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Digital storytelling module (Advanced level)

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The "Digital storytelling" module is focused to adults learners interested in exploring the possibilities of managing multimedia tools of hight level. This module brings users the opportunity to learn how to create a 3-5 minutes video in a professional way

This module is part of a set of materials designed and developed in the project Telecentre Multimedia Academy (Lifelong learning - Grundtvig (2012-2014)) project.

The Telecentre Multimedia Academy is a project where Fundación Esplai worked with a consortium of 8 partners from Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, whose coordinator is Telecentre Europe.

You can learn more about the Telecentre Multimedia Academy project in:

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Digital storytelling module (Advanced level)

  2. 2. ADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY AUGUST 2014 AUTHOR Authors: Skaidrite Bukbãrde, Žarko Čižmar,Antra Skinča, Ivan Stojilović. Partners: Telecentre Europe, DemNet, Fundatia EOS - Educating for An Open Society, IAN,Telecentar, LIKTA, Langas ateit, Fundación Esplai. Coordination of the content development: Alba Agulló GRAPHIC DESIGN AND DESIGN Fundación Esplai (www.fundacionesplai.org) & Niugràfic (www.niugrafic.com) Under Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial - CompartieIgual (by-nc-sa) To obtain permission beyond this license, contact http://tma.telecentre-europe.org/contacts Access to Multimedia Toolkit http://tma.telecentre-europe.org/toolkit LEGAL NOTICE This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. Index 2 DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULE 2.1 Introduction to Digital Storytelling P.4 2.1.1 What is digital storytelling 2.1.2 The role of digital storytelling in media literacy 2.2 Storytelling techniques P.8 2.1 Elements of a good storytelling 2.2 Types of Digital stories 2.3 Interview and report P.13 3.1 Interview 2.4 Media news P.17 4.1 Steps of digital storytelling 2.5 Activities P.25 2.6 Bibliography P.27
  4. 4. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 4 Introduction to Digital Storytelling2.1 With the development of new media tools it is becoming more popular to create a 3-5 minute video telling either a personal sto- ry-about one’s life events, family celebrations, travel adventures, professional carer, or create an imaginary story or develop such videos for educational or professional purposes, e.g. a video re- sume. This module will introduce you to the method when with the use of new digital tools everyone can tell their own ‘true stories’ in a compelling and emotionally engaging form. The module will an- alyse what elements oral, written and digital storytelling have in common, what skills you need to create a digital story and what role these skills play in developing media literacy - one of the key elements for 21st century learning. The module will deal with the development of storytelling skills-start- ing with getting to the idea, analysing what themes can make the basis of a story and what elements you should concider in order to create emotionally charged and a powerful digital story. There are several steps in the process of creation a digital sto- ry-the first steps are connected with the creation of the idea, gath- ering and organising the information. In this process graphic or- ganisers might be helpful as they in a visual way help to organize information, convert a lot of seemingly disjointed pieces into a structured, simple-to-read visual representation. When the story map is prepared the next step is to write the script that will be recorded. If you want to make your story digital then before the actual technical implementation starts, the author should “see” the story already finished, that means it should be decided what media-sound, video, still photos, graphics and interactivity is nec- essary. This process of organizing media and text in a coherent ways is called story boarding. The module will show some practical methods how to easily cre- ate a story map and a story board. 2.1.1 What is digital storytelling Tell me a fact, and I’ll learn. Tell me a truth, and I’ll believe. Tell me a story and it will live in my heart forever. (Indian Proverb) From ancient times humans have been telling stories, that is conveying events in words and images. We tell and listen to stories every day-we meet friends and tell about ourselves, the things that have happened or describe how things were done. Sometimes we want to look into the future and imagine what it might be like. Stories are told about personal life and used in the classroom for teaching purposes and to inform society about the events, discoveries, inventions, good practice and many more. In our professional life we also use storytelling technique. In some cases the process of documentation and sharing our experience
  5. 5. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 5 can be rather academic and therefore has no power to inspire the reader. Certainly the facts and analytical aspect is essential, but to make good practice memorable, persuasive and powerful you have to add your personal touch or attitude. Storytelling is an ancient form of communication and an art that has been used as a tool for entertainment, education, to pass over cultural and moral values, share knowledge and experi- ence and has been developing over time with each technologi- cal development. It has been proved that communities originally communicated with body language and then progressed to oral communication, after the development of hieroglyphics passed over to written communication. With the advances in new media technology digital communication evolved. According to Leslie Rule from Digital Storytelling Association, ”Digital Storytelling is the modern expression of the ancient art of storytelling. Digital stories derive their power by weaving images, music, narrative and voice together, thereby giving deep dimen- sion and vivid color to characters, situations, experiences, and insights. http://electronicportfolios.com/digistory/ Oral storytelling has given rise to digital storytelling. The very basis is formed by the art of storytelling but adding new afforda- ble multimedia tools and techniques makes the storytelling go digital! In digital storytelling the following elements: text, image, sound, voice and moving images can be combined in a coherent story and each of them plays a unique role, adding power to the medium. If we look at digital storytelling in a wider perspective then the term can be referred to a variety of emergent new forms of digi- tal narratives, e.g. text based stories, blogs, web-based stories, interactive stories, hypertexts, narrative computer games, audio and video podcasts, etc. Digital stories might include only some elements, like text, images, aidio material. Not always digital sto- ries should include audio or video to be effective, powerful, or memorable, there can be image only story utilizing the power of visual images to tell stories. There are many various definitions of “digital storytelling,” but a common trait for all of them is the idea of combining the ancient art of telling stories with any of a variety of available multimedia tools, including graphics, audio, video animation, and Web pub- lishing. If some time ago stories and films were created by profession- als nowadays people of all ages and experience using their life stories or imagination can create stories using computers, digi- tal cameras, recorders and software-that has become possible with the arrival of accessible media production techniques. This new form of storytelling has emerged and it allows individuals to share their stories over the Internet, on discs, podcasts, or other electronic distribution systems. The beauty of this form of digital expression is that these stories can be created by people everywhere, on any subject, and shared electronically all over the world.
