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TLIII: Tropical Legumes I – Improving Tropical Legume Productivity for Marginal Environments – NN Diop

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TLIII: Tropical Legumes I – Improving Tropical Legume Productivity for Marginal Environments – NN Diop

  1. 1. Tropical Legumes I: Improving Tropical Legume Productivity for Marginal Environments in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
  2. 2. • Characterise diversity and develop germplasm for genetic studies • Generate genomic resources for genetic studies and breeding • Identify molecular markers and genes for biotic stress resistance • Identify molecular markers and genes for drought tolerance • Enhance locally adapted germplasm with target traits • Orthologous genetic markers for cross-genome analysis • Comparative analysis of the Arachis-species complex. • Estimating genome divergence at orthologous loci TLI Phase I: Objective and Activities Focus: 4 crops – beans, chickpeas, cowpeas & groundnuts, and for each….
  3. 3. Objectives of TLI Phase II  Validation of molecular markers and testing of molecular breeding approaches in drought-prone environments for traits important to sub-Saharan African farmers  Precision phenotyping to guarantee accurate marker–trait associations, and to refine selection indices used by breeders  Data integration of all data-producing research activities in TLI, Phases I and II, to ensure availability of high-quality, curated and publicly available data  Enhancing breeding capacity for programme partners in Africa  Combined endeavor with building capacity for drought tolerance breeding through the detailed study of cross-legume phenotyping and on data management by cataloguing all data generated in the project
  5. 5. TLI–Phase II: important outputs  Genomic resources  Genetic stocks: reference sets, synthetics, MARS, MAGIC, MABC, AB-QTL & CSSL populations  Markers for traits and QTLs  Improved germplasm  Methodologies and screening protocols  Trained scientists  DB and DM strategy in place  Improved infrastructure
  6. 6. Genomic resources All 4 crops:  Development of SNP and SSR markers  Diverse genetic maps from bi-parental and consensus maps  Mapped QTLs for biotic and abiotic traits and candidate genes associated  Physical maps  Sequencing of their genome
  7. 7. Genetic stocks: Trait pyramiding MARS (Marker assisted recurrent selection)  Bean:  1 population of ~200 lines  Phenotyping in 2 countries (Colombia and Ethiopia)  Cowpea:  4 ongoing populations (~300 lines)  IITA, Burkina Faso, Mozambique and Senegal  Chickpea:  2 populations  Phenotyping in 3 countries (Ethiopia, India and Kenya)
  8. 8. Genetic stocks: Trait pyramiding MAGIC (Multiparent advanced generation intercross)  Beans (8 parents)  Seed type, abiotic stress, drought adaptation, yield potential, earliness, biotic stress  648 lines tested for drought tolerance  Cowpeas (8 parents)  Yield potential under marginal conditions, abiotic and biotic stresses  300 lines  Chickpeas (8 parents)  Drought-tolerant and widely adapted germplasm, FPVs in diverse regions, high-yielding  1,200 lines
  9. 9. Genetic stocks Synthetics for Groundnut  6 synthetics developed  Resistance to rust, LLS, ELS, seed size, yield potential  2 populations developed  Brazilian cultivar  Senegalese cultivar  Under evaluation  2 new populations under development  Senegalese cultivar
  10. 10. Genetic stocks  CSSL (Chromosome segment substitution lines)  Synthetic line x elite  78 lines available and under multi-location phenotyping  Several traits: drought, biotic stresses, yield components  AB-QTL populations  2 populations  RIL populations  At least 5 populations
  11. 11. Development of improved version of local cultivars MABC (Marker assisted backcrossing)  Beans  5 populations undertaken, but adaptation low so abandoned  Cowpeas  11 populations (BF, IITA, Mozambique, Senegal, UCR)  Drought, biotic stress (flower thrips, Striga, nematodes and Macrophomina phaseolina )  Chickpeas  11 populations (ICRISAT, India, Ethiopia, Kenya)  Introgression of the region controlling root QTL and drought  Groundnuts  13 populations  Resistance to rosette, ELS and rust
  12. 12. Development of improved cultivars MAS (Marker assisted selection) - Bean  Disease resistance  Virus  Postharvest deterioration (storage insects)  Bacteria  Fungus  Insects
  14. 14. Development of new populations through partnership  For the development of CSSL and AB-QTL: EMBRAPA (Brazil) sent synthetic lines to ISRA/CERAAS, Senegal  ICRISAT sent synthetic lines to ISRA/CERAAS for development of new CSSL populations  Empowerment of NARS for development of MARS and MABC populations under the leadership of CIAT, ICRISAT (residential and long-duration training) and UCR (mentoring)
  15. 15. Fully or partially TL1-supported PhD and Masters Students Crop Degree programme Number Country Beans MSc 2 Ethiopia, Malawi Beans PhD 5 Ethiopia, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe Chickpeas MSc 5 Ethiopia, Kenya Chickpeas PhD 7 Australia,Ethiopia, Kenya Cowpeas PhD 10 Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, USA Groundnuts MSc 2 Mali, Tanzania Groundnuts PhD 4 Malawi, Niger, Senegal Total MSc 9 5 Total PhD 26 12
  16. 16. Challenges  Organising and using phenotypic data generated on hundreds of accessions at multiple locations for several biotic constraints and for grain yield  Logistics to perform good MARS (reliable phenotypic data, large GxE effect, limited secondary traits, limited seed production, fast genotyping turnover)  Data analysis capacity for all teams  Data management implemented by all teams  Use of IBP tools by all teams  Limited human-resource capacity in NARS in modern breeding  Staff turnover
  17. 17. Conclusion and perspectives  Evolving role of partners over time with NARS now leading several key activities with ARI and CG scientists mentors  Successful and effective examples of technology change, bridging the upstream–downstream research gap:  Cowpea MARS (North South)  Groundnut introgression line (South South)  Chickpea MABC (South South)  Successful proof of concept that MB can have impact on legume productivity  Impressive set of outputs generated  Integration of TLI and TLII is being done, but needs to be reinforced in the last year of the project
  18. 18. Thank you!