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Adapting to Climate Change through
  Land and Water Management:
 ongoing experiences in East Africa
                      By
Sally Bunning, Janie Rioux, and Meshack Malo
2 Projects in 6 Countries
GEF/FAO Kagera Transboundary Agro-ecosystem
                        Management Project
            Uganda
                                 To adopt an integrated
                                 ecosystems approach for the
                     Tanzania    management of land resources
                                  to :
Rwanda                                restore degraded lands and
                                      improve productivity
                                      adapt to climate change and
                                      sequester carbon
                                      conserve agro-biodiversity and
                                      promote sustainable use
  Burundi                             increase food security and
                                      improve rural livelihoods
                                      contribute to the protection of
                                       international waters




                                                                    3
Challenges
Natural resource base and ecosystems are facing increasing pressures :
Rapid population growth
Progressive reduction in farm sizes (BU, RW)
Unsustainable land use and management practices
Climate change and variability
Resulting in poverty, food insecurity, conflict over resources
Need for SLM and CCA within an integrated landscape approach




                                                                         4
Development of SLM catchment plans
Based on a participatory and integrated assessment of land and water
resources using the LADA local assessment method:

In each catchment
    – Biophysical data: state of soil, vegetation, water, and impacts on
      ecosystem services
    – Socio- economic data: drivers, causes and impacts on livelihoods
      capitals (financial, natural, social, human) and strategies
Contributions of SLM to CCA: Examples from Burundi

• Integrated watershed
  management (contour
  lines, fodder plants on
  CL, agroforestry on
  farms)

• Promotion of
  agroforestry in buffer
  zones to avoid
  encroachment and
  protect wetlands
Promotion of energy saving cooking stove


 96% of energy is from wood
  causing deforestation

 Energy saving cooking
  stoves can reduce pressures
  on forest and trees

 Consumes 40 % less than
  traditional 3 stones

 Saves women time for wood
  collection and cooking
River bank stabilisation with bambos
 Bambos fix soil, sequester carbon
  and provide economic value (e.g.
  home furnitures)

 Project developed a bambo
  production technology for plant
  multiplication in tree nursery
Mulching for soil moisture conservation and soil organic carbon
Contributions of SLM to CCA: Examples from Uganda

                                              Agroforestry on farms with mangos
Calliandra calothyrsus can grow with          tolerant to dry spell
positive impact on adjacent crops:
- improves soil moisture and soil fertility   High value short rotation crops such as
                                              cabbages, spinach and carrots are grown
- Can be used for fodder during dry season
- Increases milk yields and is highly
palatable
Project approach for promoting adoption of SLM practices
1. Improved information base on natural resources status and trends (land
   degradation, biodiversity loss), human pressures and impacts (vulnerability - food
   insecurity, climate change) and responses (SLM practices in catchments)
2. Participatory land management plans developed and implemented in target
   communities, and micro-catchments (to address issues of tenure, access to
   resources, conflicts, etc)
3. Capacities built on improved SLM practices through FFS, exchange visits, training
   materials and workshops
4. Improved land use and agro-ecosystem management practices tested and adopted
   through Farmer Field School approaches and community activities in catchments
5. Market opportunities and other cost-benefit sharing mechanisms for provision of
   environmental services identified, demonstrated and promoted for SLM scaling up
6. Policy discussions for SLM mainstreaming

       leading to wide adoption and
     replication by farmers and herders
Strengthening smallholder
farmers’ capacity for
climate change adaptation
through land and water
management in Ethiopia,
Kenya and Tanzania
Output 1
  On-the-ground climate-smart sustainable land and
   water management practices are tested, supported,
   and strengthened in selected watersheds.




Output 2
   Technological and management packages and
    practices to adapt land and water management
    options to climate change are disseminated to benefit
    land users, policy makers and relevant stakeholders.



Output 3
   Mechanisms and options are developed and applied
   for up-scaling of climate change adaptation practices.
Critical factors in strengthening capacities to adapt




1.   Increasing soil health
2.   Water harvesting/ Water-use efficiency
3.   Livelihood diversification
4.   Institutional collaboration/ networking and capacity building
Impacts
(i) Improved Food security                 (ii) Soil Fertility improvement




( iii) Better water management        (iv) Increased resilience
In Kenya the drier conditions of the project areas
called for a focus on conservation agriculture and
water harvesting and water use efficiency
In Tanzania given the reduction of water, there
was need for a complete change in the way
rice farming was done and the selected option
was the system of Rice intensification (SRI)
In Ethiopia the focus is watershed
management and erosion control
Preliminary lessons
• Challenge not much a shortage of scientific/local
  knowledge/adaptation practices, but rather a lack of understanding of
  the farmers specific constrains to adoption.

• Partnership not an easy option but could determine success in CCA.
  Adaptation could be more knowledge rich than technology driven.

• Institutional response: unmanaged systems that are likely to be more
  vulnerable since, by definition, they lack structures to buffer effect of
  climate variability.

• Build on what exists: CCA action should be anchored in what already
  exists.