  6. 6. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 6 Joe Lambert, co-founder of the Center for Digital Story Telling defines that Digital storytelling in the not too distant future, shar- ing one’s story through multiple medium of imagery, text, voice, sound, music, video and animation will be the principal hobby of the world’s people.” http://members.shaw.ca/dbrear/dst.html 2.1.1 What is digital storytelling Although nowadays people are fascinated by creating digital sto- ries and it might seem fun and an easy job, still making a power- ful story requires fundamental intellectual skills. In order to make a digital story that is extremely effective and emotionally powerful you have to acquire a large variety of skills: the skills you need for a traditional story - oral and written story- telling skills, as well as digital and art skills, communication skills and critical thinking skills. Digital story is a comination of oral presentation and media, but at the basis of it is a story, that involves imagining or remember- ing scenes, then describing them to your listeners in a vivid way. While preparing a story, you have to think about the plot - how to link the characters with the setting and the events and how they will interact and accomplish each other, it develops the skills of sequencing, constructing a logical and persuasive arguments. If written language relies chiefly on words, then passing your sto- ry to someone, you describe scenes using oral language (spo- ken language), which differs from its close relative, written lan- guage. Oral language has its own operating principles, strengths, and limitations and many communicative elements in addition to words can be used, e.g.:  Tone of voice;  Facial expression;  Gestures;  Body language;  Expression of eyes;  Orientation in space (facing toward or away from listeners) and more. Furthermore, many of the communicative elements of oral lan- guage, such as tone of voice, are powerful enough to completely overpower words. In the process of digital story production video plans and scripts are written where writing and conventional forms of literacy are involved. There are three key areas that are crutially important while writing a story:  Use of language;  Identification of audience;  Formulating a point of view. The use of language for writing includes vocabulary and the or- ganization of story. The audience is whom the writer is address- ing and it is crucial to understand what is your purpose. Writing, revising and editing scripts for digital stories help to organize the story. Digital stories is a synergy of creative writing and personal reflection with clarity and organization. In the case of academic /
  7. 7. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 7 educational digital stories, writing is used to plan, script and cre- ate a story that demonstrates content area understanding. The key questions to ask yourself to check the structure and con- tent of the story:  Is it focused?  Is it logical? Is the thinking clear and concise?  Is it easy for the reader to understand? A written story becomes more fascinating with the use of visual images that have become a predominant form of communication delivered across a wide range of media and formats. Visual lit- eracy can be defined as ability to construct meaning from visual images. Visual literacy is about interpreting images of the present and past and producing images that effectively communicate the message to the audience. When creating a digital story you have to interpret, create visuals, select images to convey a range of meanings. Digital stories are essentially multimedia art projects, shaped by story. No matter what technologies await us in the fu- ture, we will try to tell stories with them, and to do so we will need to understand design. With the present day development of technologies there are var- ious tools for producing excellent digital stories. Skills needed to produce a digital story include the ability to search, collect and process information and use it in a critical and systematic way, assessing relevance and distinguishing the real from the virtual while recognising the links. You should have skills to use tools to produce, present and understand complex information and the ability to access, search and use internet-based services. Use of ICT requires a critical and reflective attitude towards available in- formation and a responsible use of the interactive media. Becom- ing proficient in digital skills is fundamental to student’s success in 21 st century. Digital storytelling, like traditional storytelling, is an exercise in communication and a creative process that requires participants to visualize and use their imagination. Communication plays an important role in the preparation of a digital story. You have to discuss the ideas, analyse, criticise, present information and show your unique point of view - it is done through discussion with groupmates or colleagues. When publishing your digital story either on school portal or a website you make it public and become a member of a larger community with voice and a sense of responsibility to others and always try to make positive contributions to the digital culture. On the other hand, to communicate and express your idea effec- tively and clearly you need very practical skills - how to use the available tools adequately, use of correct language, and convid- er all other aspects that take the context into account to achieve an effective communication. While creating digital stories it is essential to see and realise the persuasive power of technology and media - how media makers use technique to influence our way of thinking and our emotions and feelings. As media is so powerful, we need to be especially aware of its power to persuade and be in control of this important aspect of our own lives.
