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Sortir du Cadre (Think Wider) Future of photojournalism - Eng - by Gerald Holubowicz

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Sortir du Cadre is a series of posts written about future of photojournalism.

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Sortir du Cadre (Think Wider) Future of photojournalism - Eng - by Gerald Holubowicz

  1. 1. 1 contenttable >
  2. 2. 2 contenttable > The death of journalism is bad for society, but we’ll be better off with less photojournalism. I won’t miss the self-important, self-congratulatory, hypocritical part of photojournalism at all. The industry has been a fraud for some time. We created an industry where photography is like big- game hunting. We created an industry of contests that reinforce a hyper- dramatic view of the world. Hyperbole is what makes the double spread (sells) and is also the picture that wins the contest. We end up with car- toons and concerned photographer myths (disclaimer: yes, there are photographers doing meaningful work) Of course I am worried about how I will make my living now, and I wor- ry for my friends and colleagues too, but I don’t really care about the fu- ture of photojournalism. The soul of it has been rotten for a while. Chris Anderson - Magnum “
  3. 3. 3 content p .4 Introduction PART I p .7 The Newspaper industry p .14 Photojournalism p .17 Economy of photojournalism PART II p .20 Introduction p .21 Product & Process p .23 Cross & Transmedia p .25 All publishers p .27 Monetization p .30 Graphic p .31 Bio N.B: Click on the menu to jump to the page you want to read.
  4. 4. 4 contenttable > The year 2010 will probably be remembered as the year during which the Newspaper industrydefinitivelyswitchedtoInternet.Theyearwheninnovationhasbeenthemost neededandwhendiscussionsaboutJournalisteconomicmodelhavebeenmorevirulent and its future tainted with such uncertainty. Neverhasthisindustrybeenimpactedasmuchfromthelackoffundsandthedisaffectionof advertising.Never,havephotojournalistssufferedasmuchtofinancetheirworkandplay theirroleaswitnesses.Themultiplicationofbattlefrontshasweakenedphotographers allaroundtheworldanddespitetheirwilltoembracetechnologiestheyhavebeentorn apartbetweenmodernism,corporatismandconservatism.Today,Photojournalism,still in its infancy, tries to reinvent itself and struggles to find a new path. When a photographer writes with light, a journalist writes with the light of truth. Since Enrich Salomon, the meaning of our profession didn’t change at all. In a way, even if we are the heirs of ancient photojournalism we still do have a role to play by perpetuating thiswayoflifeandthisapproachofhumanity.Ourmissiontobearwitnessofthischanging INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. 5 contenttable > worlddoesn’tnecessarilyhavetobetranslatedintoprintedphotostoriesinMagazines or Newspapers. It can be as efficient in a digital world as long as we put in it the same dedicationandpassion.Buttruthtobetold,digitalbringsussuchanewvarietyoftools, that we would be crazy not to try them all. We would be irresponsible not to try to master these new ways to communicate and test new approaches. Thisdynamicofresearchandinnovation,startedbysomeamongus,shouldbeincreased andextendedtoeverybodyinthiscommunity.Becausethetraditionalmodelisdying,we havetheimperativenecessitytoevolveinordertosurvive.Photojournalistsactuallymust challenge the status quo and be courageous enough to stand for new behaviors. This should neither be considered a rejection of the past, nor a questioning of the fundamentalrulesofethics.Butincontrary,thisshouldbeperceivedasachanceforusto preserveanartwhichproducedthemostincrediblepicturesintheworldandstillprovide light where there is darkness in this world. G.H December 2010
  6. 6. 6 contenttable > part I
