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A Holistic Approach Towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by Learning from Vernacular Architecture, Soichiro YASUKAWA

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A Holistic Approach Towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by Learning from Vernacular Architecture, Soichiro YASUKAWA

6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

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A Holistic Approach Towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by Learning from Vernacular Architecture, Soichiro YASUKAWA

  1. 1. INternational D i s a s t e r R e s i l i e n t Architecture A holistic approach towards International Disaster Resilient Architecture by learning from vernacular construction Soichiro Yasukawa Programme Specialist of DRR UNESCO
  2. 2. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INternational D i s a s t e r R e s i l i e n t Architecture
  3. 3. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  4. 4. Natural hazards World map By Munich EARTHQUAKES TROPICAL CYCLONES VOLCANOES TSUNAMIS AND STORMS
  5. 5. Natural hazards Numbers Impact of natural hazards from 2000 to 2016
  6. 6. Economic losses from disasters Natural hazards Numbers
  7. 7. Number of disasters per type and per year Natural hazards Trends
  8. 8. Urbanization Natural hazards Trends
  9. 9. Most affected people Natural hazards Trends
  10. 10. More disasters by natural hazards Human + economic losses More vulnerable people due to urbanization Most affected = developing countries Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  11. 11. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  12. 12. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015‐2030 (priority 1) Understanding disaster risk (priority 2) Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk (Priority 3) Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience (Priority 4) Build back better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
  13. 13. 11.1 Ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums 11.3 enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries 11.4 strengthening efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage 11.5 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations 11.b substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels 11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials 17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism 17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
  14. 14. UN Plan of Action on DRR provides for UN system-wide and joined-up strategic approaches for integrating DRR and climate change adaptation in UN development efforts. Aim of the commitments: 1) strengthen system-wide coherence in support of the Sendai Framework and other agreements, through a risk-informed and integrated approach 2) build UN system capacity to deliver coordinated, high-quality support to countries on DRR 3) to ensure DRR remains a strategic priority for UN organizations. UN Plan of Action on DRR
  15. 15. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  16. 16. 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Totaldeaths Occurence Impact of natural hazards from 2000 - 2015 Earthquake Non-engineered construction Tsunami Volcano Landslide Drought Flood FAILURE OF BUILDINGS
  17. 17. Non-engineered construction +- 80% of people at risk today live in reinforced concrete frame infill-masonry buildings dixit Fouad Bendimerad, Director of the Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative at the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering in August 2004 Reinforced concrete frame building with brick infill walls under construction, Kathmandu, Nepal (© J. Bothara)
  18. 18. Non-engineered construction Turkey - İzmit earthquake 1999 In Golcuk: 290 deaths 287 in reinforced concrete structures 3 in traditional-style buildings 789 traditional buildings 701 undamaged 814 reinforced concrete buildings 550 undamaged 4 traditional buildings collapsed 60 reinforced concrete buildings collapsed Philippines - 1990 earthquake Damage at 90% non-engineered construction with 'modern' building materials Indonesia - Yogya earthquake 2006 Mostly non-engineered construction collapsed
  19. 19. Non-engineered construction A slum in Haiti damaged by the 2010 earthquake. © UN Photo/Logan Abassi United Nations Development Programme Major losses in non-engineered construction Floods in the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan, 2014 © Photo by AP
  20. 20. Non-engineered construction CHARACTERISTICS - Often copied from other countries - (partly) imported materials - ‘foreign’ techniques, lack of technical know-how - Highly vulnerable to natural hazards = Informally constructed, without any or little intervention by qualified architects and engineers
  21. 21. Non-engineered earthen construction +-1.7 billion people of the worlds population live in earthen houses About 50 % of the population in developing countries, and at least 20% of urban and suburban populations.
  22. 22. Non-engineered slums 0-10% 10-20% 20-30% 30-40% 40-50% 50-60% 60-70% 70-80% 80-90% 90-100% No data Fabienkhan & Korrigan Data from UN-HABITAT, Global Urban Observatory, 2001 estimates Proportion of each country's urban population living in slums (2001, according to UN-Habitat definition) 828 million peoplelive in slums today and the number keeps rising
  23. 23. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA Failure of buildings Mostly non-engineered construction These hazards are within our power to respond to! Retrofitting Build back better New construction