  8. 8. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 8 21st century will require ability to apply criteria for responsible use of ICT, acknowledging potential risks as well as the use of rules of behaviour that promote an adequate social exchange on the web. Critical thinking, responsibility and decision making are skills that are related to this. Media literacy education teaches people to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce media. A media literate person can think critically about what they see, hear and read in books, newspa- pers, magazines, television, radio, movies, music, advertising, video games, the Internet, and new emerging technology. It also includes learning how to create messages using print, audio, vid- eo, and multimedia. Storytelling techniques2.2 2.2.1 Elements of a good storytelling Today when we live in the digital age how do you tell a story that stands out, captures people’s attention and gets them engaged? As a digital story is a combination of the art of telling stories and the creative potential of digital tools where digital images and graphics, text, recorded narration by the author, video, transi- tions, and music are combined to construct personal tales on a specific topic both parts are extremely important - only the right balance between an exciting story and meaningful use of digital tools can result in a powerful presentation. There are endless approaches to crafting and constructing stories depending on purpose and audience, but there are some funda- mental elements that should be observed during the writing and planning phase when scripts are drafted and revised, and story- boards designed. During this stage the storyteller decides what the story will say and how the story will look during this stage. Once the script and accompanying storyboard are completed, the con- struction of the story can start using various tools. The construc- tion of a digital story is not a simple process that follows a recipe or a prescribed formula. Deciding how the various elements will form the structure of each individual story and determining the balance between these elements can take a lot of thought and effort. There are several issues to concider for creating efective and powerful stories:  A digital story likewise traditional story has its structure, a beginning, middle and end.  Thebeginningshouldcaptivatetheviewer.Itcanbeachieved by asking a question, providing dilemma, or controversal state- ment. It should compel the viewers to continue watching, and make them want to see how the problem is solved.  The middle usually describes the course of events: What happened? How was the dilemma/problem solved?  The end of a story reveals a conclusion/sollution: How did the situation turn out? The end of your story should also reveal your meaning or point.
  9. 9. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 9  Stories are not a mere presentation of facts. Stories are told to convey some message. It is important to define the key message or the main point you are going to convey to the au- dience. Consider the audience and direct the story to this par- ticular audience.  A good digital story begins as a good story telling person- al experience. One of the most unique features of this specific digital storytelling style is the expectation that each story ex- presses a personal meaning or insight about how a particular event or situation touches you, your community, or humanity. Digital stories are advised to be constructed from person’s own experience and understanding and reveal the writer’s or storyteller’s personal expression. Using the first-person pro- noun „I” rather than the more distant third-person point of view is essential. The digital story reveals the writer, as opposed to offering facts about a distanced topic.  A good story creates intrigue or tension around a situation that is revealed in the beginning of the story and resolved at the end, sometimes with an unexpected twist. The tension of an unresolved or curious situation engages and holds the viewer until reaching a memorable end.  The most effective digital stories evoke an emotion from the audience. Emotional content can help to hold the audi- ence’s attention. The different elements (e.g. images, effects, music and tone of voice) all can contribute to adding emotion to a story cauising laughter, tears, and expressions of pleasure or other emotions.  A good story should tell the message in a concise way. An effective digital story might use only a few images, a few words, and even fewer special effects to communicate intend- ed meaning clearly and powerfully. It is not necessary to in- clude every tiny detail of the story, the audience will fill in the blanks from suggestions made by sights and sounds. The art of shortening a story lies in preserving the essence of the tale - using the fewest words along with images and sound to make your point. Economy is the most difficult element for both nov- ices and experienced writers to attain. Setting limits to a digi- atl story helps to make the construction process manageable, and it also makes it possible for an audience to view the stories in a short period of time. To achieve conciseness makes the author focus the story, deciding what is essential and what can be omitted. A compact, fast moving digital story will con- tain only those elements necessary to move the audience from beginning to end.  The rhytm of the story is what keeps the audience’s atten- tion and interest. Be careful not to make the story „monoto- nous” that can be a synonym with „boring” because an un- varied pace will not hold the audience’s attention. There is an important interaction between economy and pacing. Novice storytellers often attempt to manage the script into a two-min- ute digital story by reading it as rapidly as they can. This is achieved at the expense of pacing, because this approach does not allow them to pause or vary the pace. It is important to confront these decisions during the script revision process, in order to allow a natural pace and varied flow when the digi- tal story is constructed. Changing the pace at different points
  10. 10. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 10 can facilitate moving the audience from one emotion to anoth- er. Music tempo, speech rate, image duration, panning and zooming speed all work to establish pace. Generally pace is consistent throughout a story, but once in a while it will pause, accelerate, decelerate or stop.  As the digital stories reveal personal emotions, experience, attitude the storyteller’s voice (the pitch, inflection, and tembre) is essential to convey meaning and intent in a very personal way. This is one of the most essential elements that contribute to the effectiveness of a digital story. There is no substitute for using your own voice to tell your story. It is advisable to take time to learn and practice the script so that the speaker tells it in a conversational tone. If the script is simply read from the print-out, then the voice will not sound natural to the audience and they will be unsure how to respond.  Unlike traditional oral or written stories, in digital stories im- ages, sound, and music can be used to show a part of the context, create setting, give story information, and provide emotional meaning not provided by words.  A good story incorporates technology in artful ways, demonstrating skillsof communication with the help of imag- es, sound, voice, color, white space, animations, design, tran- sitions, and special effects. Ask yourself whether your media resources are decorating, illustrating, or illuminating. Music is an important element of the professional cinema and can be concidered as an essential element to make a powerful story. Properly employed music can enhance and underscore the accompanying story, adding complexity and depth to the nar- rative. 2.2.2 Elements of a good storytelling In general a "digital story” is any narrative that is told using digital media. However, the Centre for Digital Storytelling in California, USA, associates it with a 3-5 minute video produced by everyone who is not a media professional, and they believe that everyone has many stories to tell. People see, hear, and perceive the world in different ways and this means that the forms and approaches they take to telling stories are also very different. There are all kinds of stories in our lives that can be developed into multimedia pieces. As to the content the stories deal with it is possible to categorize them into the following three major groups:  Personal narratives. Stories that contain accounts of signifi- cant incidents in one’s life.  Historical documentaries. Stories that examine historical, dramatic events that help us understand the past;  Stories designed to inform or instruct the viewer on a par- ticular concept or practice.
