problems. The leader who has the
concern of people as his priority will always strive
for the betterment of his people or followers.
B Concern of Task: The leader with the concern of
task is more focused on his achievements and level
of productivity. Also, the concern of task style
reflects the ability to organize people and arrange
activities, in order to meet the desired objectives
C. Directive Leadership: This leadership style
includes the characteristics of leaders with the
ability to be decisive and expect the followers to
act according to his decision.
D Participative Leadership: Unlike directive
leadership, in participative leadership, the leader
and his followers take a decision by sharing the
views and decisions together.
4. Situational Leadership Theories
•One of the relatively lesser known
leadership theories is the situational
•The researchers found that leaders emerged
as a result of different situations.
•Therefore, the researchers assumed that
leadership qualities were developed
depending on the situation.
•However, there are people who believe that there
are different styles of leadership which changes the
situation. There are three basic things in a
•The foremost thing is that the relationship
between the followers and the leader must be
1. The followers must like the leader and support
him/her in his goals.
2. The second thing is that the task which is to be
accomplished must be known, and the leader should
set the goals as per the task to be done.
•Along with the tasks to be accomplished, the
methods and standards to accomplish the task must
also be specified in details, as this will make an
impact on the followers.
3. The third thing that is important is that the
organization must confer/aware the responsibilities
of the task upon the leader, as this will strengthen
the position of the leader.
5. Transformational Theories
•In the transformational theory of leadership,
the assumption is that people are inspired
from the leader and the leader must have
passion about his leadership.
•This is a great way of putting in
enthusiasm/eagerness/ and energy in the
followers to get the work done.
•In short, the people are encouraged, and
converted into potential followers.
What are the leadership types and styles?
Several theories have been propounded as to
which are the most effective leadership styles
and what is the best way of getting the work
done from their employees and keep them
motivated at the same time.
Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership
So many Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership. We will
discuss some of them as follows.
A. Transformational Leadership
•Burns, Leadership is quiet different from power
because it is inseparable from followers’ needs.
•Burns also distinguishes b/w two types of
leadership: transactional and transformational.
•Focus of transformational leadership is on what the
leader accomplishes, rather than his/her relationship
with group members.
•It helps in bring about major, positive
•It moves group members beyond their self-
interests for good of the group, organization,
• In contrast, the transactional leader focuses
on more routine transactions with an
emphasis on rewarding the group members
for meeting standards.
1. Transformational leadership is the process
whereby a person engages with others and crates a
connection that raises the level of motivation and
morality in both the leader and the followers.
This type of leaders is attentive to the needs and
motives of followers and tries to help followers
reach their fullest potential. Mahatma (Mohandas)
Gandhi, according to Burns, who raised the hopes
of millions, is the best example of this.
Ryan White (American teenager) who raised the
American peoples awareness regarding AIDS is yet
How Transformation Takes Place?
The Leader: :Raises people’ s Awareness,
Helps people look beyond self-interest, Help
people search for self fulfillment,
Helps people understand needs for change,
Invests managers with sense of urgency and
Adopt a long-range broad perspectives
Charisma &Transformational Leader
Charisma (Greek word)- divinely inspired gift-having
special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, &
extraordinary determination differentiate from others.
•Weber (1947) defines Charisma as special personality
characteristic that gives a person superhuman or
exceptional powers, resulting into the person being
treated as a leader Just parallel to Burn House (1976)
published a theory of leadership and sometimes
understood just similar to the Transformational
Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders:
•Visionary-so offer a exciting image.
•Masterful Communication Skills: to inspire
•Ability to inspire trust
•Able to make group members feel capable
•Energy & Action Oriented
•Emotional Expressiveness & Warmth
•Unconventional Strategies to achieve success
•Self-promoting personality (proving importance)
•Dramatic & Unique
Transformational Leadership & Performance
Business /work/ Unit Performance:
•Jane M. Howell & Bruce J. Avolio, proved that
there is direct/positive correlation b/w
transformational L & Business Unit performance
•Military Units: Research done on Israel
Defense force prove that leaders engages in three
of charismatic behaviors (emphasizing ideology,
emphasizing collective identity, and displaying
•Performance Appraisal: Performance
appraisals of groups higher if their leaders are
1.4 Servant Leadership
•The idea of the servant as leader came partly out of
Greenleaf's half-century of experience in working
to shape large institutions.