  7. 7. 7 contenttable > We all know that Newspapers are dying. From the United States to France, from GreatBritaintoSpain,theoldeconomicmodelispushingthemtothetomb.Forquite awhile,thecreationanddistributionofnewshasbeenlargelyimpactedbytheriseof TVandradio.Aphenomenonamplifiedbythechanginghabitsofconsumers,already started before the Internet era. But since 5 years ago, thanks to an exponential multiplication of free News sources on Internet (even if they were published by pure players or by the old guard) and substantialerosionofreadership,combinedwiththedisengagementofadvertisingin thetraditionalrevenuestream,hasledtoanunprecedentedcollapseofNewspaper’s healthinessinOCDEcountries.AsClayShirkyandJeffJarvishaveanalyzedit,we’veseen mostpublicationssuddenlyfacingamuchhighercompetitionanddecliningincomes, after years characterized by high performances and rising revenues. Ifwetakealookatthenumbers,twothirdofOCDEcountrieshaveseentheiraudience melt significantly. A pattern, even more present among young people below 35yrs, who are less likely reading a newspaper than their counterparts of 50yrs and more. As a matter of fact, the growth of the whole Newspaper market has slowed in 2004, stopped in 2007, and started to decline in 2008 and 2009 in every segment of the market. National or local newspapers, in France or in the USA, Italy, Greece or Spain, nobody was spared. A - The Newspaper Industry
  8. 8. 8 contenttable > InFrance,structuralfactors,alackofprivatefunding,enormousprintanddistribution costs (caused in part by a monopolistic position of the NMPP, a public distribution service for Newspapers and magazines) and advertising declining revenues, have weighted on the market and made it weaker than it was meant to be. When you look at the annual budget of a middle class household, Newspapers and Magazines representasmallpercentagecomparedtomobilephoneandinternetaccess.Recent researchesshowthatNewspaper’ssaleshavedeclinedfasterbetween2006-2007,and evenfasterin2008(-2.3%comparedwiththepreviousyear,-16%comparedto2000). ThebiggestlosersareobviouslyNationalpaperswitha4%setbackinsales,andonly 6%oftheirrevenuescomingfromclassifiedadvertising(whenitwas26%in1990).“Le Monde”recently acquired by a trio of businessmen Berge-Pigasse-Niel, was actually the first National newspaper to even consider filing for bankruptcy.Those numbers arenonethelesstobelookedatwithcautionbecausesomesectorsareshowingmore robusthealth,likeRegionalandLocalNewspapersundergoinga1.2%setbackin2008.
  9. 9. 9 contenttable > InUSA,readershipundergoesaconstanterosionateverylevelofthesocialspectrum. Thenumbersspeakforthemselves:in1960,almost81%ofthepopulationwasreading a Newspaper on a daily basis. In 2008, those who were still claiming to be a News reader (print and internet) were only 30% of the total population, after losing about 8%ofitsmassinonlytwoyears(2006-2008).Oneofthemainfactorsofthisdebacleis disinterest.Onaverage,anAmericanreaderspendonly165hr/yearreadingthenews (at a declining rate of 20 hours per year), compared to 1022hr/yr (almost 2.8h/day) wastedwatchingTV.AndifyouconsidertheAdvertisingrevenuesofNewspapersand Magazines, the setback is even more impressive with a 28% loss over the last 2 years (12%onInternet).Itrepresentsalmost$10billioninlossesforpublishersandsurelythe biggest crisis in the history of News.
  10. 10. 10 contenttable > Clay Shirky, professor at the New York University, has analyzed the reasons of this unprecedented crisis. To him, the main cause is the emergence of Internet, not as a potential competitor for the Newspapers industry, but as a sharing platform. The crucial revolution here is that Internet has connected people in way that has never been done before, and has allowed them to communicate more easily. What was, back in the day, a very well-guarded fortress controlled by a cast of elite, became a large free market owned by everyone of us, defined by few rules. News on theInternetquicklybecameacommodity,bloomingeverywhereforlittleornocost. Incidentally,theindustrylostitscontroloverbroadcastnewsandfailedtorecognize that its monopoly was ending.The economic structure which supporting the rise of giants,likeTimeInc.,andTheNewYorkTimesduringthe19thand20thcenturyslowly collapsed and was replaced by a new one based on shareability and credibility. …It was an accident. There was a set of forces that made that possible. And they weren’t deep truths — the commercial success of newspapers and their linkingofthattoaccountabilityjournalismwasn’tadeeptruthaboutreality.C.S Thefacilitationofcommunicationandthepossibilitytotargetaspecificaudiencemore receptive to the advertising contribute to the depletion of advertising revenues for Newspaper industry. Classified advertising also has escaped from a silly logic where an individual who wanted to buy a car was forced to read stories about Afghanistan, the crisis in Darfur or the last Milan Fashion show. Again, Clay Shirky explains it: Best Buy was not willing to support the Baghdad bureau because Best Buy caredaboutnewsfromBaghdad.Theyjustdidn’thaveanyothergoodchoices. “