  11. 11. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 11 Elements of a good storytelling These are perhaps the most popular type of digital story. There the author tells his/her personal experience revolving around significant events in their life, they can be emotionally charged and personally meaningful. If you feel strongly about a certain event or person in your life, you will likely write a powerful script. These stories are made personal if narrated with your own voice and they reveal personal discoveries and tell something personal about the author. The story (the meaning) is expressed through the narrative and supported visually by the images. Here are some possible themes for a personal story:  Character/Relationship. Explore how we love, who we are in- spired by, what our relationships mean to us. We can reveal how we met our partner, what it was like when the baby was born, or what our relationship is with our parents, grandpar- ents, brothers, sisters. We want to compare other people’s experiences in these fundamental relationships to our own. These are also stories that tend to have plenty of existing doc- umentation - e.g. family photoes,videos, etc.  Remembrance or memorial stories deal with memories of people who have played an important role in one’s life and are no longer with us. These stories are often difficult but are emo- tionally powerful and can help with the grieving process.  Stories of challenge. Show how we overcome great obsta- cles and challenges in our lives and achieve goals. The stories can analyse and retrospect crucial moments in our lives, tell about the steps we have taken, decissions we have made and to what solution we have come.  Stories about a place. Revolve around important places in our lives: our homes, our towns, and our experiences that con- nect us to our communities. You may have a story about your current home, an ancestral home, a town, a park, a mountain or forest you love, a restaurant, store, or gathering place. Your insights into place give us insight about your sense of values and connection to community.  Stories of adventure, a journey or travel. Reflect and depict places we visit and adventures we have in our travels. Strange- ly enough, while almost everyone tells good travel stories, it is often difficult to make an effective multimedia piece from these stories. We rarely think about constructing a story with our pho- tographs or videos in advance of a trip. And we do not want to take ourselves out of the most exhilarating moments by taking out a camera and recording. Before your next trip, think about creating a story outline based on an idea prior to your visit, as well as what sort of images, video, or sounds would be useful to create the story.  Stories about events in our lives. Deal with significant oc- currences that we remember and want to share. These can be stories about achieving a goal, like graduating from school, or being on the winning team in a sporting event. These events are often documented, so you might find it easy to construct a multimedia story.
  12. 12. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 12  Stories about what we do. Allow us to talk about our jobs, pro- fessions and careers when we show what we value and what is meaninful. For many people a life story is shaped by their job. People also refer to their hobbies or social commitments when thinking about who they are. A good story often comes from looking at the familiar in a new way and with a new meaning. Stories that Examine Historical Events Many personal narratives can include historical information to add context to the story, but digital story can be created from historical material that has been collected and now used to rec- oncider and analyse the events from history and add depth and meaning to these events. People may use historical photographs, newspaper headlines, speeches, and other available materials to create a story. E.g. Audio recordings of statesmen’s or other prominent people’s speeches and photographs of the events can be used as the ba- sis of digital stories that explore famous events in history. Stories that Inform or Instruct These stories reveal the process of learning when we as detec- tives illustrate how we uncovered the facts to get at a truth, wheth- er it is in fixing a broken bicycle or developing a new product. This type of digital story is used to convey instructional material in many different areas. You can use this type of digital story to present information on subjects ranging from maths and science, to art, technology, etc. They can instruct what can be done to im- prove your skills or how to better use some gadget. And of course, stories can be created using combinations of these three methods such as autobiographical stories that use historical material as the background of a personal narrative. Life is full of stories, but you have to capture these moments and use as movies, so, go for it! Digital storytelling takes many forms. There are stories that are audio only and rely on words, sound effects, field recordings, and music. Hypertext environments facilitate the interactive story in which the „reader” chooses optional paths to explore. Web-based media facilitate not only stories with words, but also movies, stills, sounds, and graphics. One form of digital story is the micromovie. A micromovie is usu- ally a very short exposition lasting from a few seconds to no more than 5 minutes in length. It allows the teller to combine personal writing, photographic images or video footage, narrative, sound effects, and music. Many people, regardless of skill level, are able to tell their stories through image and sound and share those sto- ries with others.