• Require more emphasize on land and water : can be extremely
  effective but require early intervention and good planning.
Conclusions
Climate change adds on existing vulnerabilities such as land
   degradation and food insecurity


SLM practices aiming at restoring soil health, conserving soil and
  water, and increasing food production enable farmers to
  become more resilient and adapt to climate variability and
  changes.
Thank You

  http://www.fao.org/nr/kagera/en/

http://www.fao.org/climatechange/en/



                                       21

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Sally BUNNING "Adapting to climate change through sustainable land and water management: ongoing experiences in 6 countries and 2 projects in East Africa"

  • 1. Adapting to Climate Change through Land and Water Management: ongoing experiences in East Africa By Sally Bunning, Janie Rioux, and Meshack Malo
  • 2. 2 Projects in 6 Countries
  • 3. GEF/FAO Kagera Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project Uganda To adopt an integrated ecosystems approach for the Tanzania management of land resources  to : Rwanda  restore degraded lands and improve productivity  adapt to climate change and sequester carbon  conserve agro-biodiversity and promote sustainable use Burundi  increase food security and improve rural livelihoods  contribute to the protection of international waters 3
  • 4. Challenges Natural resource base and ecosystems are facing increasing pressures : Rapid population growth Progressive reduction in farm sizes (BU, RW) Unsustainable land use and management practices Climate change and variability Resulting in poverty, food insecurity, conflict over resources Need for SLM and CCA within an integrated landscape approach 4
  • 5. Development of SLM catchment plans Based on a participatory and integrated assessment of land and water resources using the LADA local assessment method: In each catchment – Biophysical data: state of soil, vegetation, water, and impacts on ecosystem services – Socio- economic data: drivers, causes and impacts on livelihoods capitals (financial, natural, social, human) and strategies
  • 6. Contributions of SLM to CCA: Examples from Burundi • Integrated watershed management (contour lines, fodder plants on CL, agroforestry on farms) • Promotion of agroforestry in buffer zones to avoid encroachment and protect wetlands
  • 7. Promotion of energy saving cooking stove  96% of energy is from wood causing deforestation  Energy saving cooking stoves can reduce pressures on forest and trees  Consumes 40 % less than traditional 3 stones  Saves women time for wood collection and cooking
  • 8. River bank stabilisation with bambos  Bambos fix soil, sequester carbon and provide economic value (e.g. home furnitures)  Project developed a bambo production technology for plant multiplication in tree nursery
  • 9. Mulching for soil moisture conservation and soil organic carbon
  • 10. Contributions of SLM to CCA: Examples from Uganda Agroforestry on farms with mangos Calliandra calothyrsus can grow with tolerant to dry spell positive impact on adjacent crops: - improves soil moisture and soil fertility High value short rotation crops such as cabbages, spinach and carrots are grown - Can be used for fodder during dry season - Increases milk yields and is highly palatable
  • 11. Project approach for promoting adoption of SLM practices 1. Improved information base on natural resources status and trends (land degradation, biodiversity loss), human pressures and impacts (vulnerability - food insecurity, climate change) and responses (SLM practices in catchments) 2. Participatory land management plans developed and implemented in target communities, and micro-catchments (to address issues of tenure, access to resources, conflicts, etc) 3. Capacities built on improved SLM practices through FFS, exchange visits, training materials and workshops 4. Improved land use and agro-ecosystem management practices tested and adopted through Farmer Field School approaches and community activities in catchments 5. Market opportunities and other cost-benefit sharing mechanisms for provision of environmental services identified, demonstrated and promoted for SLM scaling up 6. Policy discussions for SLM mainstreaming  leading to wide adoption and replication by farmers and herders
  • 12. Strengthening smallholder farmers’ capacity for climate change adaptation through land and water management in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania
  • 13. Output 1 On-the-ground climate-smart sustainable land and water management practices are tested, supported, and strengthened in selected watersheds. Output 2 Technological and management packages and practices to adapt land and water management options to climate change are disseminated to benefit land users, policy makers and relevant stakeholders. Output 3 Mechanisms and options are developed and applied for up-scaling of climate change adaptation practices.
  • 14. Critical factors in strengthening capacities to adapt 1. Increasing soil health 2. Water harvesting/ Water-use efficiency 3. Livelihood diversification 4. Institutional collaboration/ networking and capacity building
  • 15. Impacts (i) Improved Food security (ii) Soil Fertility improvement ( iii) Better water management (iv) Increased resilience
  • 16. In Kenya the drier conditions of the project areas called for a focus on conservation agriculture and water harvesting and water use efficiency
  • 17. In Tanzania given the reduction of water, there was need for a complete change in the way rice farming was done and the selected option was the system of Rice intensification (SRI)
  • 18. In Ethiopia the focus is watershed management and erosion control
  • 19. Preliminary lessons • Challenge not much a shortage of scientific/local knowledge/adaptation practices, but rather a lack of understanding of the farmers specific constrains to adoption. • Partnership not an easy option but could determine success in CCA. Adaptation could be more knowledge rich than technology driven. • Institutional response: unmanaged systems that are likely to be more vulnerable since, by definition, they lack structures to buffer effect of climate variability. • Build on what exists: CCA action should be anchored in what already exists. • Require more emphasize on land and water : can be extremely effective but require early intervention and good planning.
  • 20. Conclusions Climate change adds on existing vulnerabilities such as land degradation and food insecurity SLM practices aiming at restoring soil health, conserving soil and water, and increasing food production enable farmers to become more resilient and adapt to climate variability and changes.
  • 21. Thank You http://www.fao.org/nr/kagera/en/ http://www.fao.org/climatechange/en/ 21

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