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Disaster Risk Perception in Cameroon and its Implications for the Rehabilitation of the Lake Nyos Disaster Survivors, Henry BANG

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Disaster Risk Perception in Cameroon and its Implications for the Rehabilitation of the Lake Nyos Disaster Survivors, Henry BANG

6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

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Disaster Risk Perception in Cameroon and its Implications for the Rehabilitation of the Lake Nyos Disaster Survivors, Henry BANG

  1. 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Disaster Risk Perception in Cameroon: Implications for Rehabilitation of Lake Nyos Disaster (LND) Survivors Dr Henry Bang and Professor Lee Miles Disaster Management Centre, Bournemouth University, UK 1
  2. 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2 Presentation Outline  Occurrence of natural hazards in Cameroon  The Lake Nyos Disaster  Research Enquiry and Strategy  Main Findings  Implications for Rehabilitation  Conclusion
  3. 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Cameroon’s Vulnerability to Natural Hazards Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) 3 Mount Cameroon
  4. 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Natural Hazards on the Cameroon Volcanic Line •Volcanic eruptions •Earthquakes •Floods •Landslides •Toxic gas emissions 4
  5. 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Lake Nyos Disaster-1986 Map of Cameroon’s 10 administrative Regions 5 Beautiful but deadly Lake Nyos
  6. 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Lake Nyos Disaster (LND)-1986  Cause of the LND • Release of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos.  Impact of LND • 1,746 people died. • 8,300 livestock died. • Affected about 20,000 people. • Displaced about 4,500 people. 6 Location of villages/area affected by the LND Thousands of cattle died during the LND Thousands of cattle died during the LND
  7. 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Resettlement of Disaster Survivors  Resettlement Camps • Ukpwa Waindo • Kumfutu • Ipalim • Yemnge • Esu • Kimbi river • Bwabwa 7 Banja● ●KoskinMunken● ●Kong▓ Esu ●Zoa ●Fang Mbuk● ● Ngong ● Fonfukka ●Laa-BumSubum● ●Konene ●Su ●Nchang ●Ajung ●Oku ●Laikom Fundong ● ● Meli ● Ntemkissu ● Mme-Bafumen ●Mbulom Lake Nyi LAKE NYOS Nyos● Kuk● ●Bu ●Koaw ▓ Yemnge Kam ● Cha ● To ● Kumfutu▓ ▓ Kimbi River ▓ Bwabwa Ukpwa▓ Lake Wum Ipalim▓ Wum █ N Location of resettlement camps for LND survivors
  8. 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research Enquiry  Aim/Objectives • To understand how affected population have & will respond to disaster mitigation & preparedness measures. • To understand the level of threat they perceive Lake Nyos still poses, how they have responded and intend to respond to any disaster mitigation measures in future.  Key Question: • How do the survivors perceive ongoing risks, are responding to, and intend to respond to DRR and/or DM measures in future? 8
  9. 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org  Case study populations •Lake Nyos disaster survivors living in resettlement camps. Research Strategy 9 •Lake Nyos disaster who have relocated back to the disaster zone
  10. 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 10  Mixed method design (Qualitative and Quantitative) • Empirical data generated via fieldwork in Cameroon. • 25 interviews and 100 questionnaires administered. • Secondary information obtained from various sources. • Personal observation and interaction with survivors. Research Strategy cont.
  11. 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Purpose was evaluation of: • Willingness to follow government orders instructions. • Experience and/or knowledge of natural hazards. • Expected behaviours in response to future risks. • Opinion on contemporary risks. • Relocation behaviours. Research Strategy cont. 11
  12. 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Main Findings  Disaster survivors’ expressed perception of risk: • Over 75% of respondents believed LND was a ‘one off’ incident. • Respondents believed the LND could not have been prevented. • Disaster survivors (92%) are sceptical about official government communications about that LND. 12
  13. 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org  Risk information and communication: • Survivors receive risk information from various sources, official and private sources via the media and also verbally. • Sparse, inadequate and intermittent flow of information. • Dominant one-way persuasive communication from the government to disaster survivors. • 92% of the survivors do not trust government’s information that the LND was a natural event. Main Findings cont. 13
  14. 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Main Findings cont.  Disaster survivors’ revealed perception of risk: • A few hundred people have relocated back to the disaster zone either permanently or temporarily. • Migration into the area was predominantly for cultural and livelihood purposes. • General belief that the benefits of making a living in the disaster zone outweighed the risks. 14
  15. 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Main Findings cont.  Willingness to follow government orders: • Conditional, Temporary, Disobedience & Unconditional Conditional Temporary Disobey Unconditionally LND survivors in resettlement camp 28% 36% 16% 20% LND survivors relocated to disaster zone 5% 35% 50% 10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% %ofcasestudygroup 15
  16. 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Implications for Rehabilitation  Plan for rehabilitation of Lake Nyos area: • In 2007, the government initiated a “National Programme for the security and socio-economic reintegration of the Lake Nyos Area Cameroon”. • In 2008, the government launched the Lake Nyos Programme, as precursor to the national project. o Key objectives were to:  Ensure the security and safety of the region.  Improve the socio-economic conditions of disaster survivors. 16
  17. 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Implications for Rehabilitation cont.  Evaluation of the LNP, main findings • Significant improvement in physical risk mitigation of LN. • Population have been sensitized on a variety of issues.  Evaluation report recommendations to the government. • Carryout a demographic census in the area. • Institute projects for land acquisition rights in the area. • Renovate camps and provide electricity and portable water. • Build schools and promote agriculture in the region. • Maintain and construct roads in the region. 17
  18. 18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org  Is the national project or final rehabilitation soon to start? • In January 2016, the government announced that the LND survivors will soon be finally resettled back to their home land. o According to the “The Cameroon Daily Journal of 7th January, 2016” 100 millions CFA frs (≈ $172,000) from Region’s 32 billion will be used to resettle LND victims. No further details provided.  Contemporary situation in the Lake Nyos Region • The recommended socio-economic development projects in the region have not been implemented. • 100 million CFA not enough to implement recommended project. 18 Implications for Rehabilitation cont.
  19. 19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org  Potential challenges to the success of the rehabilitation project: • Ensuring the region has adequate socio-economic facilities. • Management of land ownership rights in the region. • Rebuilding trust in government. • Establishing continued two-way communication between the government and disaster affected population. • To ensure the disaster affected population are involved in every stage of the rehabilitation program. Implications for Rehabilitation cont. 19
  20. 20. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org  Successful rehabilitation requires government to implement key activities in the region including, but not limited to, the following: • Ensure the region has basic socio-economic facilities. • Adequate framework for land ownership rights. • Appropriate, continuous education and confidence-building projects that involve elites and community leaders. • Adequate training of disaster managers, administrators & all involved in the implementation of the programme. 20 Conclusion
  21. 21. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 21 EN D hbang@bournemouth.ac.uk lmiles@bournemouth.ac.uk Thanks for your attention..