  13. 13. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 13 Interview and report2.3 2.3.1 Interview Data and information can be collected in a number of ways: field visits to sites, collection of audio clips, video footage, photo- graphs, intervieews or self-interviews, document study, etc. There is no shortage of information today - television, radio, news- papers, journals, books, posters, the Internet and even what we hear in meetings and on the street. Sometimes we don’t particu- larly want it all but it keeps on flowing! Remember that while creating a digital story you will need infor- mation as source: you will search, select, evaluate and organ- ise information. A digital story always carries author’s personal attitude and point of view so we will also create information as product: the restructured and modelled information and the de- velopment of own ideas. The word interview has originated from Latin - the prefix inter– meaning „between,” „among,” „mutually,” „together,” and to view –meaning „to see”. Interview is a conversation in which one person (the interviewer) elicits information from another person (the subject or interviewee). Tips for interviewing There are three main types of interviews: Structured Interview: Structured interviews follow a fixed order of questions, have fixed response choices, and have fixed num- ber of questions. Here the interviewer has decided in advance what questions he/she is going to ask, in what order the ques- tions will be asked, the information to be collected. Sometimes it is also called guided interview or respondent’s interview, and the interviewer directs and controls the interview and the interviewee answers specific questions. Semi-structured: These are slightly informal, questions can be changed to fit the specific context, and follow-up questions add- ed based on the interviewee’s response. These interviews are more conversational and the response options are not fixed. Unstructured interviews: These interviews are not planned in detail. Hence it is also called as non-Directed interview. The questions to be asked, the information to be collected etc. are not decided in advance. These interviews are non-planned and therefore, more flexible. Interviewees are more relaxed in such interviews. They are encouraged to express themselves about different subjects, based on their expectations, motivations, background, interests, etc. Here the interviewer can make a bet- ter judgement of the candidate’s personality, potentials, opinion. However, if the interviewer is not efficient then the discussions will lose direction and the interview will be a waste of time and effort. Also called informal or in-depth interviews, these are open-ended
  14. 14. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 14 and guided by the interviewee’s opinion. So, also called informant interview, suitable mainly for complex and open-ended questions.  Before you record the interview, determine why you want to have it, what information you need to collect, your goals and reveal the idea of your story.  Before the interview identify people you want to interview. In choosing interviewees, you need to ask three questions: 1. Does the person have the information I need? 2. Is the person available for an interview? 3. Will the person provide me with the information I need?  Prepare and write down the questions for interview. Think over what questions you have put down and why. Heading to an interview with a sense of what you want to get out of it is critical to conducting a successful interview.  Distinguish open and closed questions. 1. Open questions begin with words such as “Who,” “What,” “Where,” or “When.” That is, they give a chance to give a narrative response, without being confined by the question. Such questions are good when general or background in- formation is necessary. Their disadvantage is that they can cause an interviewee to ramble on endlessly. 2. Closed questions, on the other hand, call for a specific answer, usually a "Yes” or a "No”. The disadvantage of clo- sed questions is that in using them, you may be jumping too quickly to conclusions. 3. Both types of questions have their place during the inter- view. In general, if you want to get the big picture and to avoid jumping to conclusions or making wrong assump- tions begin with open questions. With open questions, you can receive more informative answers and bring up mat- ters that you can focus on more specifically.  When you go to interview someone dress appropriately, arrive on time, and be polite and professional. Check the re- cording device before you start. Refer to your list of prepared questions; stay on track, but allow for spontaneous discussion.  Sometimes the interviewing techniques can help you to tell your story. You may prepare questions and then record your own answers to the questions. This wil be „self-interview” when you conduct the interview responding to these questions directly into a microphone in the place where you feel at ease. If the idea of talking to a recording device is uninspiring, have someone interview you. This can be a friend, a colleague or anyone you trust and can support you. Guidelines for the Interviewer  If you have prepared questions, study and try to remember them so that you are not reading from the page, and feel free to make changes. Being able to sustain eye contact assists the interviewee in relaxing and responding in a natural way.
  15. 15. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 15  Know how to use the recording device and test it before each interview.  Allow the interviewee to complete his or her thoughts giv- ing enough time to think through and restate something that is a bit difficult to articulate. Interruptions can cause people to lose their train of thought or become self-aware and steer away from important, but perhaps emotionally difficult informa- tion. Let the interviewee tell you when he or she has finished a question before moving on to the next.  While you always want to have a plan in mind before you do an interview, don’t be afraid to let an interview go off in another direction...if it’s an interesting one. You never want to let someone you’re interviewing ramble on about something pointless but if the interviewee starts talking about something interesting, go with it. Recognize when someone is saying something interesting and react to that. When you have done with the interesting side, you can always go back to the ques- tions you prepared beforehand.  When appropriate, use your own intuition when asking questions to get more detailed responses. Often, a person’s initial thoughts about a question only retrieves a broad outline of a memory. Feel free to inquire for specifics or details that would clarify or expand upon a general response.  If the story is about information that is specifically painful in the person’s life, carefully assess how far you will go and how much you will allow the respondent to delve into these memories. Don’t feel you need to hunt for emotionally charged material to make the interview effective. The interview should come naturally and comfortably.  Finally, along with ensuring privacy in the interview, make sure everyone is comfortable: comfortable chairs, water at hand, and the microphone positioned so as not to disturb the conversation. Guidelines for the interviewee  Keep an open mind and try to keep to the point and message you wanted to tell to concrete audience.  Don’t try to pretend or fake your answers, be yourself, be natural.  Get natural enjoyment of the process.  Remeber that your voice is a pewerful instrument - so when speaking vary the pace, volume and inflections of your voice.  Be interested in what you say as it reflects in your voice - it should carry energy and effectively convey the emotions of the story message you tell.  Don’t stretch the material, do not beat about the bush, be concise and precise.  And remember if you miss something in your story or in- terview you can record it again or add necessary information.