  11. 11. 11 contenttable > The mix of these two main factors – massive loss of traditional revenue streams and rise of Internet – has shaped the fatal fate of our business model. Nevertheless, new models don’t rise up to replace the obsolete ones. Justlikeadeercaughtintheheadlights,thepublishers,paralyzedbyfear,didn’tanticipate themutation.Despitenumerousanalysisconductedbysomeofthemostprominent experts in this field, no actions was taken to change the path of the industry. Sadly today,thosewhoarewakingupareeithertooslowtotakeanykindofdecisionortoo old to understand the very principles behind the changes. One of the best examples is the reaction of the media magnate Ruppert Murdoch – owner of News Corporation -, who decided, in 2009, after years of indecision, that it was time for him to raise pay walls around his properties. Followed by other major publishers,thelongandcostlystrategyhasfailedtobeputinplacesofar(exceptfor News Corp). In a digital world ruled by Moore’s conjectures, the Print industry doesn’t seem to be in a hurry to find out what could be its next move. Therefore, Newspapers and Magazines loose the opportunity to save what remains. Shirky declares: Ithinkabadthingisgoingtohappen,right?Andit’samazingtomehowmuch, inaconversationconductedbyadults,thepossibilitythatmaybethingsarejust going to get a lot worse for a while does not seem to be something people are taking seriously. (…) I don’t think there’s any way we can get out of that kind ofthing.SoIthinkweareheadedintoalongtroughofdeclineinaccountability journalism,becausetheoldmodelsarebreakingfasterthanthenewmodelscan be put into place. “ “There is so much media now with the Internet and people, and so easy and so cheap to start a newspaper or start a magazine, there’s just millions of voices and people want to be heard.” Ruppert Murdoch
  12. 12. 12 contenttable > It’sanobrainerthatthe“tabletrevolution”isabouttotakeoverthe“print”revolution. TheiPadanditssuccessorsseemtobeontracktoprofoundlychangeourhabitsand relationtoNewscontent.Widelydistributedaroundtheworld,thesenewdeviceswill definitivelyquestiontheimaginationandthereactivityofdecisionmakers,aswellas their editorial and economic approach. Iftheecosystemcreatedbythetablets,andespeciallytheiPadwiththeappsandthe iAds, attracts a lot of attention we’re far from a breakthrough in terms of innovation. Aclosedenvironmentwhereonlycuratedandformattedcontentcanpossiblyemerge is non-sense. If we consider the amazing openness of the Internet and the plethoric amountofwebsitesfarmoreadvancedandinteractivethanappsare.Thisisactually moreofanattempttorecreatetheoldmodelinadigitalform,preventingustothink aboutwhatcouldbeafundamentalnewmodel,sustainableandstablefordecadesto come. ThepossibilitytoseeInternet,asfreeasitistodayisrelativelythin,andindeedthere’s a good chance that evolution and development will need cash to take place for the future of a highly competitive and dynamic market. In that case, it is not absurd to thinkthatsoonenough,freemiumcontent(amixbetweenfreeandpremiumcontent) willbethenorm,whentotallyfreecontentandpremiumcontentwillberelegatedto the margin. Information will no longer be the property of someone, or a company, butrather,thecommoncurrencybywhichwewillcreateanewaddedvaluethrough analysis, digital creation or content development. With that said, everyone will have the responsibility to find a way to monetize that new added value, by any means, to survive and prosper. Obviously the public will continuetopreferfreecontentoverpremiumsubscriptions,especiallyifyouconsider
  13. 13. 13 contenttable > the troubled time we are living in. But not only that, they won’t be encouraged to migrate to a paid formula if the content is average and findable somewhere else for free. Without pertinent or original content able to attract new readers, the next generation of publishers will struggle even more. That’s why the industry needs to invest in R&D, risk taking if priority isn’t set to match this very ambitious goal, but rather to protect conservatism, ideology and blindness of decision makers. By the way, if the Newspaper industry slowly wakes up and experiments with new waysofdoingjournalism(collaborative,crowdsourced,orinteractivejournalism),or to finance it (through crowd funding or NGOs contribution) it won’t be the same for photojournalism–withtheexceptionofsomesharpmindlurkingaroundnewtrends and new ideas, waiting for the best time to appropriate them. L’agence VII a lancé en avril dernier un magazine consacre au travail de ses photographe et espère développer un nouveau business model autour de cette nouvelle création.
  14. 14. 14 contenttable > Differentfactorshavecausedthebiggestcrisisphotojournalismhaseverhadtoface. TheriseofdigitalcultureandInternetdevelopmenthadfacilitatedcreation,storage and distribution of pictures for a fraction of the cost this would have been 10 years ago.Theexponentialriseofvolumehasmechanicallypulleddownthepriceofphotos (photography being considered as a commodity) and the revenue of thousands of photographers. How did we go there? It’s obvious that the market 50 years ago wasn’t ruled the same way as the market we know today. Actually, today’s market is the result of transposition of commercial strategieslearnedbyyoungbusinessmenduringthe80’swhatwasessentiallyatrade built since the 50’s. On the US side of the Atlantic ocean, when no internet connection was available anywhere in the world, very few photo agencies were in business – AP has a photo service, Blackstar was preponderant – and a legion of photojournalist were working for daily newspapers (likeThe NewYorkTimes) or prestigious magazines (like Life or Look). On the other side, the European market was literally crowded by a complex networkofphotoagencies(Magnum,Sipa,Sygma,Gammaetc…)andofcourseafair amountofnewspaperstaffersworkingforpublicationsuchasLiberation,ParisMatch orDieBerlinerIllustrierteZeitung.Fromthe70’stothe80’s,Europeanagencieswere geographicallybestpositioned,verydynamicandpowerful.Theywereabletoexport their economic model overseas and to put themselves ahead of the pack, dictating how the business was supposed to be conducted – sales were made mostly on the casebycasebasisdependingontheexclusivityand/ortheexceptionalqualityofthe story. B - Photojournalism
  15. 15. 15 contenttable > Butwhenthedigitaleraroseup,theworldofphotography-whichwassofarmorelike amarketplacethanarealindustry-hadradicallychanged. Thedominantpositionof thethree“A”(Sigma,GammaandSipa)werechallengedbytheirU.Scompetitors.The oldfashionedtechniquestosellpictures,whichwerebuiltuponslowtechnologiesand handcraftednegotiations,werequicklyoutdatedbytheglobalizationofthemarket andthedevelopmentoffastdeliveryautomatedsystems.Therewasnoneedtowait anymore, half a day to receive a picture, everything was faster and easier. For the firsttimeinourhistory,photographsweremadeavailableonInternetforworldwide distribution, only minutes after they were taken. This“speed factor”combined with statistic tools and performance tracking systems allowednewdevelopmentperspectives,increasedefficiencyandprofitability.Seduced by this new sector where investment opportunities were suddenly huge, investors decidedtopositionthemselvesinthehopetomakebigbucks.Thatopportunitywas in fact a dream, the core reality of the business being blurred by the remains of our golden era. WhenGetty,Corbisandthemyriadofstockphotoagenciesprogressivelyappeared,the twosidesofthebusinessstartedtofightoneagainsteachother,withtheconsequences weknowtoday:ultra-cheappictures,aproductionbasedonquantityandnotquality, exclusivepartnershipwithmajorpublications,subscriptionplansandverylowannual fees for unlimited licensing. Clearly, the Goliaths won the battle. But after two decades of gigantism and exponential structural growth, this model reaches the limits of sustainability. The printed press industry is severely impacted by the largest crisis in its history and photo agencies - no matter their size – are
  16. 16. 16 contenttable > facing the same problems. Studies conducted by Jeff Jarvis and Clay Shirky (NYU) clearlydepictacollapsingstructure,wheretraditionalrevenuestreams(advertising& classified)areshiftingtoInternet,forcingstructureslikeGettyorCorbistoadapttoa new environment. Despite the efforts deployed by these structures, Shirky and Jarvis are predicting unavoidable damage for many publishers who will notshrinkthe size of their businesses to adapt to the digital environment. Thisdisintegration–which,bythewaywillaccelerateoverthenextdecade – won’t save the world of photography and these giants who are facing the same problems: loss of income streams and increased fixed costs.This is almost an impossible equation to solve without cutting into the charts, goingbacktosmaller,moreflexibleandcompetitivestructures.Surprisingly the reaction of these giants seems relatively measured considering the speedwithwhichtheirincomebaseismeltingandtheissuestheyfaceare great.Getty’sstrategyforexample,isbuyingonecompetitorafteranother, increasingthepressureonpricesandstiflesmallerplayerstorecovermarket shares and reap new revenue. It’sjustlikethepolicyofthescorchedearth.Thatheadlongrushseemstobepointlessas thedisintegrationoftheecosystembecomesmoreandmoresevere.Thealternative- whichiseasierforthesmallstructurestoimplement–isbasedoninnovationthataims to change the status quo.The questioning of values and concepts that underlie the photomarketshouldredefineourgoalsandpractices.Noonecanaccuratelypredict who will win today’s battle, but it’s safe to assume that the little ones, who survive in the end, will do better than large ones. Left: Clay Shirky, professor in NYU’s graduate Interactive Telecommunications Program Right: Jeff Jarvis, associate professor and director of the interactive journalism program and the new business models for news project at the City University of New York’s Graduate School of Journalism.
  17. 17. 17 contenttable > Beforediscussingnewmonetizationopportunitiesthatopentothephotoindustry,we shouldconsiderhowspecificallyarticulatethecurrentmarketis.Photographersand agencies now essentially have a role of content provider. They yield a license to an editororaclientatanegotiatedpriceforaspecificpublicationorcertainkindofuse. Inthecaseofrights-managed(RM)therearethreecriteriagoverningthecalculation ofaprice:thenatureofthemedia,thespaceoccupiedinthemediaandtheaudience forthismedia.Ifthesecriteriamadesenseforaverylongtime,theydon’trespondto the reality of production anymore. During the analog era (pre 90’s), publications were constrained by the space offered bythepaginationofmagazinesandnewspapers-finite,limitedbyacertainnumberof pages-andtherelativelysmallaudiencethattheywereabletoreach.Theselimitations have evaporated with the advent of digital technology and the Internet. The new technicalconstraints,infinitelymoreflexible,havecreatedakindofbottomlesspitin which the boundaries of space and audience have more sense. Moreover,photographywhichwaslimitedtoa2Dfeatureopensitselfenthusiastically tothevideoformat(includingmotionandsound)andwillcertainlymovetothe3Din the next decade, the augmented reality or even virtualization. Yetparadoxically,westillapplytothisnewdigitalenvironment,traditionalmethodsof pricing which seems inadequate to support long term growth. Amazingly, the press industry and agents continue to ignore what basically constitutes the fundamental value of a photograph: the very subjective notion, yet very real quality. The added valueofanimage,inducedbylong-terminvolvementfromthephotographerinhis/ herstory,welldocumentedresearchesoruniqueintellectualapproachesdon’tleadto C - Economy of photojournalism
  18. 18. 18 contenttable > a better monetary value of that work. Every one of us is equal in front of the system and we see our pictures published at the same rate, (which are decreasing from year to year under the pressure of content inflation) regardless of the amount effort and the professional level we’re at. Anothercriteriaignoredbythecontemporarysystem,istheemergenceofnewdelivery formats-multimedia,video-andnewmarketingstrategies-Crossmedia,Transmedia etc.. - that defy conventions and therefore, are constantly devalued. Whenthetooldoesn’tfittothethingthatwemeasure, alldeviationsarepossibleandthecredibilityofallcan be questioned and challenged. We must change the tool, and thereby, the way we define the term “photojournalism.”
  19. 19. 19 contenttable > part II
  20. 20. 20 contenttable > Redefining photojournalism brings a significant number of advances, in terms of practice, and opens the door to new opportunities for monetization. The format - generated by a tool that, in a perverse way, has defined a practice - is becoming an accessory, and its rejection in the periphery refocuses the value of photojournalism on the mastery of narrative and informative process. It recreates a new scale of values in which each production is assessed not according to a market, but according to its intrinsic value and its final expression (integrity, honesty, responsibility, ethics, accuracy, visual quality etc…). We’re shifting from the measure of a tangible product to the evaluation of an intangible one, which implies the establishment of a new methodology and new marketing strategies to reflect those changes.
  21. 21. 21 contenttable > Whatisreferredtoasphotojournalismisinfactatwisteddefinitionofitsetymological meaning.Photojournalismtoday,meansphoto(photography),thetwo-dimensional object,incolor,orblackandwhite,inwhichanimagewasfixed.Itdoesn’trefertothe writing process (photo graphos) by using light to form a visual message and in our case,tocreateinformation.Bybroadeningtheperceptionofwhatphotojournalismis supposedtocover,weexpanditsnaturalrangeofexercisetovideoandfuturevisual capture tools. Consequently,wecanspareourselvesfromgettingstuckinanold-fashionedconservatism, which shapes the entire ecosystem created around photography from almost half a century. By opening the way, we understand the term“photojournalism”, there’s no morereasontodepriveourselvesofintegratingallareasofvisualcreationinthesame activity.There’s no point to avoid the integration of new tools into our workflow and ourmarketingstrategy.Thenewapproachofdefiningwhatisphotography,offersan opportunity to rethink the way we monetize our work and how we connect it with the rest of the world. Basically, the core and central value of our profession is journalism. By getting rid of the format’s dictatorship, we can embrace them all and refocus our attention on the intellectual value of the information. We can shift from the economy of product to move to an economy of process. A - Product & Process
  22. 22. 22 contenttable > Thiseconomyof“process”impliesthatwereinventtoolsforassessingtheintellectual valueprovidedthroughthe“report”andthatwefindaconsensusaboutnewcriteria to determine a monetary value of our work, i.e.: Credibility and Authority, Ethic and Responsibility, Commitment and Quality. •CredibilityandAuthority:Theabilityofaphotojournalisttobuildaprofessional identitybasedonthetruthfulnessandaccuracyoftheinformationrelayed,his/her abilitythroughouttimetoproviderelevant&originalcontent.Theauthority–or expertise – of the photographer in the area he/she is covering, the experience gained over the years on a particular topic. • Ethic and Responsibility: The ability of the photojournalist is to exercise their professioninanethicalframework,governedbytheprofessionalconventionsand their consistence to follow these rules without compromising them. • Commitment and Quality:The commitment of a photojournalist in the stories he/shecovers,thecapabilitytofeedthedemocraticdebatethroughtheirwork.- Theuseofhis/herskillswhichallowsone toofferrichcontentandprovideaclear and original point of view. Thismigrationfromtheproducttotheprocess,absolutelyessential,isinitselfatrigger for a series of major adjustments especially when considering how to market our products.
  23. 23. 23 contenttable > PhotojournalismisdefinitivelyaboutStorytelling.TheemergenceofHDSLRcombined with the consolidation of Internet and the development of social networks in our lives, have allowed photojournalists to switch from a linear narrative to a nonlinear one.FromNewspapersandMagazines,photographyhasgonedigitalandnowuses Multimedia and Web-documentaries to finally extend its sphere of influence to an ultimate form. Therefore,thefutureofphotojournalismcannotbeconsideredwithoutanenriched contentoranintegratedmulti-platformdistributionstrategy,whichwouldn’tbebased uponthemediaconsumptionhabitsoftheGenerationY.Thisisforexample,thepoint argued by Stephen Mayes, Director of the Agency VII, and many other players from the broadcasting and new technologies worlds. Nicoletta Iacobacci, Director of the Interactive TV at the Eurovision Broadcasting Union says, “that nowadays the web allowstheemergenceofnewmultiplatforminteractiveandmobilecontents.Today,the Mediaconvergenceandthelowerproductioncostsmaketheflowofcontentavailable acrossmultiplemediainevitable.“So,what’sthedifferencebetweenCrossmediaand Transmediastorytelling?Bothstrategiesarebasedonmulti-platformdistribution.Both use the Internet as a central gathering space. In a Crossmedia strategy, the same content is distributed through various platforms (books, internet,TV, newspapers) to attract the largest audience possible. It is a 360 degreesmarketingstrategy,whichdoesn’tinvolvestorytelling,justade-contextualized replication of the same product everywhere. A Transmedia project develops the content across multiple platforms to generate as many different entry points in an overall narrative scheme. This is basically the modern adaptation of the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk, invented by Richard Wagner in his essay, “Art and Revolution” B - Cross & Transmedia
  24. 24. 24 contenttable > in 1827, which is expressed through the synthesis of works of art in a coherent and understandable whole embracing all artistic expression. This is what he called the Total Artwork. Photographicnarrationissequential.Itbringsusaseriesofevents,whicharesupposed to be connected, but it often fails to create a bond between them and the public. We lose track of the context in which the event happens. Transmedia storytelling, whose theoretical definition is still very recent (between 1991 and 2003 according to sources), implies that different parts of a story are told through different kind ofplatforms(web,film,novels,comics,exhibitions,AugmentedRealityGamesetc...) in a non-redundant and complementary manner. The new narrative form, implies that the web platform breaks off, and that all known materials potentially become a part of the Transmedia story, linked together by a general context. Therefore, a Transmedia story can start by a web documentary, and then be adapted for a TV series,thenbeextendedthroughabookandfinallybecompletedalittlemorethrough discussionsonsocialnetworks,orthroughanapplicationsuchasiPhoneorAndroid. Thisfancywaytotellstoriesmustnotbeseenasanabsolutemethodwhichcanbeapplied to all photojournalism work. Good stories will keep strength and relevance through apurelyphotographicmedium.Ontheotherhand,somestorieswilltakeadvantage ofawebdocumentarynarrativestyle.Forafractionofthem,Transmediastorytelling will bring particularly effective narrative mechanicals, enabling photojournalists to considerablyenrichtheirwork.Aswecansee,therevolutionofTransmediaStorytelling has nothing to do with technologies (even if it’s largely based upon their use), but morewiththeappropriationofdifferentnarrativecodes,throughnewpracticesand new collaborations.
  25. 25. 25 contenttable > DavidCampbell,ProfessorofCulturalandPoliticalGeographyatDurhamUniversity explainsinPhotojournalismintheNewMediaEconomy(NiemanReportsSpring2010), Successwilldependonseeingoneselfasapublisherofcontentandaparticipant in a distributed story - the form which helps reshape the content of the story. Theconceptisn’tnew,butitsadoptionisstillrelativelyrare.Everythingbegannearly 5 years ago with the emergence of a new breed of paparazzi agencies on the West Coast of the United States - X17 and Splash News among others - who understood very early in their development the interest of creating“magazine blogs.”Although the format was still very close to a classic blog, each one of them used it, and made extensiveuseoftheirexclusivecontent,anddevelopedaCrossmediastrategy(photo, video, mobile, and print). It’s easy to see the benefits that follow from self-publication. Furthermore, it allows greatercontroloverthepicturesandtheiruse.Italsoinducesastrengtheningofthe brand,theacquisitionofnewaudiences,andtheemergenceofadditionalincome.In the area of entertainment, however, the picture is used more as a single shot, than a realdevelopedstory(fortherareexceptions)whichlimitstheexpressionofthistype of publication. In the case of photojournalism, this model extracts the photographs for the role of mereillustrationandallowsthemtobepartofamorecomplexnarrativeflowthrough various media. It also allows greater control of the destination and the presentation ofthefinalstory.Iteliminatesthebarriersofpaperandofferstheopportunitytouse “ Since 2006, the paparazi agency X17 publishes a blog“magazine” in order to cut the “Middle Man” C - Publishers
  26. 26. 26 contenttable > Magnum is one of the first to have build a Multimedia Magazine platform on Internet. Despite a huge amount of traffic, it’s still unclear what the business model of “Magnum in Motion” really is. thepictures,alongwithvideos,soundsandtexts,inordertoprovideadeepercontext and richer analysis. Themultiplicationofentrypoints-whichimpliesagreatersegmentationofthestory line - enables interactivity and reconnects the documentary genre with a younger audience.Thephotoessaybecomesavisualstoryandthewebplatformaconverging point for links, comments and references, transforming the whole into a new object described by Fred Ritchin as “new Visual Journalism”. The most recent example of that is the attempt to create new spaces for pictures, initiated by agencies likeVII or Magnum,orbyphotographerslikeDavidAllanHarveyandhiswebpublication“Burn.”
  27. 27. 27 contenttable > Theoutstandingissueremainsobviously,thestateoftheopportunitiesthatarelinked toarevitalizationoftheonlineandofflinepress,aswellasthedynamismofadvertisers. Fornow,thewaysofmonetizationforthephotojournalismindustryishardlyobvious, but are worth exploring further. Advertisingwillstillbeforthenextcoupleofyearsthepredominantmodeltofinance webpublications.Eveniftheentireecosystemstrugglestofinditsbalance,encouraging signsareshowingthattheadvertisingrevenueisapromisingmodelonInternet,asitwill surpasstheprintadvertisingrevenuesin2011.Withthatsaid,wereallyneedtoconsider thenewopportunitiesinthatdomainandpromotetheadoptionofnewtechnologies. TherecentadventoftoolssuchasEmbedarticle.com–whichallowsembeddingAds bannerswithapicture-caninspireustoreconsidertherelationshipbetweentheuser and the image, avoiding the trap of creative commons, while preserving freedom of private use and ensuring the viability of the creation. The funding of photo agencies’web magazines implies more classical methods of monetization including advertisement placement or targeted marketing. It’s worth noting that the rise of social networking and SMO (social media optimization) will empower any kind of platform, even the smallest one, to build a solid community, which could be later monetized through advertising. Crowdfundingwillalsoplayabiggerroleinthenextfewmonthsforphotojournalism’s funding as“Emphas.is”– a platform similar to Spot.us, founded by established and world-renown photojournalists – will be launched at the beginning of 2011. D - Monetization
  28. 28. 28 contenttable > Other tools like Kickstarter.com or Ulule.com already encourage private fundraising (crowdfunding), opening new horizons for independent professionals and for truly participatory media. From B2B content provider, we’re moving to a more public and openedspacetoengageourselvesinaco-producingrelationwiththeaudience.This is a paradigm shift we need not be afraid of. We’ve been kept away from the people we’re supposed to talk to for too long now, and it’s time to engage in a more direct and frank dialog with them. Theinteragencyco-production,thesponsorshipdealsorthebackingwithnonprofit structures will also be some of the main promising solutions to develop financially sustainablestructures.Progressively,modernagenciesorcollectiveswillhavetothinkof thedevelopmentofthirdpartyservices(training,outsourcing,orconsultingexpertise) premiumsubscriptiontoaccessanexclusivecontent,orproductssalestostabilizetheir resources and develop their business. Last but not least, the rise of the tablet market, combined with the“All publishers” strategyandnewproducts,suchastheInDesignPublishingsuiteeditedbyAdobe,gives toanycollectiveoragencythechancetopublishdedicatedappsontheiPadandthe forthcomingAndroidtabletsforaverysmallentryfee.Thisshouldalsobeapowerful leveragetoreachanewpublicandgainnewrevenuestoproducemoregreatstories without worrying if, when, and where they will be published. As you guessed it, the capital words here are“innovation”and“experimentation.”
