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Flyrocks mitigation

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PARAMETERS AND SOME TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE FLYROCKS DURING BLASTING IN OPEN CAST MININF

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Flyrocks mitigation

  1. 1. MITIGATION OF FLYROCKS IN SURFACE MINING DURING BLASTING GAGAN GUPTA 16152004, M.TECH(PART-1),IIT-BHU
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Blasting is the most accepted and practiced technique for the breakage of rock. When we do blasting then generation of some side products take place that includes Ground Vibration, Dust Generation, Noise, Flyrocks, Air Blasting etc.
  3. 3. FLYROCKS During blasting operation the rock which is generated due to blasting process and some of the Rock which is projected beyond the normal blast affected area is known as Flyrock.
  4. 4. FACTORS There are two factors due to which flyrocks generation take place :- 1. Uncontrollable 2. Controllable
  5. 5. UNCONTROLLABLE • Natural joints • Fractures • Cavities • Mud seam • Strength of rock
  6. 6. BEDDING PLANES
  7. 7. CONTROLLABLE • SPACING-BURDEN RATIO • DEPTH OF BORE HOLE • DIAMETER OF BORE HOLE • QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE • STEMMING LENGTH • STEMMING MATERIAL • INADEQUATE BURDEN
  8. 8. INCLINATION OF BORE HOLE
  9. 9. INADEQUATE DELAYAND INITIATION SYSTEM
  10. 10. • INITIATION BY DETONATING CORD • BLAST HOLE PATTERN • SKILLS OF BLASTING CREW
  11. 11. MITIGATION STRATA BLAST MINING METHOD SOURCE:- ORICA COMPANY(HUNTER VALLEY AUSTRALIA)
  12. 12. SINGLE SEAM
  13. 13. TWO COAL SEAM
  14. 14. SHOCK TUBE INITIATION SYSTEM
  15. 15. DECKING
  16. 16. Tire Blasting Mats For Fly Rock Prevention
  17. 17. • DECKING IN JOINTS, CAVITIES, FRACTURES. • EXPLOSIVE ACCORDING TO ROCK STRENGTH. • BURDEN. • BURDEN-SPACING RATIO. • DEPTH OF BORE HOLE. • DIAMETER OF BORE HOLE. • QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE. • STEMMING LENGTH. • STEMMING MATERIAL.
  18. 18. • SKILLS OF BLASTING CREW • BLAST HOLE PATTERN V SQUARE V1 V2
  19. 19. V3
  20. 20. CASE STUDY 1 • A study was recently conducted in Limestone quarry. The quarry is a captive mine of a Cement Plant. The quarry produces the cement grade Limestone which is fed to the Plant. The quarry has the limestone deposits which belong to the sediments of Chhattisgarh basin, which are horizontal, thick bedded and classified as stromatolitic Limestone of Raipur Group.
  21. 21. The geotechnical properties of the deposit are given below :- • Uniaxial Compressive Strength, M Pa: 40-45 • Density , g/cc: 2.40-2.52 • Young’s Modulus, G Pa: 44-49 • Porosity, %: 5-7 • Joint Spacing (Vertical), m: 2-3 • Joint Spacing (Horizontal), m: Around 1.0 m • The overburden consists of hard Laterite and clay with an average thickness of 6.0 m.
  22. 22. Blasting Pattern RESULTS BLAST NO.1 BLAST NO.2 BLAST NO.3 FLYROCKS, m 200 274 300
  23. 23. Modified Blast Design RESULTS BLAST NO.1 BLAST NO.2 BLAST NO.3 BLAST NO.4 FLYROCKS, m 10 16 8 12
  24. 24. CASE STUDY 2 • DATE-September 22nd 2010, at 17hr 10min • Working place - Quality Control lab-Cement testing room near the dam site. • Size of the boulder - 3m, 1.5m and 1.6m in (length, breadth , height ) • Secondary blasting- drill two holes of 45mm diameter , spacing 0.6m , depth 1.5m. Explosive cartridge -40mm (390gm/cart.) ,300mm length with a detonating cord of 10g/m. Charging of 1560gm explosive per single hole ,0.3m stemming. When the blasting occurred a huge sound was heard and two flyrocks ejected from the boulder which covered a distance of 550m from the blasting site to the Quality control laboratory .
  25. 25. THANK YOU
  26. 26. REFERENCES • Faramarzi Farhad , Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali, Mansouri Hamid, “Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibrations and airblast on safety level of structures and human in surface • J M Akande, A E Aladejare, A I Lawal, “Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Blasting in Okorusu Fluorspar Mine, Namibia”, International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 4 No. 2, February, 2014. • R. Trivedi, T.N. Sing and, A.K. Raina, “ Prediction of blastinduced flyrock in Indian limestone mines using neural networks”, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 6, 2014, pp 447 to 454. • Sushil Bhandari, “Engineering Rock Blasting”, AA Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield, 1997.
  27. 27. • Bajpayee T.S., Rehak T.R., Mowrey G.L., and Ingram D.K., (2004), Blasting injuries in surface mining with emphasis on flyrock and blast area security, Journal of Safety Research, vol. 35, pp. 47 – 57. • Siskind DE, Kopp JW [1995]. Blasting accidents in mines: a 16-year summary. In: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique. Cleveland, OH: International Society of Explosives Engineers, pp. 224-239. • Adhikari, G.R. 1999. Studies on Flyrock at Limestone Quarries. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 32(4): 291-301.
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PARAMETERS AND SOME TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE FLYROCKS DURING BLASTING IN OPEN CAST MININF

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