•However, the event that crystallized Greenleaf 's
thinking came in the 1960s, when he read
Hermann Hesse's short novel Journey to the East--
an account of a mythical journey by a group of
people on a spiritual quest.
•Greenleaf, in his classic essay, The Servant as
Leader, described the servant-leader in this manner:
•The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the
natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first.
•Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead.
Chanakya wrote, in the 4th century B.C., in his book
Arthashastra: the king [leader] shall consider as good,
not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects
[followers]” “the king [leader] is a paid servant and
enjoys the resources of the state together with the
•The Center for Servant Leadership at the Pastoral
Institute in Georgia defines servant leadership as a
lifelong journey that includes discovery of one’s self, a
desire to serve others, and a commitment to lead.
Essentially Ethical and Honest Influence
1.Leading by examples
3.Exchange favour & Bargaining
4.Getting Network members to support your position
5.Legitimating a request
6.Inspirational Appeal & Emotional Display
Styles of Leadership
A different leadership style may be required under
different circumstances but principles are not changeable.
Four types of Leadership Styles,
Directing, Coaching, Supporting, Delegating
A. The Directing Leader:
•Identifies the problems.
•Comes up with solutions.
•Decides who does what work.
•Gives specific directions.
•Closely supervises and evaluates employees' work.
B. The Coaching Leader
•Sets the goals.
•Identifies the problems.
•Develops a plan to solve problems and consults with
•Makes the final decision about procedures or
solutions after hearing employees' ideas, opinions,
•Explains decisions to employees and asks for their
•Praises employees' work efforts.
•Continues to direct employees' work.
•Evaluates employees' work.
C. The Supporting Leader
•Involves employees in problem-solving and goal-
•Takes the lead in defining how to do a job or
solve a problem.
•Provides support, resources, and ideas if
•Shares responsibility for problem-solving with
•Listens to employees and guides them as they
•Evaluates an employee’s work with that person.
4. The Delegating Leader
•Identifies problems with employees.
•Sets goals with employees.
•Develops plans and makes decisions with
•Lets employees decide who does the tasks.
•Accepts employees' decisions and monitors
•Lets employees evaluate their own work.
•Lets employees take responsibility and
credit for their work.
Character of the Excellent Leader
Excellent leaders are:
Knowledgeable about the total
Able to learn from mistakes,
Able to speak clearly and effectively
Importance of Leadership
•Effective leadership forms the backbone
of a successful business, as it allows the
firms to utilize their resources efficiently.
•Even though it is much more prominent
in the corporate world, the same rule is
applicable to various other sectors,
including sports and politics.
•In an organization which acknowledges the
importance of leadership development,
employees demonstrate a positive attitude,
which in turn reflects on their performance.
•On the other hand, an organization
characterized by lack of leadership has a
negatively influenced work environment,
which in turn, results in poor performance
from the employees.
Assignment from Chapter 5
1. Discuss Styles, Importance and Types of Leadership 10%
2.Discuss Ethical/Honest & dishonest tactics of Leaders 5%
3.Discuss Importance of Leadership 5%
Basic Styles of Leadership
•A good leader should be able to assess the
requirements of the team members and adopt a style
of leadership that befits the team.
•In the book, 'Primal Leadership: Realizing the
Power of Emotional Intelligence', authored by
Daniel Goleman, Richard E. Boyatzis and Annie
McKee, the authors have illustrated the different
styles of leadership. The six leadership styles can be
summarized as follows:
1.Democratic: This form of leadership draws its
strength from the team members allowing them to
voice their views and opinions.
In other words, a democratic leader participates in a
team building exercise and seeks the active
participation of team members.
A democratic leader hopes for mutual consensus, on
how to archive the given targets, by allowing team
members to come forth with innovative ideas.
This approach is particularly useful when the course
of action is unclear.
2.Pace setting: A pace setting leader is one who
sets the pace or the rate of achieving the
The goals of the organization, on the whole, dictate
the policies and the targets that have to be
accomplished by all the team members under the
supervision of the leader.
A pace setting leader often disregards the potential
of the employees while allocating targets.
In other words, personal and professional
aspirations and growth may be sacrificed at the
altar of beliefs and convictions of the team leader.