  24. 24. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  25. 25. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA - Often copied from other countries - (Partly) imported materials - ‘Foreign’ techniques, lack of technical know-how - Highly vulnerable to natural hazards = Informally constructed, without any or little intervention by qualified architects and engineers - Adapted to local context - Local materials - Accumulated knowledge - Mostly resilient to natural hazards Vernacular architecture Non-engineered construction
  26. 26. - Adapted to its environment, provides a vital connection between humans and the environment - Culturally connected to its surroundings - Harmonious architecture - Local materials, colors, genre, spatial language, form - Connected with the community - Green architectural principles, climate responsive architecture - Energy efficiency - Materials and resources from proximity of site Vernacular architecture
  27. 27. Vernacular architecture HOLISTIC APPROACH technical cultural economic social environmental Technical Creating a safe environment by reduction of effects of natural hazards Cultural Protection of cultural landscape Encouraging innovative solutions and creativity Expressing traditional skills and knowledge + transferring Aknowledging the accumulated experience Evolving regional identity Economic Support autonomy and self-sufficiency Promotion of local trade, employment, production, processing Optimization of energy needed to build Sustainable through time and long-term use Saving and prevention of local resources Social Encouraging social cohesion Facilitate exchanges among neighbors Express social acceptance Community involvement throughout the entire process Ownership Environmental Respect nature, ecosystem Climate-responsive approach Integration in the environment Reduce pollution and waste materials, optimize resources Contribute to health quality, healty environment Reduction of natural hazards effects Energy efficient
  28. 28. Northern Pakistan – Kashmir Dhajji dewari and taq construction Resilient to earthquakes 2005 earthquake: many concrete buildings collapsed, 80 000 people died in concrete and rubble construction but traditional construction resisted (timber laced masonry) > govt approved reconstruction following traditional methods and assisted new construction of 250 000 houses technical cultural economic social environmental UNESCO 2007 poster Vernacular architecture CASES
  29. 29. technical cultural economic social environmental A stilt-house constructed of sal wood and stuccoed bamboo weaving Shani-Arjun, Jhapa Rajbanshi construction in eastern Nepal: resilient to earthquakes + floods Gurung houses in western mid-hill: resilient to earthquakes Gurung houses Nepal Rajbanshi and Gurung construction Resilient to earthquakes and/or floods Vernacular architecture CASES
  30. 30. technical cultural economic social environmental 1912 Peabody House in Pacot survived the 2010 earthquake almost undamaged Haiti Gingerbread houses Resilient to earthquakes Vernacular architecture CASES
  31. 31. technical cultural economic social environmental Indonesia Traditional construction in Nias Resilient to earthquakes and floods Vernacular architecture CASES
  32. 32. technical cultural economic social environmental © Teo Tuvale © Charles S. Greene Samoa Fale tele construction Resilient to floods, storms, cyclones Vernacular architecture CASES
  33. 33. technical cultural economic social environmental Himis construction didn’t collapse after earthquake in 1999, modern structure collapsed. © Randolph Langenbach Turkey Himis construction Resilient to earthquakes Vernacular architecture CASES
  34. 34. Vernacular architecture CASES technical cultural economic social environmental Iban longhouses Borneo Longhouse construction Resilient to floods
  35. 35. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  36. 36. Disaster resilient VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE science, technology & innovation Disaster resilient CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Disaster resilient BUILT ENVIRONMENT PAST PRESENT FUTURE Contemporary vernacular
  37. 37. = An earthquake hazard mitigation proposal for vulnerable reinforced concrete buildings based on the performance of traditional timber and masonry infill-wall construction ‘Pombalino ‘gaiola’ construction: Anti-seismic structure of timber enclosed in masonry walls, aiming to provide resistance to horizontal forces. Developed after Lisbons devastating earthquake (1755). © Julio Amorim Armature crosswalls Resilient to earthquakes (by R. Langenbach) Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  38. 38. Emergency shelter to be built from rubble, 2015 © VAN, courtesy of Shigeru Ban Architects Japan Nepal Emergency shelter by arch. Shigeru Ban (Japan) Resilient to earthquakes technical cultural economic social environmental Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  39. 39. technical cultural economic social environmental Shelter by Yasmeen Lari, 2005 Pakistan Shelter by arch. Yasmeen Lari Resilient to floods Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  40. 40. technical cultural economic social environmental Vietnam Re-ainbow project by H & P Architects Resilient to extreme weather events: heavy winds, storms Shelter by H & P Architects, 2015 Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES
  41. 41. Contemporary vernacular EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Thailand Baan Nhongbua school by Junsekino Architects Resilient to earthquakes, floods Thailand: reconstruction of the Baan Nhongbua school by Junsekino architects. Merges Western and Thai traditions, 2015
  42. 42. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental
  43. 43. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Turkey Himis construction next to concrete construction Himis construction didn’t collapse after earthquake in 1999, modern structure collapsed. © Randolph Langenbach
