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The Process of Involving Citizens in the Planning of Green Cities, Gisela WACHINGER

  1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Involving Citizens in Planning “Green Cities” Dr. Gisela Wachinger, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Ortwin Renn ZIRIUS, Research Center for Interdisciplinary Risk and Innovation Studies, University of Stuttgart Germany
  2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Three examples of “green” conflicts 2. Renewable energy, wind power station1. Flood risks 2. Urban green planning (City of Stuttgart)
  3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Perception of values Floods VALUE: How do we want to live “Natural” or “man-made”? Biodiversity “Why should I pay anything for a species I’ll never see in my life?” Nature protection “What is nature?” Should we protect individual species? Or should we allow free development of nature? Experience, education “I am not allowed to walk on a meadow!”
  4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Why include lay persons?  to increase the amount of data  to include people who did not care before (aspect of education)  to make results more acceptable  to improve the results  to improve decisions  to increase trust 4
  5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Participation in flood risk prevention During participation processes, people learn to trust each other (authorities, stakeholders, the public) Photos: Wachinger After a participation process in flood preparation, acceptance of non-technical measures was higher than before (Stanghellini and Collentine, 2008; Slinger et al., 2007).
  6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Experience is a significant and strong predictor for risk perception (Felgentreff, 2003; Grothmann et al., 2006; Miceli et al., 2008; Terpstra, 2011; Heitz et al., 2009; Siegrist et al., 2006). Experience Odra near Frankfurt, 2010, Photo: Gatzki Personal experience proved to be the most influential factor among many other tested (Plapp and Werner, 2006) 6
  7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org A research question Conflicts in any nature-related planning process, such as flood prevention or green urban space planning, are not only driven by facts and research results, but also (and often even more so) by personal views and values. How can we combine these views and values with the knowledge of the experts, and make sure that both “expertises” are integrated into the process of planning risk prevention measures and “green cities”?
  8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org The traditional planning process authorities, councils, boards: the project is conceptualized expertise, alternatives, plans, architecture competitions decision on one planning alternative hearing of the concerned public realization of the project X
  9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Concept of early participation council committee: the participation process is conceptualized citizen participation 1: expert consultation citizen participation 2: value expertise expert report decision on one planning alternative hearing of the concerned public realization of the project X X X
  10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Successful participation 1. open and transparent decision options (early) 2. all stakeholders and decision makers included 3. all participants have all the relevant information 4. clearly communicated transparency and confidentiality 5. clear structure of the process 6. AND: constructive attitude of the organizers and all participants
  11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org mandate by the city council city council decision citizen forum 1: risks, opportunities, questions 1. When to begin? general questions answered by invited experts citizen forum 2: Recommendations on options expertise value expertise
  12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2. Who to include? Interessen Facilitator NGOs Authorities Politics Citizens, neighbours of all sites! Planners Investor ?
  13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 3. How to inform? Photo: LGA
  14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Working groups are confidential Plenary sessions are transparent (mediation) (facilitation) 4. When to observe confidentiality? Photos: Wachinger
  15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 5. How to structure the process? Interessen Photo: Wachinger
  16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Fotos Auftakt Photo: Wachinger 6. Which attitude to encourage? In participation processes, people begin to trust each other (authorities, stakeholders, the public) Collentine, 2008, Slinger et al., 2007.
  17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Photo: Wachinger Summary: The value expertise 1. The “value expertise” can complement the “factual expertise” in a meaningful way. 2. In a facilitated environment that gives room to sharing concerns and values as well as facts, deadlocked mind patterns can be broken up, on all sides. 3. Decisions that are based on both the “value expertise” and the “factual expertise” are not only more readily accepted by the public, but also more qualified and more sustainable.
  18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Citizen science - participatory research implementation data sampling modelling, analysing interpretation of data evaluation, monitoring research design, methods, programs agenda setting, research questions
  19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Publications Photo: Wachinger Renn O: Stakeholder Involvement in Risk Governance (2014) Wachinger, G, Begg, C, Renn, O and Kuhlicke, C. The Risk Perception Paradox –Implications for Governance and Communication of Natural Hazards. Risk Analysis (2013) 33, No 6. Wachinger G, Renn O, Wist S-K, Steinhilber S-M and Triemer U. Using participation to create resilience: how to involve citizens in designing a hospital system? Environmental Systems and Decisions (2014) 34:208-223
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