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+people Programme
Safety = Systems + People
Welcome to Module 1! Safety = Systems + People
What does excellent safety performance
look like?
In this module we are going to look at the four
stages of the Bradley Curve model so we can
explore how we, over the past few decades,
have reduced massively the number of
accidents and injuries at work and what we
need to do to achieve zero harm.
An Introduction to the Bradley Curve
To help you get started, Dr Jack will introduce you to the key concepts of
Safety = Systems + People.
Let's start with a question
What do you think excellent safety
performance at your work looks like?
Well…..all three are correct.
But what if we went even further and agreed
that excellent safety performance means no-
one being harmed through work – zero harm.
The Bradley Curve
The Reactive stage shows the response by the UK
Government to the high % of work related deaths
during the 1970s which resulted in the Health and
Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA74).
The Systematic stage saw the introduction of
better work equipment, safety systems and
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in order to
create safer working environments.
The Independent stage shows the investment
made in training people how to use the systems
that have been developed to do their job safely.
The Interdependent stage involves us
understanding the choices that we/others make
and how we can all make better choices –
creating a safety culture where we look out for
each other.
Why are we still having accidents?
You can see from the Bradley Curve that deaths at
work have significantly reduced. But we know that is
not good enough and we need to achieve zero harm.
So why are we still having accidents at work?
This is where the fourth stage, the Interdependent
Stage, is key!
Unsafe behaviours are often not deliberate – we don’t want to be hurt – but are the result of
choices that we have made - very often choices we are not even aware of making!
A little experiment
Thank you for taking part in the experiment! As you
can see, it's sometimes easy to miss the obvious.
Where in work could you be missing things in terms of
safety?
You've just learnt about the importance of the choices we (and
others) make in the workplace. Here are some examples of good
choices:
Independent Choice
A choice to follow the safe system at work and to do the job in the
way we have been trained.
Interdependent Choice
Looking out for each other, choosing to give safety reminders and
re-think the job in order to do it safer.
Safety = Systems + People
Excellent safety performance means no-one
being harmed through work and this is
achieved when the safe systems of work are
used by trained people making the right
choices: safety = systems + people!
+people Programme
ABC Of Behaviour
The ABC of Behaviour
What does the word ‘behaviour’ make you think about? Does it take you back
to being at school and being told off? Well.....we think this for a good reason,
it’s because we very often manage behaviour by looking at the negative
consequences of that behaviour.
In terms of safety, this means someone has to be put at risk, or injured, before
we can begin to learn why.
In this section we are going to look at the ABC Bow Tie model to explore the
thinking which influences our behaviour, so we can make better choices in
order to achieve positive consequences.
Dr Jack
To help you get started, Dr Jack will introduce
you to the ABC Bow Tie model.
The ABC Bow-Tie
Antecedents are
the triggers to our
behaviour.
In simple terms,
Behaviour is
everything we say or
do (or don’t say and
do).
Our behaviour leads to Consequences: both
positive and negative.
Unsafe behaviours lead to negative consequences
such as:
•Fatalities, injuries, damage to equipment or
environment.
Safe behaviours lead to positive consequences
such as:
•Reduction in harm to people, equipment and
environment, increased efficiency, productivity and
improved reputation.
A quick question for you
How do you behave when you see a speed
camera? What do you do?
Well…..you slow down to avoid the negative
consequences of being caught speeding – being
fined!
What do you do when you have passed the ‘speed
camera’? Be honest…..you probably go back to the
same speed you were driving before!
Using the negative consequences as a way of managing our
behaviour is only effective if we perceive the consequences as
being 'real and now' and even then rarely has a long term impact.
In order to achieve long term safe behaviour and positive
consequences we need to look at the Antecedents that influence
our behaviour.
Antecedents are in 3 groups:
Mind-set:
shows us that behaviour is driven by feelings and emotions
underpinned by attitude, beliefs and the result of our conditioning.
Mind Map:
allows us to look at the strengths and weaknesses of how the mind
works including conscious and sub-conscious choices.
Currencies:
explores the sub-conscious choices that are present in almost all
accidents – which are alpha, habits, time versus risk and personal risk
perception.