  44. 44. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Yemen Reconstruction after Dhamar earthquake in 1982 Image source: Snipview Dhamar earthquake in Yemen in 1982 Cultural dimension of reconstruction overlooked Rejection of the new settlements by locals Reinforced concrete prototype house Houses altered, extended or changed by locals Most additions not earthquake-safe because of inability to follow the introduced technology.
  45. 45. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Indonesia Effects of the 2006 Yogya earthquake (M 6,3 SR) Masonry introduced by the Dutch, copied from Europe. Introduction of new building materials make buildings collapse. Trimulyo Village, Jetis, Bantul © T. Boen SD Kaligondang, Bambanglipuro, Bantul © T. Boen
  46. 46. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Nepal Bad effects of concrete on DRR and culture money from developed world destructive for both environment and culture of the place View of Kathmandu circa 2014, © Sandesh Byanjankar View of Kathmandu circa 1920 © Karrattul +-1920 +-2014
  47. 47. Contemporary ‘modern’ EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Nepal Bad effects of concrete on DRR and culture Destroyed homes in the village of Satungal on the outskirts of Kathmandu after the 2015 earthquake © Philippe Lopez/AFP 2015, after the earthquake
  48. 48. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  49. 49. Policy opportunities Support Improve holistic approach by building codes, enforcement mechanisms for BC, tax/subsidy systems technical cultural economic social environmental
  50. 50. Policy opportunities EXAMPLES technical cultural economic social environmental Technical Regulations for technical quality/standards of materials Minima or restrictions in quantity of materials Retrofitting policy Regulations on supervision Environmental Landuse Regulations for poluting materials Regulations for debris, waste materials Support resistant materials Support renewable energy Management of local resources Economic Subsidies for use of local materials Subsidies for use of energy efficient interventions Taxes on imported materials Cultural Subsidies for renovation of traditional buildings Protection of cultural heritage Encouraging innovative solutions and creative expressions Social Support for local communities Promotion of local activities (skilled labour, recognised quality products) Social acceptance Regulations about public spaces Provision of basic needs (eg access to water)
  51. 51. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  52. 52. Limited research about vernacular architecture Limited improvement of local techniques Low recognition of vernacular architecture Gap between local construction practices on site and engineering studies from developed countries Lack of framework for non-engineered construction Non-engineered construction not always included in building codes Challenges Needs
  53. 53. Natural hazards International DRR policy Non-engineered construction Vernacular architecture Contemporary vernacular Policy opportunities Challenges – needs INDRA INDRA
  54. 54. INternational Disaster Resilient Architecture Raise awareness Stimulate research Facilitate policy setting Foster collaboration Exchange knowledge Disaster resilient VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE science, technology & innovation Disaster resilient CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Disaster resilient BUILT ENVIRONMENT PAST PRESENT FUTURE * * Objective INDRA
  55. 55. Foster involvement and empowerment of local practitioners to develop local sustainable architectural solutions. Objective INDRA
  56. 56. PHASE 1: ANALYSIS A Current practice ANALYSIS B Vernacular practice Sustainable solutions for disaster resilient architecture Implementation (awareness raising, exchange knowledge and capacity building, facilitate policy setting) Data collection PHASE 2: PHASE 3: PHASE 4: Identification of partners Evaluation * Strategy INDRA
  57. 57. PHASE 1: ANALYSIS A Current practice ANALYSIS B Vernacular practice Sustainable solutions for disaster resilient architecture Implementation (awareness raising, exchange knowledge and capacity building, facilitate policy setting) Data collection PHASE 2: PHASE 3: PHASE 4: Identification of partners Evaluation * technical cultural economic social environmental Strategy INDRA
  58. 58. Awareness raising - Workshop on country specific vernacular architecture - Publication - Event at both community and political level Exchange knowledge and capacity building - Training for students architecture/engineering, national building personnel and local builders - Development of didactic material for educational purpose - Construction of prototype - Country/region specific guidelines Facilitate policy setting - Development of didactic module - Facilitating the development of local building regulation * Activities INDRA
  59. 59. Building professionals Architects, engineers Communities in disaster prone areas Masons, technicials Local departments of architecture/engineering Universities Governments International organizations Other UN agencies Insurance companies Research centers Stakeholders INDRA
  60. 60. UNESCO HQ (facilitator) UNESCO FO INTERNATIONAL NATIONAL Experts (NGO, consultant,…) Government (reference/deputy) Local experts (university, architects, builders…) Local community Steering committee Advisory committee Working group = OVERALL BENEFICIARIES Structure Focal point Focal point > local implementation > project management & overall coordination > Technical assistance > local coordination INDRA
  61. 61. INDRA ONE MAN CANNOT BUILD A HOUSE, BUT 10 MEN CAN EASILY BUILD 20 HOUSES. NUBIAN PROVERB
  62. 62. INDRA Please contact Soichiro Yasukawa s.yasukawa@unesco.org Leontien Bielen l.bielen@unesco.org