  16. 16. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 16 3.1.4 Reporting There are a lot of events happening all around and you can spot great stories and identify the best people to talk to about the is- sues you are interested in. So possible stories are all around you just have to take some steps to make a report.  Before you start making any news report, remember some simple advice: think how can you tell the story in the most en- gaging way, without making it too complicated.  In order to keep your story going in the direction you want it to, you must plan it. Decide how you want to start your re- port and how you want to end it and then you won’t miss out any important information in the middle.  As with any story the simpliest way to create your report it is to follow 5 W questions: What. What is the report about? Which points do you need to focus on to attract listeners’ and viewers’ interest? It is impor- tant to get the facts, necessary information about the event, issue before starting your report. Why. Why do you want to make this report? Will your story be important to your audience? How will you make it important for them? Who. Who will be involved? If you are not reporting from the immediate spot then you have to arrange that the necessary people are there when you are filming. Do not forget to ar- range all the necessary permissions (specially if children are involved, then the permission to film them should be obtained from their parents). If you can choose, think about the people who can tell the story in an interesting way. Where. where would you like to film? Is it possible to do it in this place or maybe you have to ask for the permission. Ar- range the appropriate time. When. If you are going to report an event that is happening outside your influence, make sure you get there on time! If you are arranging special shooting time, think about lights, people involved, technical aspects.  If you think carefully about each of these points in detail, then you will have a plan with clear understanding as to what you need to film, where and when.  When you have done detailed planning, arranged all the necessary people, equipment, done arrangements you can set the time for filming.  A basic TV news report is made up of five parts: Introduction. At this stage the reporter introducs the story or the theme. It is usually short and snappy. First interview. You talk to the first person/ persons and ask them to give their opinion on what is happening, and how it affects them. Second interview. It is advisable to talk to someone with a different opinion, to provide balance. Extra shots. Include some shots showing more the place and the people in the story. That will make the report more interest- ing, lively and give a rounded impression.
  17. 17. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 17 Conclusion. Before finishing try to summarise the outcome, or possible outcomes of the story. • For example, reporters can look straight at the camera when they do their introduction and conclusion. These are called „pieces to camera”. • If you have an interviewee, think how to position your inter- viewee in the shot. Interviewees usually stand on one side of the frame looking over to the other side of the screen. • Be very careful to check your audio levels too. Wear your headphones! Without good sound you won’t be able to use the video that goes with it. • Think about the equipment you will need for filming. Take some extra pieces with you (e.g. spare camera batteries). If you run out during an interview, you won’t be able to finish your story. And if you’ve got a tripod, take it with you to keep the shots steady. • When filming, you and your team’s safety is top priority. No film is worth your or your team mates health or safety. Don’t film in dangerous places - on the road, or roof or any other place that can be dangerous. If you are going to report from a place that is not familiar to you - check the way, time you need to get there, surroundings. Do not do it alone and inform somebody about your plans! Media news2.4 2.4.1 Steps of digital storytelling Digital storytelling allows computer users to become creative storytellers through the traditional processes of selecting a top- ic, conducting some research, writing a script, and developing an interesting story. This material is then combined with various types of multimedia, including computer-based graphics, record- ed audio, computer-generated text, video clips, and music so that it can be played on a computer, uploaded on a web site, or burned on a DVD. In order to create a digital story it is advisable to follow such se- quence of steps that will lead from traditional process of storytell- ing to work with various digital tools and putting it all together and sharing with others.
  18. 18. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 18 The key steps: Step 1: Come up with an idea Write e proposal Digital storytelling process Step 2: Research Explore Learn Step 8: Feedback and reflect Step 3: Write Script Step 7: Share Step 4: Storyboard Plan Step 6: Put it all together Step 5: Gather/Create image Gather/create audio Gather/create video
  19. 19. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 19  Start with an Idea All stories begin with an idea, and digital stories are not different. This idea could be your personal revelation, emotions, significant events you want to share with others, the topic you want to investi- gate, a question asked or an issue that is raised in your community. At this initial stage you have to answer 3 straightforward questions: • What is the subject of the story? What message do I want to tell? • What is the purpose? What do I want to achieve - convince, provoke, question? • Whom am I addressing my story? Who will be the viewer and listener? Working through these questions will help you focus more clearly on getting the first draft of your report right-complete, persuasive and well-ordered.  Gathering information, organization of ideas Digital stories might be fiction or non-fiction. Once you have an idea you will need to explore, research and organise your ideas. Graphic organizers (also called concept maps, entity relationship charts, and mind maps) are useful at this stage as they are a pic- torial way of constructing knowledge and organizing information. They help to convert and compress a lot of seemingly disjointed information into a structured, simple-to-read, graphic display. The resulting visual display conveys complex information in a sim- ple-to-understand manner. You can do mind-mapping, write outlines, create index cards, or use online note-taking tools to help keep track of information. One of the ways how easily organise ideas for a story is using story maps - graphic representations of the various elements and sequence of events of a story, which clearly outline the relations- hips to each other. Some of the many elements of a story include: the important cha- racters (their appearance, personality traits, and motivations), the setting of the story (time and place), problem faced by the cha- racters, how the problem is approached, and the outcome. There are many approaches how to create your story that exami- ne different elements of the story (and reveal different structures within a story). • You can write about (summarize) what happened at the begin- ning, the middle, and the end of the story. Beginning Middle End