+people Programme
Mind Set (The Iceberg Model)
Mind Set and the Iceberg Model
When you look at an Iceberg all you can see is the tip – but
there's so much more you can't see that is underneath the
water. The same is true with behaviour. . . its the small part
that we can observe in people. . . but there's much more going
on below. In order to see what lies under the water we have to
do some deep sea diving!
In this Module we are going to look at the first of the
Antecedents - Mind Set; which shows how our
behaviour, everything we say or do (or don’t say and
do), is driven by feelings and emotions, attitude,
beliefs and conditioning.
Mind Set
Whether we want to admit it or not, we
are all creatures of Feelings and
Emotions.
In simple terms negative feelings will
behaviours and positive feelings
In order to encourage positive safe
ourselves and others we need to create
feeling about safety because if we feel
what we are doing we will either not do
heartedly. Now we can’t choose our
what can we choose? We can choose
respond to them.
This leads us into our Attitude; which
is our chosen response to a given
situation!
We all hold strong attitudes towards
future, other people, ourselves and the
work for. Often we will seek to justify
drawing towards us things that support
however, we can and do change our
attitudes are contagious, so a positive
us to contribute to a positive safety
work! Of course, a negative attitude
effect!
The People in Cultures Model
Positive attitude + low energy and high self-esteem =
Supporting ,i.e. ‘How can I help to make this happen?’
Negative attitude + low energy and low self-esteem =
Sleep Walking, i.e. ‘I don’t know what's going on’
Positive attitude + high energy and high self-esteem =
Playing i.e. ‘Come on let’s have a go, I know what we
can do’
Negative attitude + high energy + low self-esteem =
Sniping, i.e. ‘It will never work, I have seen this all
before!’
Negative attitude + high energy + high self-esteem =
Undermining, i.e. ‘I will make sure it never works!’
By working together and using the 4 'Rs' (respect,
recognition, responsibility and reward), we can
positively influence the attitudes of others. This will
lead to an increase in the number of workers
displaying Playing and Supporting behaviours.
Beliefs and values can be simply
defined as ‘that which we hold to be
true as an undeniable fact’.
We will behave in a manner which is
our beliefs and values, often rejecting
questions them. Behaving in a way that
inconsistent with our beliefs causes’
do not keep it up for long.
We all have limiting beliefs and values,
leading to unsafe behaviour, due to
negative Conditioning.
Our Conditioning is an extremely
on behaviour created over a long
has often created barriers for us that
To permanently change our behaviour
Roger Bannister, question and re-think
conditioning to create new beliefs and
things we previously considered
achieved – for example Zero Harm!
+people Programme
Mind Map and Currencies
Mind Map and Currencies
Mind Map and Currencies
In this Module we are going to look at the two remaining
Antecedents - Mind Map and Currencies.
Mind Map shows us that our behaviour stems from the
interaction between the conscious and sub-conscious parts of
the mind.
Currencies are the subconscious drivers that we need to
challenge as they are present in nearly all accidents.
Our conscious mind is only capable of focusing on a few things at once and is
excellent at judgement.
Our sub-conscious has an unlimited storage capacity - it identifies and captures
repeatedly exposed, but does not judge at all.
This results in our subconscious mind driving our routine behaviours without
good or bad, safe or unsafe, which in turn builds over time our personal
So how do we know if our subconscious safety
behaviours are the right ones?
Well…..to develop (permanent) positive safe
behaviours we must begin by challenging,
individually and collectively, the 4 subconscious
drivers we call the Currencies; Alpha, Habits, Time
versus Risk and Personal Risk Perception.
Alpha State
Always using our conscious minds to complete a task would require
incredible concentration. This is why our subconscious minds take
over and allow us to complete the task in a trance state.
We refer to this state as Alpha. It is estimated that we spend, on
average, 10 minutes in every hour in Alpha carrying out tasks
efficiently and competently through our subconscious.
However, this does mean that for those 10 minutes in every hour
we are not aware of potential hazards, especially those below the
knee or above eye level – often causing slips, trips and falls.
Our individual and collective awareness of Alpha provides us
provides us with the opportunity to remove potential Alpha
potential Alpha hazards and to have proactive conversations
conversations reminding each other of the potential risks.
potential risks.
Habits
Habits are created by repeatedly carrying out tasks in a particular way until they
become an automatic routine.
Habits allow us to carry out everyday tasks without thinking about them consciously;
they are what keep us safe when we are in Alpha. It is estimated that 21 days are
required to form a habit.
As a habit is a sub-conscious routine, it can be good or bad (remember, the sub-
conscious does not judge!). Our challenge, then, is to identify and sort our habits,
keeping the good ones and replacing the bad ones.
To replace a bad habit requires the creation of a new one, which means we must
expose ourselves to a new way of doing something – this can be uncomfortable at
first, like folding your arms the opposite way.
So…..to overwrite bad habits with new good ones, we must help and support
help and support each other by first identifying the bad habits and then
and then reinforcing good safety practices through positive peer influence –
peer influence – until they become automatic!
Time Vs Risk
We are all programmed to save time and energy. We call this the
168 Drive as there are 168 hours in a week.
The challenge is recognising that often we place far more
importance on the saving of time than on the risk of taking a short
cut.
When our perceived time pressures increase, through a tight
deadline for example, then so do the risks we are now prepared to
take. This risk taking, if repeated often enough, will then become a
habit.
We need to look out for when we or others take short cuts.
short cuts. Then we can identify the risk, make sure we are
sure we are using the correct equipment and design how the
design how the task could be made easier and safer in the
safer in the future.
Personal Risk Perception
As we now work in environments where risk has largely been
managed, this can encourage our personal risk perception to
conclude that accidents no longer happen, or if they do, they
happen to other people and not us!
Performing risk assessments in teams will encourage us to
develop a collective risk perception, reducing the personal risks
we may have been willing to take.
A low level of personal risk perception means we are
more likely to cut corners and take bigger risks in
order to save time. If this behaviour is repeated over
time it will become a Habit, resulting in us now taking
risks automatically in Alpha with no judgement of
whether we are safe or unsafe!
We call this spiral of behaviour the Currency Trap!
Communication
Understanding the Currencies provides us with a collective safety language
which can be traded in order to keep ourselves and others safe.
This relies on good communication.
We communicate through the words we use, our tone of voice and our body
language. This means we cannot fail to communicate!
The way we say things tells people what we really mean and people will
remember the things we do more than what we say.
So if we fail to approach someone working unsafely with a safety reminder, we
are reinforcing that unsafe behaviour.
Programme delivered by:
© Safe Setters Ltd, 2019, 2020
For further information, please contact the your
health and safety team

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Tec offline training package 20200205 update

  • 1. +people Programme Safety = Systems + People
  • 2. Welcome to Module 1! Safety = Systems + People
  • 3. What does excellent safety performance look like? In this module we are going to look at the four stages of the Bradley Curve model so we can explore how we, over the past few decades, have reduced massively the number of accidents and injuries at work and what we need to do to achieve zero harm.
  • 4. An Introduction to the Bradley Curve To help you get started, Dr Jack will introduce you to the key concepts of Safety = Systems + People.
  • 5. Let's start with a question What do you think excellent safety performance at your work looks like?
  • 6. Well…..all three are correct. But what if we went even further and agreed that excellent safety performance means no- one being harmed through work – zero harm.
  • 7. The Bradley Curve The Reactive stage shows the response by the UK Government to the high % of work related deaths during the 1970s which resulted in the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA74). The Systematic stage saw the introduction of better work equipment, safety systems and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in order to create safer working environments. The Independent stage shows the investment made in training people how to use the systems that have been developed to do their job safely. The Interdependent stage involves us understanding the choices that we/others make and how we can all make better choices – creating a safety culture where we look out for each other.
  • 8. Why are we still having accidents? You can see from the Bradley Curve that deaths at work have significantly reduced. But we know that is not good enough and we need to achieve zero harm. So why are we still having accidents at work? This is where the fourth stage, the Interdependent Stage, is key!
  • 9. Unsafe behaviours are often not deliberate – we don’t want to be hurt – but are the result of choices that we have made - very often choices we are not even aware of making!
  • 11. Thank you for taking part in the experiment! As you can see, it's sometimes easy to miss the obvious. Where in work could you be missing things in terms of safety?
  • 12. You've just learnt about the importance of the choices we (and others) make in the workplace. Here are some examples of good choices: Independent Choice A choice to follow the safe system at work and to do the job in the way we have been trained. Interdependent Choice Looking out for each other, choosing to give safety reminders and re-think the job in order to do it safer.
  • 13. Safety = Systems + People Excellent safety performance means no-one being harmed through work and this is achieved when the safe systems of work are used by trained people making the right choices: safety = systems + people!