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Structure of the presentation with different chapters
  • Structure of the presentation with different chapters
  • Start with general overview of natural hazards
  • Map shows all regions prone to natural hazards
  • Some numbers about natural hazards, to show their impact.
    The impact of these natural hazards has been very high.
  • Not only human losses but also economic losses are very high.
  • Trends in natural hazards:
    Graph shows the number of disasters per year and per type, from 1950 to 2015.
    > disasters are increasing!
  • Trends in natural hazards:
    Urbanization: urban population is growing fast > growing number of vulnerable people
    An enormous volume of capital is expected to flow into urban development in the coming decades, particularly in south Asia and sub Saharan Africa.
    Challenge + opportunity: +- 60% of the area expected to be urbanized by 2030, remains to be built
  • Trends in natural hazards:
    Most affected people live in developing countries
    From 1970 to 2008 e.g., more than 95% of deaths from disasters caused by natural hazards, were in developing countries.
    The number of poor exposed to natural hazards will reach 325 million by 2030.
  • Summary:
    Hazards are increasing
    Not only human but also huge economic losses
    Due to urbanization, the number of vulnerable people is also increasing
    Most affected are people in developing countries
  • International DRR policy
  • The SDGs call for safe housing, sustainable urbanization, safeguarding heritage, a holistic disaster risk management and resilient buildings.
    Moreover, they state to cooperate more and foster science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism.
  • The UN Plan of Action on DRR calls for cooperation and coordinated, high-quality support.
    It aims also to ensure that DRR remains a priority for UN organizations.
  • More detailed insight in
    where disasters occur the most and
    where and how the most affected people live.
  • Graph of the impact of natural hazards from 2000-2015
    - Number of deaths
    Occurrence of disasters
    > Floods occur the most, but EQ cause the most deaths because of failure of buildings
  • Why failure of buildings?

    The inability of reinforced concrete to withstand a major earthquake when it is used incorrectly and with substandard building practices could lead to an unprecedented disaster.
    If used correctly and under the best conditions, concrete structures, reinforced with steel bars, can withstand earthquakes. The problem is that the methods and raw materials often are not ideal. And once a building is up, the quality of the concrete is nearly impossible to judge.

    CASE Turkey:
    (At the first Earthquake Safe International Conference, sponsored by UNESCO, Turkey's Ministry of Public Works, and the International Council on Monuments and Sites.)
    During the conference, Turkish architects Demet Gulhan and Inci Ozyoruk Guney presented the first hard evidence that people living in modern, reinforced concrete structures died at a much higher rate than people living in older, traditional houses during the Marmara earthquake. In one example from their study, the Sehitler district of Golcuk had a roughly equal number of reinforced concrete and traditional structures. Yet of the 290 deaths, 287 occurred in reinforced concrete structures and only three occurred in traditional-style buildings. Of the 789 traditional buildings, 701 survived the quake undamaged, but of the 814 reinforced concrete buildings, only 550 escaped damage.
     
    Of the buildings that collapsed, only four were traditional buildings, while 60 were made of reinforced concrete. "Reinforced concrete frame structures presented a high level of damage due to low-quality concrete, inadequate engineering, incorrect construction techniques, poor detailing, inadequate inspection or observation of construction, and lax attitudes of authorities in the application of the building code," Gulhan said during her presentation.
     
    Most of Turkey is considered vulnerable to earthquakes. Yet according to Turgut Cansever, one of the conference speakers, "approximately 70 percent of the building stock of Istanbul was built without technical assistance.“  

    Turkish architect Hayim Beraha, who was touring the settlement with Langenbach, was more direct. "This will collapse," he said. "These people are from the countryside. And where they came from, they used to know better. The problem is the perception that living in a modern house is living in a concrete house."
  • Why failure of buildings?

    The inability of reinforced concrete to withstand a major earthquake when it is used incorrectly and with substandard building practices could lead to an unprecedented disaster.
    If used correctly and under the best conditions, concrete structures, reinforced with steel bars, can withstand earthquakes. The problem is that the methods and raw materials often are not ideal. And once a building is up, the quality of the concrete is nearly impossible to judge.

    CASE Turkey:
    (At the first Earthquake Safe International Conference, sponsored by UNESCO, Turkey's Ministry of Public Works, and the International Council on Monuments and Sites.)
    During the conference, Turkish architects Demet Gulhan and Inci Ozyoruk Guney presented the first hard evidence that people living in modern, reinforced concrete structures died at a much higher rate than people living in older, traditional houses during the Marmara earthquake. In one example from their study, the Sehitler district of Golcuk had a roughly equal number of reinforced concrete and traditional structures. Yet of the 290 deaths, 287 occurred in reinforced concrete structures and only three occurred in traditional-style buildings. Of the 789 traditional buildings, 701 survived the quake undamaged, but of the 814 reinforced concrete buildings, only 550 escaped damage. Of the buildings that collapsed, only four were traditional buildings, while 60 were made of reinforced concrete. "Reinforced concrete frame structures presented a high level of damage due to low-quality concrete, inadequate engineering, incorrect construction techniques, poor detailing, inadequate inspection or observation of construction, and lax attitudes of authorities in the application of the building code," Gulhan said during her presentation.
     
