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Davis+Hilvers_9-21-15_IECA Presentation (Pub) (1)

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Davis+Hilvers_9-21-15_IECA Presentation (Pub) (1)

  1. 1. Evaluation of Roadside Vegetation for Erosion Control in West Virginia Eric M. Davis, GRA Leslie Hopkinson, PI George Hilvers, GRA Joseph Cottrill, URA Adam Strong, URA Joanna Graham, URA 1
  2. 2. Introduction • Typical issues with roadsides in West Virginia – Rock falls – Bare slopes – Erosion – Poor vegetative growth • Factors leading to issues − Variability in soil type and quality − Various elevation changes − Steep slopes 2
  3. 3. Introduction • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit – Requires 70% average vegetated cover for permit to be released • Currently, little follow up exists on the long term vegetation establishment 3
  4. 4. Objective: Determine the effectiveness of current reclamation methods at roadside and median locations of highways in West Virginia. 4 • Improve reclamation practices to provide better vegetative cover to prevent erosion and unvegetated slopes • Capture a wide range of locations: - Medians - Soil types - Seed mixtures - Slopes - Aspects - Climates
  5. 5. Methods: Roadsides and medians were sampled between 17 June and 8 August, 2014, and 9 July and 10 July, 2015. 5
  6. 6. Methods: Data Collection • Vegetation Cover • Slope • Aspect • Location and Elevation • Compaction • Soil Sample 6
  7. 7. Methods: Data Collection • Vegetation Cover – Subplot selection • Randomly selected using methods adapted from Elzinga et. al. (1998). 7
  8. 8. Methods: Data Collection • Vegetation Cover – Percent cover evaluated with a 1m x 1m grid – Portable point frame was composed of 100 intersections 8
  9. 9. Methods: Data Collection • Slope – Steepness of each site was measured with a Suunto PM-5 Clinometer • Aspect – Slope exposure determined using a Suunto A-10 Recreational Compass • Location and Elevation – Measured using a Garmin etrex 20 handheld GPS 9
  10. 10. Methods: Data Collection • Compaction – Compaction tests performed using agraTronix Soil Compaction Tester • Penetrometer complies to ASAE S313.3 10
  11. 11. Methods: Data Collection • Soil Sample – Soil samples were collected following procedures by West Virginia University Soil Testing Laboratory (2007) for lawn and turf. – Soil samples analyzed for pH, nutrients, minerals, and texture 11
  12. 12. Methods: Cover Classes 12 • Sites are required to have 70% cover in order to be released from NPDES permit. – Cover classes help easily identify sites that have adequate vegetative cover. • Aid in determining the effectiveness of WVDOH’s site reclamation procedures. • Cover Class Ranges: – Class I (0-50%) – Class II (50-70%) – Class III (70-90%) – Class IV (90-100%)
  13. 13. Results: Cover Class I 13 − Class I (0-50%)
  14. 14. Results: Cover Class II 14 − Class II (50-70%)
  15. 15. Results: Cover Class III 15 − Class III (70-90%)
  16. 16. Results: Cover Class IV 16 − Class IV (90-100%)
  17. 17. Results: 30% of the sites examined in this study had excellent mean cover of greater than 90%. 17 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ClassIV(90-100%) CH-5b R19 EBB PB I68WC I64B CFE MFE-1 CH-5a CH-3 ClassIII(70-90%) SMN *CHM-2 279-1a I64 R193 EA R9-2 FGC ClassII(50-70%) R9-1 SMS 279-2 MFE-2 47INTa *CHM-1 *I68M ClassI(0-50%) 279-1b CH-2a CH-2b 47INTb BH CH-1 R52 CH-4 PercentCover(%) Site Abbreviation IV III II I
  18. 18. Results: 24% of the sites examined in this study had poor mean cover of less than 50%. 18 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ClassIV(90-100%) CH-5b R19 EBB PB I68WC I64B CFE MFE-1 CH-5a CH-3 ClassIII(70-90%) SMN *CHM-2 279-1a I64 R193 EA R9-2 FGC ClassII(50-70%) R9-1 SMS 279-2 MFE-2 47INTa *CHM-1 *I68M ClassI(0-50%) 279-1b CH-2a CH-2b 47INTb BH CH-1 R52 CH-4 PercentCover(%) Site Abbreviation IV III II I