  • 15. The ABC of Behaviour What does the word ‘behaviour’ make you think about? Does it take you back to being at school and being told off? Well.....we think this for a good reason, it’s because we very often manage behaviour by looking at the negative consequences of that behaviour. In terms of safety, this means someone has to be put at risk, or injured, before we can begin to learn why. In this section we are going to look at the ABC Bow Tie model to explore the thinking which influences our behaviour, so we can make better choices in order to achieve positive consequences.
  • 16. Dr Jack To help you get started, Dr Jack will introduce you to the ABC Bow Tie model.
  • 17. The ABC Bow-Tie Antecedents are the triggers to our behaviour. In simple terms, Behaviour is everything we say or do (or don’t say and do). Our behaviour leads to Consequences: both positive and negative. Unsafe behaviours lead to negative consequences such as: •Fatalities, injuries, damage to equipment or environment. Safe behaviours lead to positive consequences such as: •Reduction in harm to people, equipment and environment, increased efficiency, productivity and improved reputation.
  • 18. A quick question for you How do you behave when you see a speed camera? What do you do? Well…..you slow down to avoid the negative consequences of being caught speeding – being fined! What do you do when you have passed the ‘speed camera’? Be honest…..you probably go back to the same speed you were driving before!
  • 19. Using the negative consequences as a way of managing our behaviour is only effective if we perceive the consequences as being 'real and now' and even then rarely has a long term impact. In order to achieve long term safe behaviour and positive consequences we need to look at the Antecedents that influence our behaviour.
  • 20. Antecedents are in 3 groups: Mind-set: shows us that behaviour is driven by feelings and emotions underpinned by attitude, beliefs and the result of our conditioning. Mind Map: allows us to look at the strengths and weaknesses of how the mind works including conscious and sub-conscious choices. Currencies: explores the sub-conscious choices that are present in almost all accidents – which are alpha, habits, time versus risk and personal risk perception.
  • 21. +people Programme Mind Set (The Iceberg Model)
  • 22. Mind Set and the Iceberg Model
  • 23. When you look at an Iceberg all you can see is the tip – but there's so much more you can't see that is underneath the water. The same is true with behaviour. . . its the small part that we can observe in people. . . but there's much more going on below. In order to see what lies under the water we have to do some deep sea diving!
  • 24. In this Module we are going to look at the first of the Antecedents - Mind Set; which shows how our behaviour, everything we say or do (or don’t say and do), is driven by feelings and emotions, attitude, beliefs and conditioning. Mind Set
  • 25. Whether we want to admit it or not, we are all creatures of Feelings and Emotions. In simple terms negative feelings will behaviours and positive feelings In order to encourage positive safe ourselves and others we need to create feeling about safety because if we feel what we are doing we will either not do heartedly. Now we can’t choose our what can we choose? We can choose respond to them.
  • 26. This leads us into our Attitude; which is our chosen response to a given situation! We all hold strong attitudes towards future, other people, ourselves and the work for. Often we will seek to justify drawing towards us things that support however, we can and do change our attitudes are contagious, so a positive us to contribute to a positive safety work! Of course, a negative attitude effect!
  • 27. The People in Cultures Model Positive attitude + low energy and high self-esteem = Supporting ,i.e. ‘How can I help to make this happen?’ Negative attitude + low energy and low self-esteem = Sleep Walking, i.e. ‘I don’t know what's going on’ Positive attitude + high energy and high self-esteem = Playing i.e. ‘Come on let’s have a go, I know what we can do’ Negative attitude + high energy + low self-esteem = Sniping, i.e. ‘It will never work, I have seen this all before!’ Negative attitude + high energy + high self-esteem = Undermining, i.e. ‘I will make sure it never works!’
  • 28. By working together and using the 4 'Rs' (respect, recognition, responsibility and reward), we can positively influence the attitudes of others. This will lead to an increase in the number of workers displaying Playing and Supporting behaviours.
  • 29. Beliefs and values can be simply defined as ‘that which we hold to be true as an undeniable fact’. We will behave in a manner which is our beliefs and values, often rejecting questions them. Behaving in a way that inconsistent with our beliefs causes’ do not keep it up for long.