  20. 20. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 20 • Five W's diagrams are a type of graphic organizer that in a simple visual way help to organize basic information neces- sary for a story or to describe an event. There are 5 question words „Who, When, Where, What, and Why" that can be inter- preted in many different ways, including why the event happe- ned or why the event was important. Who WhereWhen WhyWhat Story • To create a narrative describing the sequence of events to 5 Wh questions the 6 question can be added - How? Who When What Why Where How
  21. 21. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 21 • Some list the title, setting, characters, the problem, the solu- tion and the moral or theme of the story. • This story map prompts the student to summarize the place, time, characters, problem, and solution of a story. Place Charac- ters Time Problem Solution • Some list a complex chain of events that summarize all key elements of the story, in chronological order. Setting Event 1 Characters Event 2 Describe the problem Describe the solution
  22. 22. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 22 • Spider map (sometimes called a semantic map) also can be used to to organize one’s thoughts, investigate and enumera- te various aspects of a single theme or topic. The process of creating a spider diagram helps to focus on the topic, requi- res to review what is already known in order to organize that knowledge, and helps to monitor growing comprehension of the topic. Topic Detail A spect1 A spect2 A spect4 A spect3 Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail Apart from the previously discused techniques you can choose a technique you prefer or create your own for making a story map. Whatever technique you use don’t forget to visualize the charac- ters, settings and events. Pay attention to the sequence of main events- decide what happened first, next, and then . . . . Story maps can be used as an outline for creating a story or to summarize the story events. As a story map is a visual depiction of the settings or the sequen- ce of major events and actions of story characters it enables the author to relate story events and to perceive structure. PowerPoint can be a very useful tool to create story maps. This is a fun way to integrate technology and literacy in the classroom and all the while students will be learning how to use PowerPoint. You can use online interactive graphic organizers and interactive Story Map creators http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-inte- ractives/essay-30063.html http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-inte- ractives/story-30008.html  Write the script After you have organized your ideas, collected and sorted the necessary information the next stepi s to write a script that will be used as a narration in your digital story. When you are trying to write, sometimes it is embarrasing as you have a blank sheet of paper and a feeling that you do not know where to start. That’s why the pre-writing steps mentioned previously are recomended to help with the initial process of organizing your thoughts before proceeding with the story writing.
  23. 23. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 23 If you have an idea and you have developed the story map, then with a little bit of editing, it can become a script. If you researched and explored the topic well, the body of the script should fall into place like a jigsaw puzzle. The pieces are already there, you just need to make them fit. This is also the time where literary decisions come into play. Deci- de whether you will use first, second or third person. Expand word choices, do not hesitate to use a dictionary or thesaurus. www.visuwords.com - Visuwords™ online graphical dictionary where you can look up words to find their meanings and associa- tions with other words and concepts. www.wordnik.com - shows definitions from multiple sources, so you can see as many different takes on a word's meaning as pos- sible. Remember that a story is more than just words. A digital Story is personal. It's told from the heart with feelings that can be revea- led in both words and pictures. Remember that your script will be read or told it is not going to be published. A great piece of writing doesn't always turn into a great voice-over, for a voice-over is written to be spoken. No one listening can see spelling errors so write it as you would speak it, it's not an address or a lecture but it is a considered narrative. The precise word count is less important than the rhythm with which the words are delivered. For a story of two minutes, the script should be about 250 words long. Be aware, though, that most stories benefit from pauses, gaps in the voice-over where the pictures are allowed to carry the narrative by themselves. In a two minute piece there is plenty of time to lose your way. A story is like a journey and it is very easy to set off in the right direction and yet never reach your destination. So, while you are writing, keep asking yourself: „What is my story about?” Do not include anything which dilutes the story's intention.  Creating a storyboard It can be a valuable step in the creative process by allowing the developer to understand the necessity for sound and images and to organize images and text in a blueprint fashion before the ac- tual development begins. It allows the user to visualize how the project will be put together and what holes exist since you can see the entire plan laid out in front of you. Storyboarding can also inspire new ideas as well as rearrange existing resources befo- re the final development begins and changes may be harder to make. Simple storyboards will just have room for images/video and the script. More advanced ones might even include room for transitions, and background music. A storyboard is a written or graphical representation of all the ele- ments that will be included in a digital story. The storyboard is usually created before actual work on creating the digital story begins and a written description and graphical depiction of the elements of the story, such as images, text, narration, music,