3. Coaching: This style of leadership involves
a bit of hand-holding.
The leader aims to provide the necessary
support and reassurance to the team members
in order to help them develop their strengths
and make straight their goals with the goals of
In other words, the leader adopts a focused
approach and coaches the team members thus
minimizing the risk of possible deviations
from predetermined goals.
3. Visionary: A visionary leader is one who
envisions the future, revels in the
possibilities of what could be and inspires
people to perceive things the way they ought
A visionary leader has the capacity to
foresee the future and hopes to accomplish a
distant dream. In other words, these leaders
chart their own path and undertake
calculated risks hoping to make today's
dream tomorrow's reality.
4. Affiliative: This style of leadership focuses
on renewing a sense of kinship and building
trust among various factions whose
cooperation is desirable for promoting the
goals of the organization.
An affiliative leader tends to adopt an
empathetic approach. However, in an effort
to appease people and help them realize their
true potential, there is a danger of the goals
of the organization getting side tracked.
5. Commanding: The futility of this style of
leadership has been realized over time and has
resulted in dwindling the popularity of this style of
Commanding style of leadership is akin to
dictatorship where there is no room for expression or
A commanding leader is effective in war like situations
where time is of the essence. Communicating decisions
and waiting for the appropriate response is a luxury
that cannot be afforded.
Depending on the situation, one has to choose between
the different leadership styles and settle on an
effective leadership style.
Leadership styles, which a leader employs
to get the work done are:
Authoritarian Leadership: Authoritarian
leadership is a type of leadership where the leader
has control over all the actions of the group. There
is a clear line between the management and the
employees, and the flow of communication is
largely up-to-down i.e. the employees have no say
in the decision making process, and all the orders
of the management need to be followed
Participative Leadership: The next style
is known as participative leadership. In this
style, there is still a cear line of difference
between employees and employers, but the
employees are encouraged to come up with
suggestions and take an active part in the
decision making process. This style fosters a
good employee-employer relationship and
isn't as extreme as authoritarian or laissez-
faire style of leadership.
Laissez-Faire Leadership: In a way, this
isn't a style of leadership at all! Laissez-faire
style of leadership means that anyone and
everyone is empowered with the opportunity to
take their own decisions.
It may sound good, but more often than not, it
leads to a chaotic situation.
Laissez-faire leadership is best implemented
only within a group which shows good group-
dynamics, is highly motivated and needs its
creative space, for e.g. a research and
Assignment from Chapter 6
1. Discuss Basic Styles of Leadership 5%
2. Discuss Leadership styles, which a leader employs to get the work done 5%
Definition of Biblical Leadership
•Biblical leadership is distinctly different from
that described and defined by the world.
•The distinctive help Christian leaders understand
the unique way the Bible describes one person’s
influence upon another, the motivation behind
that influence, the eventual outcome of that
influence, and the source of power to guide and
sustain that influence. This is biblical leadership!
•A Biblical leader is a person of character and
competence who influences a community of
people to achieve a God-honoring calling by
means of the power of Christ.
•Leadership is the act of influencing/serving
others out of Christ's interests in their lives so
they accomplish God's purposes for and
through them,” according to Bill Lawrence,
president of Leader Formation International,
at Bible.org.Mar 2, 2018
Distinctive/Character of Biblical
•The Scriptures indicate that there is no
authority except what has been established
by God (Rom 13:1).
•He sets over the realm of humankind
whomever he wishes (Dan 4:32 ; 5:21) to be
his minister to us for good. Moses and Joshua
were assigned their leadership by God
(Exude 4 ; Joshua 1);
•Aaron and his sons were singled out for the
priesthood (Exod 28:1); the judges were
raised up by God (Judges 2:16)
•Biblical leadership involves at least five
distinctive that set it in sharp contrast to the
leadership theories and definitions of the
modern world. The following tips from the
•Character is that set of moral qualities that
distinguishes one person from others.
•These qualities include things such as honesty,
courage, integrity, humility, perseverance, and
•Yet it’s important to understand that these traits do
not just happen.
•They actually flow from a deeper structure within
•In order to be authentic, these qualities must be
connected to a person’s identity—i.e., how that
person sees and defines him or herself.
•As the Scripture says, it is from the
heart of a person that proper attitudes
and actions flow (Proverbs 4:23).