  19. 19. Results: 55% of the sites examined in this study met the required 70% for permit release. 19 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ClassIV(90-100%) CH-5b R19 EBB PB I68WC I64B CFE MFE-1 CH-5a CH-3 ClassIII(70-90%) SMN *CHM-2 279-1a I64 R193 EA R9-2 FGC ClassII(50-70%) R9-1 SMS 279-2 MFE-2 47INTa *CHM-1 *I68M ClassI(0-50%) 279-1b CH-2a CH-2b 47INTb BH CH-1 R52 CH-4 PercentCover(%) Site Abbreviation IV III II I
  20. 20. Results: Common species included tall fescue and crownvetch. Also observed: • White clover* • Annual ryegrass* • Red fescue* • Weeping lovegrass* • Serecia lespedeza* • Birdsfoot trefoil • Red clover • Coltsfoot • Buckhorn plantain 20
  21. 21. 21 CrownvetchExample of Observed Species White Clover Narrow Leaf Buckhorn Plantain Birdsfoot Trefoil Red Clover
  22. 22. 22 Example of Observed Species Coltsfoot Annual Ryegrass
  23. 23. 23 CrownvetchExample of Observed Species Sericea Lespedeza Kentucky 31 Fescue
  24. 24. Results: Parameter I II III IV OM (%) a (0.9-1.7) a (0.7-1.8) b (1.5-2.4) b (0.7-4.3) SS (mmhos/cm) a (0.36-1.54) ab (0.08-1.15) bc (0.21-0.81) c (0.09-0.41) N (ppm) a (1-6) a (1-4) ab (1-6) b (3-17) pH* a (4-9.7) a (5.7-9.6) a (5.2-8.4) a (5.8-8.2) *Parameter shows no correlations to long term vegetative establishment between cover classes 24 • The worst performing locations had low levels of OM and high levels of SS. • Nitrogen was the only macronutrient found to have a positive correlation to vegetation cover • pH had no linear correlation, but sites with soils within optimal pH range had greater cover.
  25. 25. Results: 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 PercentCover pH 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 PercentCover Nitrogen (ppm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 PercentCover(%) Soluble Salt (mmhos/cm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 PercentCover Percent Organic Matter (%)
  26. 26. Results: Aspect 26 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 100 200 300 400 PercentCover(%) Aspect (º) • Local percent cover was greatest on eastern facing slopes − Only 4% of local slopes faced east
  27. 27. 27 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 20 40 60 80 PercentCover(%) Slope (%) Results: Slope • Limited statistical differences observed between cover classes as defined by slope
  28. 28. 28 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1000 2000 3000 PercentCover(%) Elevation (ft) Results: Elevation • Limited statistical differences observed between cover classes as defined by elevation
  29. 29. 29 Results: Compaction • Limited statistical differences observed between cover classes as defined by compaction
  30. 30. Conclusions: 30 • Establishing long-term vegetation cover is difficult due to poor soil and site conditions. • These results concluded that challenges faced at time of establishment continue long term. • 30% of the sites had excellent mean cover (>90%); 24% percent of the sites were poorly covered (<50%). • Only 55% of observed sites met the required 70% cover.
  31. 31. Conclusions: 31 • High soluble salt levels and low fertility were present at sites with low vegetation. • Crownvetch was not observed at locations with high soluble salts, leading to poor mean vegetation cover. • The most observed species, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.), are considered invasive but provided the majority of ground cover. CrownvetchTall Fescue
  32. 32. Recommendations: 32 • Proper seedbed preparation should be a high priority • Continued maintenance should be required to overcome initial challenges • Soil testing should be mandatory due to expense of mitigating pH levels. • Site specific seed mixtures may lead to improved revegetation success.