  • 30. We all have limiting beliefs and values, leading to unsafe behaviour, due to negative Conditioning. Our Conditioning is an extremely on behaviour created over a long has often created barriers for us that To permanently change our behaviour Roger Bannister, question and re-think conditioning to create new beliefs and things we previously considered achieved – for example Zero Harm!
  • 31. +people Programme Mind Map and Currencies
  • 32. Mind Map and Currencies
  • 33. Mind Map and Currencies In this Module we are going to look at the two remaining Antecedents - Mind Map and Currencies. Mind Map shows us that our behaviour stems from the interaction between the conscious and sub-conscious parts of the mind. Currencies are the subconscious drivers that we need to challenge as they are present in nearly all accidents.
  • 34. Our conscious mind is only capable of focusing on a few things at once and is excellent at judgement. Our sub-conscious has an unlimited storage capacity - it identifies and captures repeatedly exposed, but does not judge at all. This results in our subconscious mind driving our routine behaviours without good or bad, safe or unsafe, which in turn builds over time our personal
  • 35. So how do we know if our subconscious safety behaviours are the right ones? Well…..to develop (permanent) positive safe behaviours we must begin by challenging, individually and collectively, the 4 subconscious drivers we call the Currencies; Alpha, Habits, Time versus Risk and Personal Risk Perception.
  • 36. Alpha State Always using our conscious minds to complete a task would require incredible concentration. This is why our subconscious minds take over and allow us to complete the task in a trance state. We refer to this state as Alpha. It is estimated that we spend, on average, 10 minutes in every hour in Alpha carrying out tasks efficiently and competently through our subconscious. However, this does mean that for those 10 minutes in every hour we are not aware of potential hazards, especially those below the knee or above eye level – often causing slips, trips and falls. Our individual and collective awareness of Alpha provides us provides us with the opportunity to remove potential Alpha potential Alpha hazards and to have proactive conversations conversations reminding each other of the potential risks. potential risks.
  • 37. Habits Habits are created by repeatedly carrying out tasks in a particular way until they become an automatic routine. Habits allow us to carry out everyday tasks without thinking about them consciously; they are what keep us safe when we are in Alpha. It is estimated that 21 days are required to form a habit. As a habit is a sub-conscious routine, it can be good or bad (remember, the sub- conscious does not judge!). Our challenge, then, is to identify and sort our habits, keeping the good ones and replacing the bad ones. To replace a bad habit requires the creation of a new one, which means we must expose ourselves to a new way of doing something – this can be uncomfortable at first, like folding your arms the opposite way. So…..to overwrite bad habits with new good ones, we must help and support help and support each other by first identifying the bad habits and then and then reinforcing good safety practices through positive peer influence – peer influence – until they become automatic!
  • 38. Time Vs Risk We are all programmed to save time and energy. We call this the 168 Drive as there are 168 hours in a week. The challenge is recognising that often we place far more importance on the saving of time than on the risk of taking a short cut. When our perceived time pressures increase, through a tight deadline for example, then so do the risks we are now prepared to take. This risk taking, if repeated often enough, will then become a habit. We need to look out for when we or others take short cuts. short cuts. Then we can identify the risk, make sure we are sure we are using the correct equipment and design how the design how the task could be made easier and safer in the safer in the future.
  • 39. Personal Risk Perception As we now work in environments where risk has largely been managed, this can encourage our personal risk perception to conclude that accidents no longer happen, or if they do, they happen to other people and not us! Performing risk assessments in teams will encourage us to develop a collective risk perception, reducing the personal risks we may have been willing to take.
  • 40. A low level of personal risk perception means we are more likely to cut corners and take bigger risks in order to save time. If this behaviour is repeated over time it will become a Habit, resulting in us now taking risks automatically in Alpha with no judgement of whether we are safe or unsafe! We call this spiral of behaviour the Currency Trap!
  • 41. Communication Understanding the Currencies provides us with a collective safety language which can be traded in order to keep ourselves and others safe. This relies on good communication. We communicate through the words we use, our tone of voice and our body language. This means we cannot fail to communicate! The way we say things tells people what we really mean and people will remember the things we do more than what we say. So if we fail to approach someone working unsafely with a safety reminder, we are reinforcing that unsafe behaviour.
  • 42. Programme delivered by: © Safe Setters Ltd, 2019, 2020
  • 43. For further information, please contact the your health and safety team