•But this identity or sense of self
should not be the result of our own
•It’s not ultimately important who we
say we are, nor is it important who
others say we are.
•What is vitally important is who God says we
•This is true especially for leaders, because in
time, our true selves will show through to those
we lead.In the life of Jesus, we see ways he
viewed and defined himself that have particular
relevance to leadership. As leaders seeking to
lead like Jesus, we must also desire to
assimilate his character and self-definition into
The character of the biblical leader
may be summarized by three images
directly connected to who Jesus was
and how he led. These images are the
ways that Jesus defined himself in his
leadership (influence) toward others.
They are the images of the servant, the
steward, and the shepherd.
These dimensions provide the Christian leader
with metaphors by which to grasp the Bible’s
teaching about how leaders should see
Leaders who seek to walk in integrity and
assimilate Jesus’s character into their being
will more naturally express traits of moral
character as well as be more naturally
empowered to know what to do in practice as
they go about leading others.
Additionally, we must be careful to apply
these images to the idea of character first and
not to conduct—lest we fall into the mind-set
that so often typifies the world’s approach—
namely, that leadership is merely something we do
on the outside.
The Bible student will make a big error if he or she
only seeks to act as a servant, a steward, and a
shepherd without becoming those things—that is,
without taking on the character of each. Can a
person serve others without a servant’s heart?
Well, possibly and temporarily. But that
equates to acting a part rather than
developing a disposition of servanthood
in their person. In time, without full
integration and character development,
the leader is not able to continue to prop
up the character traits necessary for
biblical leadership. They are simply too
difficult to pretend.
Christlike character, then, is the first distinctive of
biblical influence. This is true because it is the
primary work of the Holy Spirit after salvation to
build that character in the believer.
Without it, leaders are merely empty shells, actors
who play a part, void of substance and lasting
spiritual impact. Leaders like this might impress
people with their skills and thus gain a following.
But they have the potential to enduringly transform
others only through character.
When manifested, character creates the credibility
for a leader to be respected and trusted and to earn
the right to influence others.
•Biblical leaders must not only concern
themselves with how to lead, but they must
also address why they are leading—for what
•They must find their why before they know
their what. Most authors use the term vision to
describe a leader’s purpose and the future state
for which they influence others.
•While the idea of vision is at the heart of
leading others, to comprehend Biblical
leadership we must realize that in a biblical
paradigm, vision flows first from God’s call
to the leader.
If we’re not careful, vision will turn out to be
something we invent rather than something
we discover from God.
•The term “calling” possesses the inherent idea that
purpose comes from God to us—not the other way
•With a calling, after all, there must be a Caller.
(See Genesis 12:1–4, Exodus 3:1–6, 1 Samuel
16:12, Isaiah 6:1–13, Jeremiah 1:4–7, Mark 3:14–
15, John 15:16, Acts 9:1–16, Romans 15:15–18).
•Often, a leader’s plans get confused with God’s plan.
We have a dream, an aspiration, or a goal, and it
becomes what we believe is God’s vision.
•We then go to God to convince him to get on board
with what we want to see happen in the world.
•This leads to failure, frustration, and
misguided achievements, since God did not
author the vision in the first place.
•Here, leaders achieve only to realize the
achievements were not of God. As Howard
Hendricks profoundly said, “The fear is not
for leaders to fail, but to succeed at doing the
•The fact is, God has not committed himself
to finance our dreams. He’s not a genie in
the bottle who exists to grant our wishes.
•He wants us to get involved in his plans. Calling
therefore communicates something received from
God (the One calling) to us (the ones called)—and
God is always faithful to supply and sustain that
which he initiates.
•The great promise to leaders who follow God’s
call is that he will be faithful to resource it. Calling
is an inherent biblical concept, as compared to
the modern idea of “vision.”
•The actual word vision in the Bible almost always
refers to prophetic visions. This is different from
the way vision is described in modern leadership.
•The term today, mostly used in business and
corporate settings, blurs the lines between the
purposes of a business and that of the church.
•Calling, on the other hand, is unique to
people of faith.
•While vision (a mental idea of a preferable
future) certainly flows from calling, leaders
should first process and possess a strong sense
of God’s compelling call to join him in the
work he is doing.