  33. 33. Thank You! • Special thanks go to Charlie Riling for all of his continued help and support throughout the duration of the project. • Donald Williams • Michael Pumphrey • WVDOH • Undergraduate Research Assistants; – Joseph Cottrill – Adam Strong – Joanna Graham 33
  34. 34. Questions ? 34
  35. 35. Development of Erosion Control Seed Mixtures 35 George Hilvers, GRA Leslie Hopkinson, PI
  36. 36. Objectives: • Seed Mixtures – Economical and price competitive – Specifically designed for West Virginia • Vegetation Species – Low invasiveness or native – Erosion control or pioneer species – Inhabits West Virginia 36
  37. 37. Current Seed Mixtures: • DOH Type B: Medians, Shoulders, Waterways, and Mowable Areas of Interchange • DOH Type D: Cut and Fill Slopes 37
  38. 38. DOH Type B: Medians, shoulders, waterways, and mowable areas of interchange Type B Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Threat Level Description Kentucky 31 fescue 65 $1.20 1 Graminoid Red fescue 20 $1.80 N/A Graminoid White Dutch clover 3 $3.80 3 Legume Annual ryegrass 7 $0.60 N/A Nurse crop OR Weeping lovegrass 3 $8.00 3 Nurse crop Total: $150/acre 38
  39. 39. DOH Type B: Medians, shoulders, waterways, and mowable areas of interchange 39
  40. 40. DOH Type D: Cut and Fill Slopes Type D Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Threat Level Description Kentucky 31 fescue 20 $1.20 1 Graminoid Red fescue 20 $1.80 N/A Graminoid Crownvetch 20 $30.00 1 Legume Annual ryegrass 7 $0.60 N/A Nurse crop OR Weeping lovegrass 3 $8.00 3 Nurse crop Total: $684/acre 40
  41. 41. DOH Type D: Cut and Fill Slopes 41
  42. 42. Proposed Seed Mixtures: • Type A: Mowable Areas • Type B: Warm Season • Type C: Cool Season • Type D: High Elevation (>2,400 ft) • Type E: Wet Areas 42
  43. 43. WV Characteristics for Species Selection: • Preferences – Occurs in ¾ ecoregions • Ecoregions Map – 4 ecoregions – 3 main ecoregions 43
  44. 44. WV Characteristics for Species Selection: • Preferences – Occurs in all elevation ranges • Elevation Map – 5 main zones – 240 ft. to 4,863 ft. – Average elevation of 1,500 ft. 44
  45. 45. WV Characteristics for Species Selection: • Preferences – Occurs in multiple precipitation zones • Precipitation Map – 5 main zones – 31-72 inches 45
  46. 46. WV Characteristics for Species Selection: • Preferences – Occurs in various soil medias • Soils Map – Diverse soil compositions 46
  47. 47. WV Characteristics for Species Selection: • Preferences – Occurs in both watersheds • Watersheds Map – Ohio River – Chesapeake Bay 47
  48. 48. WV Characteristics for Species Selection: • Preferences – Occurs in 25/55 counties 48
  49. 49. Type A: Mowable Areas Type A Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Classification Description Autumn Bentgrass 10 $14.00 Native Graminoid Chewing’s Fescue 25 $21.10 Non-Native Graminoid Hard Fescue ‘Chariot’ 35 $2.80 Non-Native Graminoid Hard Fescue ‘Heron’ 35 $2.80 Non-Native Graminoid Creeping Red Fescue 55 $1.50 Non-Native Graminoid White Clover 3 $3.80 Non-Native Legume Total: $482/acre 49 • Medians, shoulders, and lawns
  50. 50. Graminoids: • Autumn Bentgrass (Agrostis perennans) – Native to WV – Damp to dry soils • Creeping Red Fescue (Festuca rubra) – Bunch grass – Soil and site stabilization – Resistant to wear (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. Northeast National Technical Center, Chester.) (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) 50
  51. 51. • Chewing’s Fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) – Used for erosion control – Bunch grass • Hard Fescue ‘Heron’ & ‘Chariot’ (Festuca ovina var. duriuscula & Festuca brevipila) – Perennial bunch grass – Erosion control along roadways – Drought resistant – Long lifespan Graminoids: (Clarence Kelly, USDA-NRCS) 51
  52. 52. Legume: • White Clover (Trifolium repens) – Perennial – Fixate nitrogen – Used for erosion control 52
  53. 53. Type A: Mowable Areas 53