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Cameroon is prone to natural hazards mainly due to a geologic/topographic feature in the country known as the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL)(Fitton, 1987; Suh et al., 2003). The CVL is exposed in both the oceanic sector (Pagalu, Sao Tome, Principe, and Bioko) and continental sector(extending from Mt. Etinde, Mt. Cameroon, Manengouba, Bambouto, Oku to Lake Chad)(figure 2). On this edifice, there is frequent occurrence of landslides, floods, earth tremors,toxic gas emissions (as happened in 1984 and 1986 in Lake Monoum and Lake Nyos respectively) and frequent volcanic eruptions. Located on the CVL, is Mt. Cameroon/Fako, the largest,most active and one of the most famous volcanoes in West and Central Africa (Kling et al., 1987; Duruelle et al., 1987; Fitton, 1987; Freeth and Kay, 1987; Ayonghe et al., 1999; Bang, 2012, 2013).
    The CVL is a 1,600km long NE-SW alignment/chain of volcanoes that cuts across the country.
  • CRATER LAKE
    Formed about 400years ago
    Elevation=1,091 m (3,580 ft)
    Surface area 1.58 Km2 (390 acres)
    Max. length 2.0  Km2 (1.2 miles) Max. width 1.2 km (0.75 mi)
    Max. depth 208 m (680 ft)
    Water volume 0.15 Km2 (120,000 acre·ft
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  • After the LND, 4,500 disaster survivors were resettled in the camps. By 2013, this population has risen to around 12,000 (Median Newspaper, 2014).

    Related research findings have shown that the DS have been made poorer due to resettlement.:

    Access to Land
    Limited Job opportunities
    Homelessness,
    Housing conditions
    Increased morbidity and mortality
    Food insecurity
    Loss of access to common property
    Social disarticulation
    Disrupted social and religious practices
    Increase in criminality
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