•After their response of faith to God’s call, vision
will begin to develop within the hearts and minds of
the leaders—and most importantly, that vision will
be rooted in a call from God, not in self-centered
•Calling, therefore, is the force that drives and
inspires biblical leaders to influence.
•It keeps them focused, provides accountability to
act consistently, inspires them to endure hardships,
and ensures that one’s leadership results only in
what God wants.
Psalm 78:72 states, “And David
shepherded them with integrity of
heart; with skillful hands he led them.”
Just as integrity of heart (i.e. character)
is vital to biblical leadership, so are
skillful hands (i.e. competence). Yet in
the Scripture, skills are not mere
cosmetics to be put on and taken off, nor
are they disconnected from the leader’s
Rather, they are congruent complements to
his or her inner person, and as such, they
allow the leader to manifest God’s calling in
the world. Imagine Moses without the skill
of delegating to others (Exodus 18:13–27),
Nehemiah without the ability to manage
projects and people (Nehemiah 4:13–23), or
Paul without the skill of communicating
spiritual truth to his readers (Colossians
These competencies provided for the success
of their God-given callings and were used
mightily by the Lord in their particular
leadership contexts. In this sense, outer
competence is related to inner character.
Not every leader has every skill.
Students of leadership must come to
understand both the skills common to
effective, Christlike leadership and the skills
unique to who they are.
To do the former, students must discover from
God’s Word common competencies of effective
To do the latter, one must give attention to
discovering his or her spiritual gifts, natural
competencies, unique personality, and God-
•While secular leaders might
concern themselves with profits
and material productivity, biblical
leadership is seen in terms of
impact upon and relationship to
people. The idea of community
applies in two ways.
1.The outcome of biblical leadership is always
about transforming the lives of human beings.
Always. In the Scripture, every time God called
a leader to a leadership task, God’s purpose was
to redeem and restore his people through the
instrument of the leader. Therefore, biblical
leadership does not ever exist in a vacuum.
A biblical leader is an individual
called of God to interact with and
impact people. Biblical leadership is
not primarily about developing a
ministry program, sitting behind a
computer, or constructing a building.
It is not about profits, widgets, or
Those may be a means toward a people-
transforming end, but they are never the end in
themselves—and if we are not careful, leaders can
easily lose our way as to the real goal of
leadership. People are of immense value to God,
more important than anything numeric or material,
and our leadership should have the development
and transformation of people as its object.
2.Biblical leadership takes place in the context of
•Jesus didn’t simply tell the disciples to show up at
the temple once a week, and there he would lecture
them on principles of leadership.
•Jesus did life with those he led. He chose to impart
himself, not just his teaching.
•It was out of the context of that community
between him and his disciples, with failures and
victories alike, that they grew to achieve something
of great value together.
•Consequently, biblical leaders seek to develop
open, authentic relationships with those they lead.
•Biblical leaders love the people they
lead—they don’t just use them.
•In the closest of relationships that a
leader can possess with his or her
followers, there is deep connection,
vulnerability, understanding, and
•Paul described his relationship to the
Thessalonians just so: “Having so fond an affection
for you, we were well-pleased to impart to you not
only the gospel of God but also our own lives,
because you had become very dear to us” (1
•Community breathes life into leadership and
grounds it in the supreme moral virtue that must
accompany all truly biblical leaders—namely,
Finally, worldly leaders may operate in their own
strength and in their own wisdom, and they might
be able to accomplish good and even noble things.
•But biblical leadership produces eternal results
because it comes from a different source.
•It’s not based upon the world’s wisdom or the
meager human resources of the leader.
•These sources can only accomplish what can be
explained in natural and human ways and through
the limited skills of the leader.
•By contrast, the inner fuel, guide, and force at work
for the biblical leader is the very power of Christ!
•Since this is so, Biblical leadership must
always be a walk of faith.
•Leadership acted upon with trust in God is
then fueled by a supernatural force—Jesus
•Christ accomplishes through the humble and
obedient leader that which can only be
ascribed to God’s ability.
•In the end, the leader sees limitless
possibilities for what can be achieved.
•When the task is complete it is God, not the
leader, who receives the credit.
Assignment from Chapter 7
1. Define Biblical Leadership 10%
2. Discuss at least five distinctive of Biblical Leadership 10%