  54. 54. Type B: Warm Season (Cut/Fill) Type B Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Classification Description Common Oat 30 $0.25 Non-native Nurse crop Big Bluestem 6.0 $10.00 Native Graminoid Virginia Wildrye 8.4 $8.00 Native Graminoid Autumn Bentgrass 3.7 $14.00 Native Graminoid Switchgrass 6.4 $5.00 Native Graminoid Indiangrass 14 $18.00 Native Graminoid Partridge Pea 1.0 $10.00 Native Legume Back-Eyed Susan 0.6 $24.00 Native Forb Narrowleaf Mountainmint 0.1 $80.00 Native Forb Wild Bergamot 0.5 $96.00 Native Forb Panicledleaf Ticktrefoil 0.4 $48.00 Native Forb Smooth Oxeye 0.4 $20.00 Native Forb Flat-top Goldentop 0.1 $400.00 Native Forb Total: $618 /acre 54
  55. 55. Nurse Crop: • Common Oat (Avena sativa) – Annual – Nurse crop for erosion control – Winter kills – Spring/Summer planting • Cereal rye (Secal cereale) – Annual – Nurse crop for erosion control – Grows in cold conditions – Fall/Winter planting (USDA-NRCS) (Jose Hernandez, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) 55
  56. 56. Graminoids: • Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) – Perennial warm season bunchgrass – 6-8 feet tall – Does well in low fertility – Strong seeding vigor • Virginia Wildrye (Elymus virginicus) – Cool season bunchgrass – Self-fertilizes – Grows in moist conditions (Jennifer Anderson, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) (Alan Shadow, USDA-NRCS) 56
  57. 57. Graminoids: • Autumn Bentgrass (Agrostis perenans) – Damp to dry soils – Poor salt and drought tolerance • Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) – Perennial warm season bunchgrass – Erosion control for critical areas – Grows in large clumps – 3-5 feet tall (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. South National Technical Center, Fort Worth.) (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. Northeast National Technical Center, Chester.) 57
  58. 58. Graminoids: • Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) – Perennial warm season bunchgrass – Erosion control along roadsides – Strong seeding vigor – 3-7 feet tall (Jennifer Anderson, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database) 58
  59. 59. Legume: • Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasiculata) – Annual – Erosion control along road banks – 1-3 feet tall – Inoculate before planting (R. Alan Shadow, USDA-NRCS) 59
  60. 60. Forbs: • Black-Eyed Susan (Rubeckia hirta) – Biannual – Erosion control along roadcuts – Component in critical area treatment • Smooth Oxeye (Heliopsis helianthoides) – Perennial – Plant winter, fall, or spring – Hardy plant – Found along roadsides and waste areas (USDA-NRCS) (Christine Taliga, USDA-NRCS) 60
  61. 61. Forbs: • Wild Bergamot (Mondarda fistulosa) – Perennial – Spreads through seed and rhizomes – Beautification and ecological benefit • Narrowleaf Mountainmint (Pycnanthemum tenuifolium) – Warm season perennial – Soil stabilizing species – Quick spread through rhizomes (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.) (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. West Region, Sacramento.) 61
  62. 62. Forbs: • Panicledleaf Ticktrefoil (Desmodium paniculatum) – Perennial – Nitrogen fixation – Pioneer species – Inoculate before planting • Flat-top Goldentop (Euthamia graminifolia) – Perennial – Found along roadways and ditches – Tolerates poor soils and drought (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.) 62
  63. 63. Type B: Warm Season 63
  64. 64. Type C: Cool Season (Cut/Fill) Type C Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Classification Description Redtop 4 $10.00 Non-Native Graminoid Hard Fescue ‘Heron’ 10 $2.80 Non-Native Graminoid Hard Fescue ‘Chariot’ 10 $2.80 Non-Native Graminoid Creeping Red Fescue 16 $1.50 Non-Native Graminoid White Clover 7 $3.80 Non-Native Legume Bird’s Foot Trefoil 8 $5.25 Non-Native Legume Total: $189/acre 64
  65. 65. Graminoids: • Redtop (Agrostis gigantea) – Perennial – Erosion control – Critical area stabilization – Low fertility requirements • Creeping Red Fescue (Festuca rubra) – Bunch grass – Soil and site stabilization – Resistant to wear (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) 65
  66. 66. • Hard Fescue ‘Heron’ & ‘Chariot’ (Festuca ovina var. duriuscula & Festuca brevipila) – Perennial bunch grass – Erosion control along roadways – Drought resistant – Long lifespan Graminoids: (Clarence Kelly, USDA-NRCS) 66
  67. 67. Legume: • White Clover (Trifolium repens) – Perennial – Nitrogen fixation – Used for erosion control • Bird’s Foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) – Perennial – Long lifespan – Used for erosion control along roadways – Nitrogen fixation (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, USDA-NRCS) 67
  68. 68. Type C: Cool Season 68
  69. 69. Type D1: High Elevation (≤3:1) (>2,400 ft) Type D1 Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Classification Description Common Oat 30 $0.25 Non-native Nurse crop Big Bluestem 2.5 $10.00 Native Graminoid Virginia Wildrye 4.0 $8.00 Native Graminoid Autumn Bentgrass 2.7 $14.00 Native Graminoid Deertongue 2.0 $18.00 Native Graminoid Little Bluestem 6.5 $24.00 Native Graminoid Partridge Pea 0.8 $10.00 Native Legume Back-Eyed Susan 0.6 $24.00 Native Forb Smooth Oxeye 0.4 $20.00 Native Forb Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod 0.2 $280.00 Native Forb Narrowleaf Mountainmint 0.1 $80.00 Native Forb Panicledleaf Ticktrefoil 0.4 $48.00 Native Forb Flat-top Goldentop 0.1 $400.00 Native Forb Total: $448/acre 69
  70. 70. Nurse Crop: • Common Oat (Avena sativa) – Annual – Nurse crop for erosion control – Winter kills – Spring/Summer planting • Cereal rye (Secal cereale) – Annual – Nurse crop for erosion control – Grows in cold conditions – Fall/Winter planting (USDA-NRCS) (Jose Hernandez, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) 70
  71. 71. Graminoids: • Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) – Perennial warm season bunchgrass – 6-8 feet tall – Does well in low fertility – Strong seeding vigor • Virginia Wildrye (Elymus virginicus) – Cool season bunchgrass – Self-fertilizes – Grows in moist conditions (Jennifer Anderson, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) (Alan Shadow, USDA-NRCS) 71
  72. 72. Graminoids: • Autumn Bentgrass (Agrostis perenans) – Damp to dry soils – Poor salt and drought tolerance • Deertongue (Dichanthelium clandestinum) – Warm season perennial – Tolerates low fertility and acidic soils – Protects soil during winter with a mat of vegetation (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. Northeast National Technical Center, Chester.) (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, USDA-NRCS) 72
  73. 73. Graminoids: • Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) – Warm season – Drought tolerant – Used for erosion control – Grows in a wide range of soils (L. Glasscock, USDA-NRCS) 73
  74. 74. Legume: • Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasiculata) – Annual – Erosion control along road banks – 1-3 feet tall – Inoculate before planting (R. Alan Shadow, USDA-NRCS) 74
  75. 75. Forbs: • Black-Eyed Susan (Rubeckia hirta) – Biannual – Erosion control along roadcuts – Component in critical area treatment • Smooth Oxeye (Heliopsis helianthoides) – Perennial – Plant winter, fall, or spring – Hardy plant – Found along roadsides and waste areas (USDA-NRCS) (Christine Taliga, USDA-NRCS) 75
  76. 76. Forbs: • Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod (Solidago rugosa) – Found along roadsides – Tolerant of shade and drought • Narrowleaf Mountainmint (Pycnanthemum tenuifolium) – Warm season perennial – Soil stabilizing species – Quick spread through rhizomes (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.) (USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database) 76
  77. 77. Forbs: • Panicledleaf Ticktrefoil (Desmodium paniculatum) – Perennial – Nitrogen fixation – Pioneer species – Inoculate before planting • Flat-top Goldentop (Euthamia graminifolia) – Perennial – Found along roadways and ditches – Tolerates poor soils and drought (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.) 77
  78. 78. Type D1: High Elevation (≤3:1) 78
  79. 79. Type D2: High Elevation (>3:1)(>2,400 ft) Type D2 Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Classification Description Oats 30 $0.25 Non-native Nurse crop Big Bluestem 4 $10.00 Native Graminoid Virginia Wildrye 8.2 $8.00 Native Graminoid Autumn Bentgrass 5.5 $14.00 Native Graminoid Deertongue 8 $18.00 Native Graminoid Little Bluestem 15 $24.00 Native Graminoid Partridge Pea 0.8 $10.00 Native Legume Backeyed Susan 0.6 $24.00 Native Forb Oxeye Sunflower 0.4 $20.00 Native Forb Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod 0.2 $280.00 Native Forb Slender Mountainmint 0.1 $80.00 Native Forb Panicledleaf Ticktrefoil 0.4 $48.00 Native Forb Grassleaf Goldenrod 0.1 $400.00 Native Forb Total: $848/acre 79
  80. 80. Type E: Wet Areas Type E Rate (lb/ac) Cost (/lb) Classification Description Fox Sedge 4.0 $24.00 Native Graminoid Fowl Bluegrass 3.5 $10.00 Native Graminoid Redtop Panicgrass 4.0 $48.00 Native Graminoid Common Rush 0.5 $66.00 Native Graminoid Virginia Wildrye 4.0 $8.00 Native Graminoid Shallow Sedge 3.0 $64.00 Native Graminoid Blue Vervain 0.8 $40.00 Native Forb Wingstem 0.2 $180.00 Native Forb Total: $648/acre 80 • Ditches, retention basins, and moist or saturated soil conditions
  81. 81. Graminoids: • Fox Sedge (Carex vulpinoidea) – Bunch-forming perennial – Spreads quickly – Pioneer wetland colonizer • Fowl Bluegrass (Poa palustris) – Cool season bunch grass – Develops quickly – Found in moist soils (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. West Region, Sacramento.) (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln..) 81
  82. 82. Graminoids: • Redtop Panicgrass (Panicum rigidulum) – Common wetland species • Common Rush (Juncus effusus) – Perennial bunch grass – Deep root system – Inhabits ditches and wet meadows – Tolerates a variety of site characteristics (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.) 82
  83. 83. Graminoids: • Virginia Wildrye (Elymus virginicus) – Cool season bunchgrass – Self-fertilizes – Grows in moist conditions • Shallow Sedge (Carex lurida) – Bunchgrass (Robert H. Mohlenbrock, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.) (Alan Shadow, USDA-NRCS) 83
  84. 84. Forbs: • Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata) – Perennial – Spreads through rhizomes – Grows in disturbed areas • Wingstem (Verbesina alternifolia) – Occurs along roadsides – Vigorous growth – Prefers moist soils (Jennifer Anderson, hosted by the USDA- NRCS PLANTS Database) 84
  85. 85. Mixture Comparison: Mixture Nurse Crop Graminoid Legume Forb Seeding Rate (lb/acre) Price ($/acre) DOH Medians 2 2 1 0 91 $150.00 DOH Cut/Fill 2 2 1 0 63 $684.00 Mowable Areas 0 5 1 0 163 $482.00 Warm Season 2 5 1 6 71.5 $618.00 Cool Season 0 4 2 0 55 $189.00 High Elevation (D1) 2 5 1 6 50.3 $448.00 High Elevation (D2) 2 5 1 6 73.3 $848.00 Wet Areas 0 6 0 2 20 $648.00
  86. 86. Seed Mixtures Conclusions: • Mowable Areas – Replaces 3 current DOH mixtures – Low invasiveness • Warm Season (Cut/Fill) – $66 less per acre and native • Cool Season (Cut/Fill) – $495 less per acre and low invasiveness • Wet Areas – Address specific concerns and price competitive 86
  87. 87. Thank You! • Mark Fiely, Ernst Conservation Seeds, Inc. • Elizabeth Byers, WVDEP • West Virginia Division of Natural Resources • West Virginia Division of Highways 87
  88. 88. Questions? 88
  89. 89. Testing Experimental Mixtures in the Field 89 George Hilvers, GRA Leslie Hopkinson, PI Eric Davis, GRA Adam Strong, URA Joanna Graham, URA
  90. 90. Objectives: • Overall Objective – Evaluate if seed mixtures that include native species can be applied to roadside reclamation • Objective 1 – Compare proposed seed mixtures to current standard • Objective 2 – Evaluate need of a high elevation seed mixture • Objective 3 – Determine if seed bed preparation influences seed germination and cover • Objective 4 – Evaluate performance of soil media and amendments 90
  91. 91. Field Site Selection: • Along Corridor H • Three selected locations • Two treatments located at CH-1 location 91
  92. 92. Methods: Data Collection and monitoring Data collection • Vegetation Cover • Slope • Aspect • Location and Elevation • Compaction • Soil samples • Soil moisture, EC, and temperature 92
  93. 93. Objective 1: Compare proposed seed mixtures to current standard • Located at Fish Pond Road • Site location named CH-1A • Three replications 93 • 846 ft. elevation • 6% slope • 1.5 %OM • 7.3 pH
  94. 94. Objective 1 Methods: • Take soil sample for analysis • Remove existing vegetation • Till soil and remove debris • Re-compact soil • Scarify soil surface • Install grid system and sensors 94
  95. 95. Objective 1 Methods: • Apply 6.61 lbs of 10-10-10 Fertilizer • Spread seed to individual subplots • HECP application of ProMatrix 95
  96. 96. (Photo by Profile Products, Adam Dibble/Matt Welch) 96
  97. 97. Objective 1 Progression: Hydromulch 3.5 weeks 4.5 weeks 10.5 weeks 97
  98. 98. Objective 1 Site Picture at 90 Days: 98 High Elevation Cool Season Warm Season DOH Cut/Fill DOH Medians Mowable Areas
  99. 99. Objective 1 Results: • 85% cover achieved within 5.5 weeks for all mixtures 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 DOH Medians DOH Cut/Fill Mowable Areas Warm Season Cool Season High Elevation PercentCover(%) 6/3/2015 6/19/2015 7/1/2015 7/16/2015 7/28/2015 8/11/2015 8/24/2015 99
  100. 100. Objective 1 Results Eight Days After Planting: • Non-native mixtures had greater cover compared to native mixtures 100 Native Mixtures
  101. 101. Objective 1 Results Ninety Days After Planting: • All mixtures met 99% cover after 90 days 101 Native Mixtures
  102. 102. Objective 2: Evaluate need of a high elevation seed mixture • Located adjacent to Mt. Storm Power Plant • Site location named CH-2 • Three replications 102 • 3,297 ft. elevation • 4% slope • 2.7% OM • 6.4 pH • Rocky soil
  103. 103. Objective 2 Methods: • Take soil sample for analysis • Remove existing vegetation • Till soil and remove debris • Re-compact soil • Scarify soil surface • Install grid system and sensors 103
  104. 104. Objective 2 Methods: • Applied 5.51 lbs of 5-10-10 Fertilizer • Spread seed to individual subplots • HECP application 104
  105. 105. Objective 2 Progression: Site Prep Hydromulch 5.5 weeks 10.5 weeks 105
  106. 106. Objective 2 Site Picture at 90 Days: 106 High Elevation Mowable Areas Cool Season Warm Season DOH Medians
  107. 107. Objective 2 Results: • 70% cover achieved only by non-native mixtures • Legumes dominate 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 DOH Medians Mowable Areas Warm Season Cool Season High Elevation PercentCover(%) 6/3/2015 6/19/2015 7/1/2015 7/16/2015 7/28/2015 8/11/2015 8/24/2015 107
  108. 108. Objective 2 Results Eight Days After Planting: • Non-native mixtures had greater cover compared to native mixtures 108 Native Mixtures
  109. 109. Objective 2 Results Ninety Days After Planting: • Non-native mixtures had greater cover compared to native mixtures 109 Native Mixtures
  110. 110. Objective 3: Determine if seed bed preparation influence seed germination and cover • Located adjacent to runaway truck ramp • Site location named CH-3 • Two replications 110 • 1,840 ft. elevation • 15% slope • 1 % OM • 8.1 pH
  111. 111. Objective 3 Methods: • Take soil samples for analysis • Remove existing vegetation • Till soil and remove debris • Install grid system • Install Topsoil 111
  112. 112. Objective 3 Methods: • Re-compact soil • Scarify soil surface • Install sensors 112
  113. 113. Objective 3 Methods: • Applied 5.51 lbs of 5-10-10 Fertilizer to subsoil • Applied 8.7 lbs of 10-10-10 Fertilizer to topsoil • Spread seed to individual subplots 113
  114. 114. Objective 3 Methods: • HECP, straw, and tackifier application 114
  115. 115. Objective 3 Progression: Hydromulch and Straw 5.5 weeks 10.5 weeks 115
  116. 116. Objective 3 Site Picture at 90 Days: 116 Warm Season DOH Medians Cool Season
  117. 117. Objective 3 Results: • 70% cover achieved by all seed mixtures • Shallow slope may be why we see no difference between treatments 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 DOH Medians (TS, HP) DOH Medians (NTS, HP) DOH Medians (TS,S) DOH Medians (NTS,S) Warm Season (TS, HP) Warm Season (NTS, HP) Warm Season (TS,S) Warm Season (NTS,S) Cool Season (TS, HP) Cool Season (NTS, HP) Cool Season (TS,S) Cool Season (NTS,S) PercentCover(%) 6/3/2015 6/19/2015 7/1/2015 7/16/2015 7/28/2015 8/11/2015 8/24/2015 117
  118. 118. Objective 3 Results Eight Days After Planting: • Non-native mixtures had greater cover compared to native mixture 118 Native Mixture
  119. 119. Objective 3 Results Ninety Days After Planting: • Tested, but did not find any differences between seedbed preparations 119 Native Mixture
  120. 120. Objective 4: Evaluate performance of soil media and amendments • Located adjacent Fish Pond Road • Site location named CH-1B • Three replications 120 • 840 ft. elevation • 4% slope • 1.5 %OM • 7.3 pH
  121. 121. Objective 4 Methods: • Take soil samples for analysis • Remove existing vegetation • Till soil and remove debris • Install grid system • Install Topsoil 121
  122. 122. Objective 4 Methods: • Re-compact soil • Scarify soil surface • Install sensors 122
  123. 123. Objective 4 Methods: • Applied 3.23 lbs of 10-10-10 Fertilizer to subsoil • Applied 1.96 lbs of 10-10-10 Fertilizer to topsoil • Spread seed to individual subplots 123
  124. 124. Objective 4 Methods: • ProGanics application • Tried to follow manufacturer specifications as best as possible 124
  125. 125. Objective 4 Methods: • HECP application 125
  126. 126. Objective 4 Methods: • Biotic Earth hand application • Tried to follow manufacturer specifications as best as possible 126
  127. 127. Objective 4 Progression: 3.5 weeks 10.5 weeks 127
  128. 128. Objective 4 Site Picture at 90 Days: 128 Topsoil ProGanics Biotic Earth No Topsoil
  129. 129. Objective 4 Results: • 70% cover achieved by No Topsoil and ProGanics in 3.3 weeks • Topsoil plots have significant non-desirable species 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Topsoil No Topsoil Biotic Earth ProGanics PercentCover(%) 6/3/2015 6/19/2015 7/1/2015 7/16/2015 7/28/2015 8/11/2015 8/24/2015 129
  130. 130. Objective 4 Results Eight Days After Planting: • No difference between treatments • Biotic Earth and ProGanics likely took longer due to field application over the seed 130
  131. 131. Objective 4 Results Ninety Days After Planting: • Long term no effect between applications and method 131
  132. 132. Field Study Conclusions: • Objective 1 – At 846 ft., Mowable Areas, Warm Season, Cool Season, and High Elevation performed as well or better than current DOH mixtures – Native mixtures slower to germinate • Objective 2 – Cool Season and Mowable Areas did as well as the DOH mixture – After 90 days, the Warm Season and High Elevation mixtures have not yet made the 70% cover target – Difficult to make a warm season mixture perform well in comparison to a cool season mixture 132
  133. 133. Field Study Conclusions: • Objective 3 – After 90 days, there was no difference between seed bed preparations • Objective 4 – All treatments achieved 96% cover by 90 days – Initial germination took longer for Biotic Earth and ProGanics due to product thickness and not incorporating seed mixture into the products – Site conditions were moderate where poor conditions could show a larger difference between treatments 133
  134. 134. Recommendations: • Utilize Mowable Areas and Cool Season mixtures for high elevations • Large scale research on seed mixture performances • Examine soil amendment and media products in large scale on severe site conditions • Examine larger selection of HECP on erosion control effectiveness 134
  135. 135. Thank You! • Profile Products, LLC • Arnold’s Custom Seeding, LLC • Verdyol • Mark Fiely, Ernst Conservation Seeds, Inc. • West Virginia Division of Highways 135
  136. 136. Questions? 136

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