  29. 29. 29 contenttable > Theyear2011shouldn’tbeseenastheyearwhenphotojournalismdied–again–butas ayearofopportunityandcourage.Ayearwhereanewgenerationofphotojournalists, youngprofessionals,allsharingacommondigitalbackgroundwouldbeabletocreate the next“Gamma”or“Sygma”or some kind of“Viva agency 2.0”if you will. The year 2011 should be considered as the first year of a rebirth for photojournalism, the first step which will take us on the path of recovery. I’m sure there’s plenty of guys out there excited at the idea of taking a fresh approach and engaging in new challenges. It’s time to shift, it’s time to let go the so called “Golden age,” we are going to create our “Golden age”, and we just have to believe in it!
  30. 30. 30 contenttable > Dreamstime - 8,556,710 Fotolia - 9,056,403 iStockphoto - 6,837,000 Shutterstock - 11,332,581 Alamy - 19,270,000 AP - 6,000,000 Bloomberg - 290,000 Corbis - 4,000,000 DPA - 7,500,000 Getty Images - 8,500,000 Microstock - 20,000,000 Newscom - 40,000,000 Reuters - 25,000,000 AFP - 8,000,000 Estimate of the volume of pictures online = 173 million Facebook - 15 billion Flickr - 4 billion ImageShack - 20 billion Photobucket - 8.2 billion = 47 billion Sharedpictures LicensedPictures Src: Blackstar rising
  31. 31. 31 contenttable > Bio I’m a French freelance photojournalist based in New York since 2006, specializing in news, portraits and event imagery. After studying Law and Journalism in France, I worked with the photo agency Abaca Press as staff photographer for almost 3 years in the 2nd largest city of France. I used to cover major French political rally, the last presidential campaign, social and economic news as well as entertainment events. In September 2006, I moved to New York and, after a brief stint with Abaca USA and Gam- ma Press, joined Polaris Images as Contributing Photographer for two years. I covered the U.N General Assemblies, the Pope visit in New York, the economic crisis and Wall Street, the Presidential Campaign, and a lot of Movie Premiere amid a lot of other different stories. My work has been published in the main magazines and websites in USA such as Life, Business Week, Sport Illustrated, Newsweek, Portfolio, Van- ity Fair, the New York Magazine, Rolling Stones, Us Weekly, In Touch, and several other publications in the world. I spent the last five years working as news photographer, looking every day for the best story and the best way to report it. I love the perfect shot, the very fa- mous“instant décisif”invented by Cartier Bresson, my eye has been influenced by his sense of sharpness and geometry. I’m always looking for the neatest composi- tion, working mainly with ambient light to preserve the atmosphere of my subject. I balance my work, between news and long term stories, in order to develop a narrative construction adapted to new tools like multimedia productions. This work gave me expe- rience and knowledge. It made me a versatile photographer, comfortable in various circum- stances, ready for new challenges. As a responsible professional, I also try to contribute to a better understanding of this indus- try and its improvement. In the series “Sortir du Cadre” (Think outside the box) I explore the economy of the new media and the photo industry, looking for the new opportunities offered to our generation and analyzing the different economic models we could or should embrace to significantly change the status quo. To me, future of photojournalism is brighter than ever and I’m deeply committed to find the possible exit strategies ahead of us. This e-book is published by Gerald Holubowicz, NYC 2010. Text © Gerald Holubowicz 2010 License Creative Commons
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