    Most of Turkey is considered vulnerable to earthquakes. Yet according to Turgut Cansever, one of the conference speakers, "approximately 70 percent of the building stock of Istanbul was built without technical assistance.“  

    Turkish architect Hayim Beraha, who was touring the settlement with Langenbach, was more direct. "This will collapse," he said. "These people are from the countryside. And where they came from, they used to know better. The problem is the perception that living in a modern house is living in a concrete house."
  • What is non-engineered construction?
  • Specific type of non-engineered construction = earthen buildings
  • Other form of non-engineered construction = slums
  • Not only bad news but also opportunity.
  • Specific type of non-engineered construction
  • Before:
    what is non-engineered construction
    Characteristics of most non-engineered construction
    But: vernacular architecture:
    - Characteristics
  • Characteristics
  • Vernacular architecture follows a holistic approach
    and takes into account a combination of several aspects.
  • Examples of vernacular architecture and its disaster resilience.

    “We have moved from a very efficient system to a very bad system,” says Iftikhar Ahmad Hakim, Chief Town Planner Kashmir.
  • disaster resilient vernacular housing technology depending on region
  • Since the March 2005 earthquake, the indigenous practices used to construct traditional houses in Nias have been studied and have gained a reputation for their earthquake resistant quality. However, whilst this example of indigenous practice is celebrated, the devastating impact of the March 2005 earthquake on Nias Island, its population and its economy, must not be forgotten. This seems ironic given that Nias Island was at the time and still is home to one of the world’s best example of earthquake resistant architecture. This irony shows us firstly that isolated examples of indigenous practice alone cannot contribute significantly to disaster risk reduction.
    Secondly, it demonstrates that as the traditional is given up in favor of the modern, communities can be left exposed to the risk of disasters. Modernization has played a big part in the rapidly disappearing traditional architecture of Nias. The status symbol which is represented by this shift to modern design and lifestyle is adequate reason for most people to choose the less resistant Malayan houses over the traditional wooden structures. Deforestation has exacerbated the situation. The hardwood needed to build traditional houses is in scarce supply. As a consequence many of the methods and techniques used to build traditional houses are slowly being forgotten since concrete and bricks have replaced timber as construction material.
  • There are many examples of traditional building methods in Pacific islands. Due to the frequency of natural disasters in the region, many building styles demonstrate the traditional Samoan fale tele, which is mounted on a high stone foundation to prevent flooding and storm surges. It has a high dome ceiling to combat humidity and has open sides to allow winds to pass through. Such traditional dwellings incorporate architectural styles that enable them to withstand extreme weather and strong winds. Even in the event of the structure failing, replacement materials are readily available and sustainable, and the collapse generally would not injure the inhabitants. Many of the traditional aspects of vernacular housings in the Pacific have eroded with the introduction of Western building techniques and materials, including corrugated iron and concrete. Construction is often unregulated, and buildings are not built according to proper building standards and codes. This makes the Western-style buildings more vulnerable to environmental hazards and more dangerous to inhabitants.
     
    In Samoa, the builders of houses were also the architects who belonged to an ancient guild of master builders, tufuga fau fale. The Samoan word tufuga denotes the status of master craftspeople or Living Human Treasures. The Post-Disaster Needs assessment following Cyclone Evan that hit Samoa in December 2012 recommended
    these skills will enhance the resilience of communities by reinvigorating the positive features of traditional buildings in Samoa. This will be particularly relevant as cyclone
    intensity is predicted to increase in the region due to climate change.
  • The longhouse is considered to be one of the oldest architectural forms in Sarawak and can be found throughout Borneo Island
    Known as a “village under one roof,” a longhouse is a type of elevated communal dwelling comprising a series of interconnected apartments arranged linearly. Each apartment is connected to a communal gallery space on the side. On the other side of the apartments are kitchens and bathrooms. Longhouses are traditionally constructed of wood with a thatch roof, but more recently many have tin roofs.

    Example:
    longhouse burnt. Villagers began building individual temporary homes. Living in individual homes has resulted in a more visible and apparent difference of income between families, a factor which was less visible in the old longhouse.
    The longhouse’s communal gallery (ruai) has been lost, resulting in a loss of communication. This weakens the community, hinders development, and gives no opportunity for greeting guests, an important part of Iban custom.

    The longhouse is deeply rooted in Iban culture, encompassing many Iban traditions and values in its built form.
    Longhouse planning involves a long process of discussions, designing,…
    The longhouse stands as a built symbol of community collaboration, economic revitalization and pride that has conquered homelessness.

    The Iban are an ethnic group in the province of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, that traditionally lives in longhouses consisting of up to 100 family apartments. Communities in their egalitarian society choose their leaders and follow longstanding customs that maintain harmonious relationships between people.
  • We can learn from vernacular architecture
  • What can we learn from vernacular architecture?
    Examples
  • In July 2015, Ban began a project to rebuild homes for the victims of Nepal Earthquake. The structures of the homes are wood framing for flexibility and built fully with brick walls: quick and easy to build. Also, the Nepali community can use them for many other purposes, such as schools etc.

    In his architecture, Shigeru Ban uses many themes and methods found in traditional Japanese architecture (such as shōji).
  • Pakistan's first female architect
    One of the most successful providers of disaster relief shelters in the world. She has built more than 36,000 houses for victims of floods and earthquakes in Pakistan since 2010


    using techniques from vernacular architecture (lime, mud bricks)
    lime mortar = limestone + sand
    used in 14th century necropolis ‘Makli’
    = waterproof
  • RE-AINBOW: 2015
    = health station, public restrooms and ancillary areas, classroom, art performance theater, meeting place, sports fitness center, refreshment tent, areas for physical training such as volleyball, badminton, long jump, and other outdoor activities

    Re-use of waste items and efficient use of energy. A collection and reuse of a variety of old/ broken construction materials such as scaffolding steel pipes, sheet metals, bricks, ashlars, bathroom ware, tables and chairs,…with the local people’s involvement in manual construction are proposed in order to create a structure secure enough to stand heavy storms. Ventilation and natural lighting are also dealt with efficiently. Solar energy is converted into electricity for lighting facilities and heating water for daily use. Rain water and used water are also utilized.
  • Elevated building
    Frame is designed to offer a degree of flexibility that could help to absorb vibrations in future earthquakes.
    circulation of natural air, and the penetration of natural light into the building
  • Holistic approach is important.
    To show importance of holistic approach, here examples if this approach has not been followed.
  • ‘Modern’ concrete frame building didn’t take into account environment, local building materials, local capacity, cultural aspects,…
  • Prototype house layout was repeated in its thousands by different contractors on different sites, using the same technology of reinforced concrete.
    Cultural dimension of reconstruction overlooked.
    Result: total rejection of the new settlements by local people.
    Houses altered, extended or changed by locals.
    Consequence: most of the subsequent additions to houses did not have earthquake-safe features because of the inability to follow the introduced technology.
  • Masonry introduced by the Dutch (19th century), copied from Europe. The strength of mortar is dependent on moisture. So buildings were annually white washed with porous mix so that rain could penetrate. BUT: introduction of new building materials > acrylic, weather shield paints. So rain cannot penetrate and mortar became brittle.
  • Kathmandu: during the last half-century, huge transformation:
    Large amounts of money have flowed into the country from the developed world under the premise of improving the well-being of what has been viewed as an ‘underdeveloped’ country, , but much of this ‘development’ has been destructive of both the environment and the culture of the place.
  • Kathmandu: during the last half-century, huge transformation:
    Large amounts of money have flowed into the country from the developed world under the premise of improving the well-being of what has been viewed as an ‘underdeveloped’ country, , but much of this ‘development’ has been destructive of both the environment and the culture of the place.
  • The previous slides showed how important these 5 aspects are.

    Which role can policy play to ensure qualitative construction?
  • Policy can support and improve this holistic approach by
    Building codes
    Enforcement mechanisms fro BC
    Tax/subsidy systems
  • Examples of policy measures per aspect
  • The strategy of the project with different phases.
  • During data collection, analysis and developing sustainable solutions, the 5 elements must be considered.

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