  24. 24. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 24 transitions, etc. are added to the storyboard. The elements of the story are arranged in the storyboard in the chronological order in which they will appear in the story and this allows the developer to organize and re-arrange the content for maximum effect. Image description Image description Image description Narration Narration Narration Effects Transition Music Effects Transition Music Effects Transition Music Storyboards may be created in a variety of ways, both digitally and manually on paper or artists' board. If storyboards are de- veloped on a computer, a variety of software programs may be used, such as Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint. Scene 1 VoiceOver Narration Sound Music Notes VoiceOver Narration Transition Transition Transition Sound Music Notes VoiceOver Narration Sound Music Notes Scene 2 Scene 3
  25. 25. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 25 Activities2.5 1. Digital Storytelling 1.1 What is digital storytelling A. Do you like to tell or write stories? Give your arguments. B. Work in groups: What do you think is a digital story? Give a definition. C. What elements do traditional written stories and digital stories have in common and what makes them different? 1.2 The role of digital storytelling in media literacy. D. In groups brainstorm and make a list of skills you need to create a digital story. E. Watch the digital story and see if you have mentioned all the skills on the list. F. Read the text and add the skills to your list. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwc7lN-XbFI&list=PL- 47B77396AAEEF956&feature=c4-overview-vl • http://digitalstorytelling.coe.uh.edu/view_story.cfm?vi- d=299&categoryid=9&d_title=Places 2. Storytelling techniques 2.1 Elements of a good storytelling G. Discuss in groups: What elements can make a digital story memorable and impressive? H. Watch the digital story. What impressed you in the story? How was it achieved? • http://digitalstorytelling.coe.uh.edu/view_story.cfm?vi- d=395&categoryid=8&d_title=Personal%20Reflection • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfNJ6agH6Oc&lis- t=PLC8F0259C977F715B 2.2 Types of Digital stories 2.2.1 Personal/Narrative Stories I. What are the most typical themes of a personal story? 2.2.2 Stories that Examine Historical Events J. What historical material can be used to create a story? K. Discuss in groups: What can be the themes of stories that examine history and what material can be used? 2.2.3 Stories that Inform or Instruct. Activities. L. In groups choose some digital stories and try to categorize them (according to criteria - content, theme, media, etc.). Give reasons why you think it belongs to that category. Pay attention to the lenth of the story, the author, the message. • http://storycenter.org/stories/ • http://www.youtube.com/user/CenterOfTheStory/videos?s- helf_index=5&sort=dd&view=1&tag_id • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfNJ6agH6Oc&lis- t=PLC8F0259C977F715B
  26. 26. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 26 3. Interview and report 3.1 Interview M. In what way and what kind of information can be collected for a digital story? 3.1.1 Tips for interviewing N. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these types of interview: • structured; • semi-structured; • unstructured. 3.1.2 Guidelines for the Interviewer O. What three advice do you concider to be most useful for the interviewer? 3.1.3 Guidelines for the interviewee P. What is your experience of being interviewed? Mention some positive and/or negative conslusions. 3.1.4 Reporting. Activities. Q. Choose a theme you would like to interview your groupmate. Write questions for an interview. R. Role play the situation and record the interview. 4. Media news 4.1 Steps of digital storytelling. Activities. S. What are the main steps in producing a digital story? T. What could be the theme of your digital story? What would you like to make it about? Who could be the audience? U. Choose one of the methods discussed before (mind-map, graphic organiser, 5 W’s diagram, on – line tools, etc.) and create your story map. V. Think what information you need for your story. Who will tell the story? If necessary search the information, prepare inter- view questions, write the script. W. Create a storyboard. Think what elements you will use to make your story memorable, emotionally impressive and powerful.
  27. 27. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 27 Bibliography2.6  Art, Storytelling, Technology and Education. Retrieved February10, 2014, from http://www.jasonohler.com/ storytelling/index.cfm  Bamford, Anne. The Visual Literacy White Paper. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from http://www.aperture.org/ wp-content/uploads/2013/05/visual-literacy-wp.pdf  Digital storytelling: A tutorial in 10 easy steps. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.socialbrite. org/2010/07/15/digital-storytelling-a-tutorial-in-10-easy-steps/  Digital Storytelling. Retrieved February 17, 2014, from http://electronicportfolios.com/digistory/  Digital Storytelling. Retrieved February 17, 2014, from http://members.shaw.ca/dbrear/dst.html  Digital Storytelling:Capturing Lives, Creating Community. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013 7. Digital Storytelling for Com- munities. Retrieved February 17, 2014, from http://librarydigi- talstorytelling.wordpress.com  Framework for 21 st Century Learning, Retvieved March 2, 2014, from http://www.p21.org/our-work/p21-framework  Frazel, Midge. Digital storytelling:Guide for Educators. Washington DC:International Society for Technology in Educa- tion, 2010 10.Graphic Organizers. Retrieved February 10, 2014 from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/  Lambert, Joe. Digital storytelling Cookbook. Digital Diner Press, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://storycenter.org/cookbook-download  Media Literacy: A Definition and More. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from http://www.medialit.org/media-literacy-defini- tion-and-more  Morra, Samantha. 8 Steps To Great Digital Storytelling. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http:// www.edudemic. com/8-steps-to-great-digital-storytelling  Porter, Bernajean. Elements of good digital storytelling. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from http://creativeeducator. tech4learning.com/v04/articles/Take_Six#ixzz2wFbtxALm
  28. 28. DIGITAL STORYTELLING MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 28  Tips on how to make a video news report. Retrieved March 4, 2014, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/school_report/resour- ces_for_teachers/8472052.stm  Types of Digital Stories. Retrieved March 3, 2014 from https://sites.google.com/site/mtpsdigitalstorytelling/ types-of-digital-stories  Types of Digital Stories. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/digitalstory/ digstorytypesprint.html  Types of digital stories. Retrieved February 9, 2014 from http://uhdigitalstorytellingworkshop.pbworks.com/w/ page/457574/TYPES%20OF%20DIGITAL%20STORIES
  29. 29. ADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY Project supported by: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission