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RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA 
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA 
LENGUA INGLESA 
Pedro Civera Coloma 2004 
TO BE 
• Significa “ser” o ...
RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA 
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA 
USOS 
How old are you? 
I am forty. 
Para preguntar la edad. 
Indicar...
RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA 
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA 
USOS 
I have a white car. 
I have got a white car. 
I have breakfast ...
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  1. 1. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LENGUA INGLESA Pedro Civera Coloma 2004 TO BE • Significa “ser” o “estar”. • Es un verbo auxiliar. • Hace la negación a ñadiendo “not” • Hace la interrogación por inversión. • Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y también con: who, where, how, etc. TO BE ·Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y también con: who, where, how, etc. Who’s that girl? That’s Manoli. Peter’s here. I’m Peter. PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO I will/ shall be. Yo seréo yo estaré. I was. Yo era o yo estaba. I am/I'm. Yo soy o yo estoy. You are/you're. You were. You will be. He is/he's. He was. He will be. She is/she's Shewas. Shewill be. It is/it's. It was. It will be. We are/we're. We were. We will/ shall be. You are/you're. You were. You will be. They are/they're. They were. They will be. PRESENTE, PASADO Y FUTURO PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO WAS WILL BE WERE AM IS ARE CONTRACCIONES ‘ll. Will not won’t . Shall not shan’t. Was not wasn’t Were not weren’t Are not aren’t. Is not isn’t. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 1
  2. 2. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS How old are you? I am forty. Para preguntar la edad. Indicar la profesión. I am a teacher. La ideología. He is a socialist. El credo religioso. He is a catholic. USOS I am writing with a computer. I was swimming yesterday. I will be walking on the beach. The book was written by Emilio. Formar los tiempos continuos. La formación de la voz pasiva. USOS Para medidas. I am six feet tall. How big is the town? It is quite big. I am six feet tall. USOS Indica tallas. I am size 8. I am happy and you are right. Where’s the boy? When’s your birthday? Con adjetivos. Where (¿Dónde?) What (¿Qué?) Who (¿Quién?) Why, (¿Por qué?) Con ciertas expresiones. I am right. Contrae con demostrativos That’s right. y adverbios. TO HAVE ·Se traduce por tener. ·Puede ir acompañado de la partícula “got”. ·No se produce alteración del significado si aparece o no, pero cuando aparece el verbo puede ir contraido. ·Tampoco se usa en las respuestas breves. PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO I will have. Yo tendré. I had. Yo tuve o yo ten ía. I have/l've. To tengo. You have/you've. You had. You will have. He has/he's. He had. He will have. She has/she's. She had. Shewill have. It has/it's. It had. It will have. We have/we've. We had. We will have. You have/you've. You had. You will have. They have/they've. They had. They will have. Had + not contrae en hadn’t. Have + not contrae en haven’t. Has + not contrae en hasn’t. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 2
  3. 3. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS I have a white car. I have got a white car. I have breakfast at 7:45. I have a bath and my wife has a shower. I have been in New York. Indicar posesión. Puede indicar otro tipo de actividades. Ingestión de alimentos tanto sólidos como líquidos. Otros. Construcción de tiempos perfectos. USOS I have to go to Alicante tomorrow. You had better buy a new pair of shoes. I’m going to have my hair cut. Obligación. Combinado con better indica consejo. La contracción es You’d better. La construcción causativo have, se utiliza cuando alguien hace algún servicio para nosotros. PRESENTE, PASADO Y FUTURO PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO HAVE HAD WILL HAVE I will have She will have I had He had HAS I have He has CONTRACCIONES PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO Have not Haven’t Has not Hasn’t Wil have not Won’t have Had not Hadn’t TO DO Significa “hacer”. Es un verbo auxiliar. Hace la negación añadiendo “not” PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO I will do. Yo haré. I did. Yo hice. I do. Yo hago. You do. You did. You will do. He does. He did. He will do. She does. She did. Shewill do. It does. It did. It will do. We do. We did. We will do. You do. You did. You will do. Interviene en la formación de las formas They do. They did. They will do. interrogativas y negativas del presente y pasado simple Will not do contrae en won’t do. Did notcontrae en didn’t. Do not contrae en don’t. Does not contrae en doesn’t. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 3
  4. 4. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PRESENTE PASADO I didn’t go to the cinema. Did you go to England? He did say what he wanted to say. He doesn’t eat meat. I don’t want to go to the cinema. Do you love her? Does he speak Valenciano? ¿Habla valenciano? He does love running. Negativas. Interrogativas. Uso enfático. USOS I did the shopping in Carrefour. I do the washing up every night. I never do the cleaning. Sometimes I do the cooking. Otros usos idiomáticos. USOS LOS PRONOMBRES Y -I like María Callas. -So do I. I don’t smoke. Neither do I. Con la expresión “Yo también”. Con la expresión “Yo tampoco”. ADJETIVOS Es necesario usarlos para evitar ambigüedad. Go to London, no sabríamos quién va, podría ser yo, tú, nosotros,etc. En castellano no pasa lo mismo. Vamos a Alicante, las desinencias verbales nos sacan de dudas. Está claro que somos nosotros. PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES COMPLEMENTO PRONOMBRES PERSONALES SUJETO I . Yo . Me. A mí, me. My. Mi. Mine. El mío. Myself. Me. You . Tú. You. A ti, te. Your. Tu. Yours. El tuyo . Yourself. Te. His. El suyo. Himself. Se. (de él). Hers. El suyo. Herself. Se. (de ella). Its. El suyo. Itself. Se. (de ello). Ourselves. Nos. Yourselves . Os. Themselves. Se. Ours. El nuestro. Yours. El vuestro. He. Él. Him. A él, le. His. Su de él. Her. Su de ella. She. Ella. Her. A ella, le. It. Ello. It. A ello, le. It. Su de ello. Our. Nuestro, nuestra. Your. Vuestro, vuestra. Their. Su de Theirs. El suyo. ellos, su de ellas. Us. A nosotros, a nosotras, nos. You. A vosotros, a vosotras, os. Them. A ellos, a ellas, les. We. Nosotros o nosostras. You . Vosotros o vosotras. They. Ellos o ellas. PRONOMBRES SUJETO Y COMPLEMENTO SUJETO COMPLEMENTO Ella es alta. Dale esto a ella. You are a teacher. This is for you. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 4
  5. 5. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PRONOMBRES PERSONALES I” siempre se escribe con mayúscula. “You” se puede traducir por Tú, Vd, vosotros, vosotras y Vds.“You” e “it” tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos. You are young. I love you. COMPLEMENTOS No utilizan preposición delante del objeto indirecto, pero sí, si sigue al Objeto Directo. She gave me a kiss. She gave a kiss to me. DIFERENCIA ENTRE ADJETIVO Y PRONOMBRE ADJETIVO PRONOMBRE acompaña al nombre lo substituye. Mi casa es grande. La mía también. My house is big. Mine is also big. PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS He washes himself every morning. Acciones que recaen sobre el mismo sujeto. Enfatizan. He himself can go. I went to Madrid by myself. Pueden ir precedidos de by, en cuyo caso significan “yo solo”, “tú solo..” PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS ADJETIVOS Y PRONOMBRES Each other. “El uno al They love each other. otro” They gave presents one another. She is the prettiest one. I was the second one in the race. One Another. “A todos” One. DEMOSTRATIVOS SINGULAR PLURAL THlS este, esta, esto. THESEestos, estas. THOSE esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas. THAT ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella, aquello. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 5
  6. 6. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA CONCORDANCIA This man is my teacher of English. That woman is my wife. These books are interesting. Those girls are from Italy. USOS Se usan cuando This is Peter. hablamos por teléfono. En ciertas expresiones. That’s right. En presentaciones This is Mary, my friend HABER IMPERSONAL. THERE IS AFIRMATIVA INTERROGATIVA NEGATIVA There is not a car. There was not a boy. There is a car. Is there a car? Was there a boy? There was a boy. HABER IMPERSONAL. THERE IS PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO CONDICIONAL There is. There was. There are. There's. There were. There would be. There will be. EJEMPLOS SOME, ANY Y NO • There is someone waiting for you. • There are four biscuits on the plate. • Is there anything I can do for you? I have some magazines from the library. Do you want some chocolates? Have you any good book to lend me? I haven’t any money. Some. Afirmativas. Se traduce por algo, algún, algo de. interrogativas y se espera respuesta afirmativa. Any. Interrogativas y negativas. Se traduce por “nada”, “ningún”, “algún”. No. Afirmativa pero el I have no money. sentido es negativo. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 6
  7. 7. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA Everything. Todo. Everybody. Todos. Everywhere. Todas partes. Everyone. Cada uno. COMPUESTOS Nothing. Nada. Nobody. Nadie. Nowhere. Ninguna parte. No one. Nadie. Anything. Algo, nada. Anybody. Alguien, nadie. Anywhere. Alguna parte, ninguna parte. Anyone. Alguien, nadie. Something. Algo. Somebody. Alguien. Somewhere. Algún lugar. Someone. Alguien. EJEMPLOS I have some magazines from the library. Do you want some chocolates? Have you any good book to lend me? I haven’t any money. I have no money. OTROS INDEFINIDOS All my friends came to my party. All. Hace referencia a más de dos. Both. Both are 14. Se refiere a dos. Each and every day I sleep siesta. Either you stay here or come with us. Each. Cada. Either. O. OTROS INDEFINIDOS Every. Every day I go running. Cada. Neither of them are happy. I neither like coffee nor tea. Neither. Ni. Neither…nor Ni..ni. None. None wanted coffee. Ninguno de los dos. PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS Who. Who came yesterday? ¿Quién? Se usa con personas. Whom did you speak to? The man with whom you spoke is Pepe. Whom. ¿A quién? Se usa compañado por preposiciones. Whose Whose car is this Ford Fiesta? ¿De quién? Se usa en la forma posesiva. PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS Which is your favourite singer? Which. ¿Qué o Cuál? What What do you think of him? ¿Qué? Se usa cuando no hay antecedentes. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 7
  8. 8. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS How. Howis your mother? ¿Cómo? How many books do you read a year? Howmany. ¿Cúantos? How much. How much is that CD? ¿Cuánto? How long will it take to go to Madrid by plane? How far is Elche from Santa Pola? How long. ¿Cuánto tiempo? How far. ¿A qué distancia? PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS Howfast. How fast can you type? ¿A qué velocidad? How often do you play football? Howoften. ¿Con qué frecuencia? Why. Why was he late? ¿Por qué? PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS CONTABLES E INCONTABLES When. When did you go there? ¿Cuándo? Where. Where do you live? ¿Dónde? What kind of music do you like? What kind. ¿Qué clase? ·Los nombres se pueden clasificar en contables e incontables. ·Contables son aquéllos que podemos contar con la ayuda de un numeral. Tienen forma de plural y pueden llevar el artículo a/an o the, some, few etc. One book. Two pencils. Three boys. Four cars. CONTABLES E INCONTABLES •I bought a paper. Give me some paper to write. •She has a new iron. This is made of iron. •Give me a glass. This is Bohemian glass. •I drink coffee. Give me two coffees. NOMBRES INCONTABLES Tea. Té Time. Tiempo. Toothpaste Pasta de dientes. Trouble. Problema. Water. Agua. News. Noticias. Paper. Papel. Physics. Física. Rubbish. Basura. Sand. Arena. Help. Ayuda. Homework. Deberes. Hope. Esperanza. Hunger. Hambre. Ice. Hielo. Butter. Mantequilla. Chocolate. Chocolate. Coffee. Café. Cream. Crema . Dirt. Suciedad. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 8
  9. 9. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA NOMBRES INCONTABLES Weather. Tiempo atmosférico. Work. Trabajo. Silver. Plata. Advice. Consejo. Sky. Cielo . Soap. Jabón. Wine. Vino. Sugar. Azúcar. Mathemati cs. Matemáticas. Milk. Leche. Money. Dinero. Music. Música. Flour. Harina. Food. Comida. Fun. Diversión. Furniture. Mobiliario. MUCH, MANY, FEW, LITTLE, A LOT OF Many. I have many friends. Muchos o muchas. She has read few books. I have a few good friends. We have so many books . Few. Pocos o pocas. A few. Unos pocos o unas pocas. So Many. Tantos. CONTABLES He is alone, he has so few friends. Too many cooks spoil the broth. There were too few to start the party. So Few. Tan pocos. Too Many. Demasiados. Too Few. Demasiado pocos. INCONTABLES I don’t drink much coke. He eats little fruit. With a little milk please. He drinks so little water. Much. Mucho. Little. Poco. A little Un poco. So Little. Tan poco. INCONTABLES They eat too much meat. They have too little money. They spend so much money. Too Much. Demasiado. “más de lo necesario ”. Too Little. Demasiado poco. So Much. Tanto. CONTABLES E INCONTABLES We have a lot of books. We drink a lot of water. Lots of people came yesterday. There are plenty of good books in the library. I don’t have to hurry, I’ve got plenty of time. A lot of. Mucho, muchos. Lots of. Montones de. Mucho, Mucha. Plenty of. Mucho, muchos. Tiene el matiz de “de sobra”. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 9
  10. 10. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PARTITIVOS A bar of. A bar of chocolate. Una barra de. A bottle of. A bottle of wine. Una botella de. A can of. A can of coke. Una lata de bebida. A cup of. A cup of coffe. Una taza de. PARTITIVOS A piece of. A piece of paper. Un trozo de, una porción de. A tin of. A tin of tuna. Una lata de. A packet of. A packet of crisps. Una bolsa de. EL GENERO ·Un gran número de nombres carecen de él, por eso tenemos la misma palabra para masculino y femenino. Lawyer. Abogado. Driver. Conductor. Student. Estudiante . Musician. Músico. Doctor. Médico. Reader. Lector. Teacher. Profesor. Artist. Artista. GENERO MASCULINOS FEMENINOS NEUTROS Flower. Flor. Cat. Gato. Door. Puerta. Mother. Madre. Sister. Hermana. Daughter. Hija. Father. Padre. Brother. Hermano. Boy. Chico. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO A woman doctor. Una doctora. Actress. Actriz. Spinster. Soltera. Girl. Chica. Sister. Hermana. A male doctor. Un doctor. Actor. Actor. Bachelor. Soltero. Boy. Chico. Brother. Hermano. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO Cow. Vaca. Hen. Gallina. Duchess. Duquesa. Empress. Emperatriz. Mother. Madre. Bull. Toro. Cock. Gallo. Duke. Duque. Emperor. Emperador. Father. Padre. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 10
  11. 11. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA MASCULINO Y FEMENINO Goddess. Diosa. Mare. Yegua. Hostess. Anfitriona. Wife . Esposa. Lioness. Leona. God. Dios. Horse. Caballo. Host. Anfitrión. Husband. Esposo. Lion. León. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO Lady. Señora. Woman. Mujer. Niece. Sobrina. Poetess. Poetisa. Princess. Princesa. Lord. Señor. Man. Hombre. Nephew. Sobrino. Poet. Poeta. Prince. Príncipe. MASCULINO Y FEMENINO EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES Daughter. Hija. Stewardess. Azafata. Dressmaker. Modista. Aunt. Tía. Waitress. Camarera. Widow. Viuda. Son. Hijo. Steward. Auxiliar de vuelo. Tailor. Sastre. Uncle. Tío. Waiter. Camarero. Widower. Viudo. REGLA GENERAL. AÑADIR “-S” SINGULAR PLURAL Car. Cars. Book. Books. Pen. Pens. EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES AÑADEN “-ES” ACABADOS EN X, SS, CH, SH, Z, O SINGULAR PLURAL Potato Potatoes. Brush. Brushes. Box. Boxes. EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES AÑADEN “-ES” ACABADOS EN X, SS, CH, SH, Z, O Kiss. Kisses. Pouch. Pouches. Church Churches Bush. Bushes Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 11
  12. 12. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ACABADAS EN “-o” de origen extranjero, añaden “-s“. Kilo. Kilos. Kimono Kimonos. Piano. Pianos. Tomato. Tomatoes ACABADOS EN “-y” precedida de vocal Toy Toys. Boy. Boys. Monkey Monkeys ACABADOS EN “-y” precedida de consonante. Lady Ladies City Cities CAMBIAN “-f” o “-fe”, POR “-ves”. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL Sheaves . Sheaf. Gavilla. Half. Halves. Mitad. Self. Selves. Uno mismo. Calf. Calves. Ternero. Thief. Thieves. Ladrón. Leaf. Leaves. Hoja. Shelf. Shelves. Estanterí a. Knife. Knives. Cuchillo. Wolf. Wolves. Lobo. Loaf. Loaves. Barra de pan. Wife. Wives. Esposa. Life. Lives. Vida. RESTO DE PALABRAS EN “-f” o “-fe” AÑADEN “-s“. Safe. Safes. Caja de seguridad. Cliff. Cliffs. Acantilado. Chief. Chiefs . Jefe. PLURALES IRREGULARES Woman. Women Mujer. Goose. Geese. Ganso. Tooth. Teeth. Diente. Mouse. Mice. Ratón Man. Men. Hombre. Foot. Feet. Pie. Child. Children. Niño. Ox. Oxen. Buey Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 12
  13. 13. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ANIMALES QUE USAN LA MISMA FORMA PARA SINGULAR Y PLURAL Deer. Ciervo. Carp. Carpa. Partridge Perdíz. Duck. Pato. Sheep. Oveja. Salmon Salmón. Mackarel. Caballa. Cod. Bacalao Trout. Trucha. Plaice. Platija. Squid. Calamar. OTRAS PALABRAS QUE USAN LA MISMA FORMA PARA SINGULAR Y PLURAL Hovercraft. Aerodeslizador. Spacecraft. Nave espacial. Aircraft. Aeronave. PALABRAS QUE SIEMPRE VAN EN PLURAL Folk. Gente. Binoculars. Prismáticos. Shorts. Pantalones cortos Police. Policia. Scissors. Tijeras. Jeans. vaqueros Cattle. Ganado. Glasses Gafas. Stairs. Escaleras People. Gente. Pyjamas. Pijama. Trousers. Pantalones Thanks Gracias PALABRAS QUE SIEMPRE VAN EN SINGULAR Gymnastics Gimnasia . Phonetics. Fonética. Mathematics. Matemáticas Politics. Política. PUEDEN IR EN SINGULAR Y PLURAL Our team is the best. Our team are wearing the new T-shirts. Our police is very efficient. The police are looking for the thief. PENNY PUEDE TENER DOS PLURALES I have 4 pennies. I paid 50 pence. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 13
  14. 14. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PALABRAS COMPUESTAS Maid of honour. Maids of honour. Dama de honor Brother in law. Brothers in law. Cuñado. PALABRAS COMPUESTAS CON - man o -woman Manservant. Menservants. Policeman Policemen Postman Postmen PRONUNCIACION DE LA DESINENCIA DE PLURAL. /s/. Cats. /z/ Windows. /iz/ Houses. Cuando los nombres acaban en s, z, x, ch, ss, ... Cuando los nombres acaban en consonante sonora o vocal. b, d, g, v, m, n, l, r, w, j Cuando los nombres acaban en consonante sorda.. p, t, k, f FORMACIÓN DE PALABRAS COMPUESTAS Adjetivo + Handful. Puñado. nombre. Pasta de dientes. Nombre + Toothpaste. nombre. Ing + nombre. Washingmachine . Lavadora. Pronombre + Shegoat. Cabra. nombre. FORMACIÓN DE PALABRAS COMPUESTAS Verbo + Breakfast. Desayuno. nombre. Exceso de trabajo. Preposición + Overwork. nombre. Preposición + Income. Ingresos. verbo. FUNCIONES DEL NOMBRE Sujeto. María is a teacher. María is a sociable woman. Predicado. Complemento Directo. I saw a woman there. This present is for that woman. Complemento Indirecto. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 14
  15. 15. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA SUFIJOS DE NOMBRES -er. -er. -ee. -tion. Nombres Verbos. Profesiones Cosas. Personas Baker. Opener Employee. Pollution. -ist. -ism. -ness. Profesiones Ideologías. Nombre. Violinist. Comunism. Hapiness. SUFIJOS DE NOMBRES -ance. -hood. -ment. Nombre. Nombre. Nombre. Abundance Childhood Shipment. -tion. -ity. Nombre. Nombre. Education Ability. SUFIJOS DE ADJETIVOS O ADVERBIOS. -al. -ic. -ive. Practical Historic. Exclusive -ful. -less. -ous. Faithful. Hopeless. Industrious SUFIJOS DE ADJETIVOS O ADVERBIOS. -ed. -en. -ant. -ive. Excited Wooden. Irrelevant. -worthy -like. -ible. Trustworthy. Childlike. Sensible. Comprehe nsive. PREFIJOS NEGATIVOS Dis- Il- Im- In- Dishonest. Illegal. Impolite. Invisible . Ir- Non- Un- Unthinkabl e Non-smoker. Irregular. PREFIJOS NEGATIVOS Anti- Over- Pre- Semi- Predictabl e. Antibiotic. Overdose Super- Post- Under Supernatu Postpone. Undermine ral. Semiprofe ssional. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 15
  16. 16. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA GENITIVO SAJÓN •Es una construcción especial que se utiliza para indicar posesión. La estructura del genitivo sajón es: Poseedor + ‘s + cosa poseída. USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓN Apóstrofo y una “s “es la Peter’s bike. regla general. Acabados en s, sólo “ ’ ”. Pits’ car. Plurales irregulares no A men’s club. terminados en “s” o “-es” siguen la regla general. •Normalmente la utilizamos con personas y rara vez con objetos. My brother and sister’s friends. Más de un sujeto. USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓN A day’s break. Today’s paper. The car’s engine. I went to my sister’s She was at the baker’s. Algunas expresiones. Casas y tiendas. USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓN He goes to his friend’s. He got married in Sant Louis’. I was at the dentist’s. Tiendas, hospitales e iglesias. Los plurales regulares A girls’ school. acabados en “s” sólo añaden el apóstrofo. EL ARTÍCULO INDETERMINADO Su traducción es “un”, “una”. Tiene dos formas “a” y “an”. “A” se emplea con palabras que comienzan por sonido consonántico. “An” va con las que comienzan por sonido vocálico. Las palabras que comienzan por “h” muda como honest, llevan “an”. Las palabras que comienzan por semiconsonantes como “university” llevan “a”. ARTÍCULO INDETERMINADO A AN An apple. Una manzana. An hour. Unahora. An honest person. Una persona honrada. An honor. Un honor. An umbrella. Un paraguas. AnMP. Un miembro del Parlamento. A house. Unacasa. A car. Un coche. A university. Unauniversidad. A uniform. Un uniforme. A union. Un sindicato . A European. Un europeo. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 16
  17. 17. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL ARTÍCULO INDETERMINADO Con números y expresiones A hundred. de cantidad. Para indicar el precio de las It is 10 euros a kilo.. cosas. The woman had a nice house near the beach. I want a book but I don’t want an English book. Cuando es la primera vez que hablamos de un objeto. Cuando la referencia no está clara. EL ARTÍCULO INDETERMINADO I am a lawyer and he is a nurse. He is a Catholic and I am a Jew. He was a socialist and now he is a conservative. Last week I had a terrible cold. Con profesiones, religiones, e ideas políticas. Con enfermedades. EL ARTÍCULO DETERMINADO THE ·Es parte invariable de la oración. ·El, la los y las. ·Tiene dos pronunciaciones según vaya precediendo a vocales o consonantes. The girl. The girls. The car. The cars. USOS Ríos. The Nile. Mares. The Black Sea. Montañas. The Alps. Islas. The Canary Islands. Desiertos. The Sahara. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO Países en plural. The Netherlands. Cosas únicas. The Universe. The Sun. The Moon. The Earth. Con instrumentos I play the piano. musicales. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO The blind. The rich. The poor. The British. Water is in my opinion the best drink. Junto a un adjetivo hace referencia a un colectivo, a un tipo de personas. Con los superlativos. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 17
  18. 18. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO He was in the navy. The police. I went to the Post Office. I went to the cinema last Sunday. También con algunas expresiones. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO 30th November is my birthday. In hospital. In the hospital. The United Kingdom. The Arab Republic . Con fechas se lee pero no se escribe. Bed, class, court, college, church, hospital, market, prison, university, town. Junto a las palabras Republic , State, Kingdom. USOS DEL ARTICULO DETERMINADO Con cosas únicas. The moon isn’t red. The orange is an excellent fruit. The rich also cry. The blind. Con contables en singular hace referencia a la totalidad. Con los adjetivos pasa lo mismo. Con apellidos. The Barrymore. NO SE USA I play tennis on Monday. In July I go to San Juan beach. Easter is a great holiday. Con días de la semana. Meses. Estaciones y fiestas. Idiomas. Italian is very romantic. NO SE USA Red is my favourite colour. Swimming is good for you. Lunch, breakfast and supper are the meals of the day. Colores. Deportes, actividades y juegos. Comidas. Expresiones. At night. NO SE USA Wine is good for you. The wine from Pinoso is the best. Cuando nos referimos al sentido general de algo. Partes del cuerpo. Wash your hair. Canales hechos por el Suez canal. hombre. Con las palabras “bed”, He is in bed. “school”, “hospital”, “prison”, college”, “university”. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 18
  19. 19. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA NO SE USA BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, Con las comidas. I have lunch at home. Con “ver la tele”. I never watch TV. Doctor Ferreira no The doctor Ferreira. Con personas. EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO. Both Peter and Sarah like confetti. I like both the film and the book. Both. Ambos. Both….and. Tanto como. Both of them. Both of them are happy Ellos dos. Neither of them came to my party. Neither. Ninguno. Ni. BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO. Either you come with me or go with him. Either....or. O…..o. Neither....n I like neither coffee nor tea. or. Ni….ni. All the students were happy after the exam. None of my friends wanted to buy my car. All. Todos. Más de dos. None. Ninguno. Más de dos BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO. Most. Most of them are from Canada. La mayoría, la mayor parte. Each. Each student must buy a dictionary. Cada uno. Every. Every citizen paid the taxes. Todos y cada uno No. Nada. I have no money now. LOS ADJETIVOS. Modificar al sustantivo y normalmente le preceden. A red car. Al ser en inglés parte invariable I have a red car. She has a red dress. My daughter wears red shoes.They have red skirts. USOS Detrás de los verbos She is nice. copulativos: be, look, sound, taste, appear, seem, get, feel, stay, fall, etc. I am interested in politics. He is tired. He is tyring. Algunos siempre llevan preposición. Los participios pueden hacer las veces de adjetivos. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 19
  20. 20. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL ADJETIVO Los que van delante A beautiful song. se llaman atributivos. Los que van detrás se She is alive. llaman predicativos LA COMPARACIÓN CON ADJETIVOS IGUALDAD As... As. I am as tall as you are. Tan como. En los puntos va el adjetivo. He is not so intelligent as his brother Mike. So.....as. No tan como. LA COMPARACIÓN CON ADJETIVOS • Los monosiíabos y bis ílabos a ñaden “-er” en el comparativo. • Los monosílabos acabados en una consonante precedida de una única vocal, duplican la consonante. Como en fat. Fatter. • Si acaban en “-y” se sustituye por “i”. LA COMPARACIÓN POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO Tall. Taller. The tallest. Big. Bigger . The biggest. Happy. Happier. The happiest LA COMPARACIÓN POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO The most comfortable. The most interesting. More comfortable. More interesting. Comfortable Interesting. EL COMPARATIVO “-Er”. I am taller now. It is more interesting than the film. I am getting fatter and fatter. More….than. Comparativo + and + comparativo. The + comparativo, the + The richer, the sillier. comparativo. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 20
  21. 21. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL SUPERLATIVO The richest people in Elda. The most beautiful girl in town. The .....est Con adjetivos de una o dos silabas. Se utiliza in para lugares y periodos de tiempo. The + most + adjetivo Con los de dos o más silabas. COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDAD She is less intelligent than Rose. The least important of all his novels. Less + adj + than. The least + adjetivo indican inferioridad. POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO The least busy. Busy. Less busy. LOS IRREGULARES The best. El mejor The worst. El peor. The least. El menos. Better. Mejor. Worse. Peor. Less. Menos. Good. Bueno. Bad. Malo. Little. Poco. LOS IRREGULARES The most. El más. The farthest. Lo más lejano. The eldest. El más viejo. More. Más. Farther. Más lejos. Elder. Más viejo. Much / Many. Mucho. Far. Lejos. Old. Viejo. LAS PREPOSICIONES. AT Puntos We stopped at the zoo. concretos. We'll eat at MacDonald's, in San Juan Beach. I was at school and then at university later on I worked at IBM. Cafés y restaurantes Sitios donde se estudia o trabaja. LAS PREPOSICIONES. AT He was at a meeting, then at the theatre and later at a concert and at a lecture, afterwards at a match and finally at the cinema. Nombres de actividades de grupo Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 21
  22. 22. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LAS PREPOSICIONES. AT Con el número I lived at 35 Príncipe de Asturias. de la calle Horas I wake up at six. At Christmas I buy many presents and at Easter I go to the beach. At present I’m reading a novel. He died at the age of 81. Navidad y Pascua Expresiones EXPRESIONES CON AT At sunset. Al atardecer At last. Al fín. At noon. Al mediodia At this moment. En este momento. At sunrise. Al amanecer At midnight. Al mediodia At night. Por la noche. At first sight. A primera vista. EXPRESIONES CON AT At the top. En la parte de arriba. At the bottom. En la parte de abajo. At the office. En la oficina. At least. Al menos. At the bus-stop. En la parada del autobús. At the station. En la estación. At work. En el trabajo. LAS PREPOSICIONES. ON We have a house on the river. Benidorm is on the coast. Elche is on the road to Murcia. Tocando o cercano a una línea, Tocando una The keys are on the table. superficie. I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus. Transportes públicos, caballos, motos y bicicletas. LAS PREPOSICIONES. ON Con pisos. I live on the second floor. I study French on Monday. On St. Valentine’s many people buy diamonds. Días. LAS PREPOSICIONES. ON The train arrived on time. He is on a business trip. The soldier is on duty. On page 26 you will find the exercises. Expresiones. Páginas. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 22
  23. 23. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN My friends are in the cuartelillo. The bottles are in the fridge. Cuando algo está dentro de algo. Con países. I live in Spain. Con regiones. They are in the Sahara. LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN We spent the summer in the Canary islands. I have a pain in my stomach. Con grandes islas. Partes del cuerpo. LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN Con coche, I saw him in a new Mercedes. taxi y avioneta. In bed. In hospital. I lived in Onesimo Redondo street. Con algunos lugares. Nombres de calles. LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN Partes del día I read the paper in the morning. Meses. I got married in October. Años. I met my wife in 1982. I go to San Juan beach in summer. Estaciones. LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN EXPRESIONES CON IN In he l9th century people did not wear jeans. Spain was very rich in the Middle Ages. Siglos. Períodos de tiempo. in a hurry. In any case in danger in love in order. In private In other words Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 23
  24. 24. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ADVERBIOS LA COMPARACION DE LOS ADVERBIOS Modificando adverbios. POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO He writes quite quickly. Modificando adjetivos. It is very cheap. Perhaps they will win. Modificando frases. Soon. Sooner. The soonest. The most quickly. Quickly. More quickly. CLASIFICACIÓN LUGA MODO GRADO TIEMPO R FRECUEN CIA Often. Away. Fast. Enough. Yesterday. Frequently. There. Well. Very. Daily. Sometim Near. Slowly. Almost Last week. es. Always. Here. Hardly Tomorrow. Never. Rather OJO CON ENOUGH CON ADJETIVOS CON NOMBRES He is rich enough He has enough money Recuerda Rich enough money ADVERBIOS INTERROGTIVOS YET, STILL, ALREADY, DURING Where. When. How. How far. How often Why. Which. How long. Y AGO I haven't finished the job yet. Have you seen her yet? Yet. Al final en interrogativas y negativas. Con el pretérito perfecto, aún, todavía. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 24
  25. 25. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA STILL My sister is still working . I still love her. Do they still live in Sax? He still hasn’t paid. Still. Detrás de to be. Todavía. Va entre sujeto y verbo en afirmativas e interrogativas Va detrás del sujeto en negativas. Da énfasis ALREADY This car is already too old. He has the tickets already. I have already bought the grapes. Have you already bought the books? Already. Va detrás de to be. Already. En posición final enfatiza. Already. Se coloca entre el auxiliar y el verbo en afirmativas DURING Y AGO During the summer I go to Santa Pola. I went to Elche two days ago. During. Indica un período de tiempo dentro de otro. Ago. Se coloca al final de la oración. EL IMPERATIVO AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA Infinitivo sin to. Do not + Inf sin to. Go home. Come here. FORMA ENFÁTICA Do go home. Don’t drink too much. EL PRESENTE SIMPLE •Equivale al presente de indicativo. •Se forma con el sujeto más el infinitivo. •La tercera persona del singular, (he, she, e it) añaden “-s” o “-es”. •Los verbos que terminan en “-ss”, “-sh”, “-ch”, “-“x, “-o“ añaden “-es” en la tercera persona del singular EL PRESENTE SIMPLE AFIRMATIVA Sujeto + Inf sin to I play tennis. He kisses his mother. He, she, it añaden (s) o (es) Sujeto + do + not + I don’t like cocido. Inf sin to. He doesn’t love her. He, She, It usan does. Do + not contrae en We don’t smoke. don’t. Does + not contra en He doesn’t cook. doesn’t. NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA Do + S + Inf sin to. Do you love me? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 25
  26. 26. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE I never go to the university by car. The sun rises everyday. The play begins at 8 and ends at 10.30. Indicar hábitos o costumbres. Para indicar verdades universales. Para planes futuros. UOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE A waiter asks a couple. Colombus discovers America in 1492. The plane leaves at 7.00. Para contar historias, cuentos, chistes, acontecimientos deportivos, etc. En el llamado presente històrico. Horarios. Con refranes. Time flies. USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE BE GOING TO Always. Never. Occasionally Often. On Sometimes. Sundays Frequently. Usually. Seldom. In winter. Every day. I am going to visit my friend. Cuando se tiene intención de hacer algo. Para predecir algo. It’s going to rain. She is going to get married next Sunday. Con un futuro relativamente inmediato. EL PRESENTE CONTINUO I am reading. I am not cooking. Are you listening to me? Sujeto + Am, Is, Are + Verbo + Ing. Sujeto + Am, Is, Are + Not + Verbo + Ing. Am, Is, Are + Sujeto+ Verbo + Ing. Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa . USOS DEL PRESENTE CONTINUO I am paying my flat. I am reading a good book. I'm playing golf with my friend Eduardo next Sunday. They are always complaining Acciones en proceso. Acciones planificadas. Quejas sobre acciones que se repiten. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 26
  27. 27. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA FORMA –ING ACABADOS EN –”E” Have. Having. Come. Coming. Live. Living. Practise. Practising. FORMA –ING ACABADOS EN “-ie” Die. Dying. Lie. Lying. FORMA –ING ACABADOS EN “Y” Try. Trying. Study. Studying. Play. Playing. Buy. Buying. VERBOS QUE NO SE SUELEN USAR EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. Believe. Feel. Appear. Consider. Smell. Belong to. Depend. Love. Have. Doubt. Fear. Like. Guess. See. Forget. Hope. Taste. Owe. EL PASADO SIMPLE. Regulares I played chess. I loved her. I didn’t go out. Did you buy the new CD? Sujeto + Inf sin to + Ed Los acabados en “-e” solo “-d”. Sujeto+ Did not, + Inf sin to Did + Not contrae en din’t. Did + Sujeto + Inf sin to. Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa . LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES I ate the cake. I bought a new house. I didn’t eat the cake. Did you eat the cake? S+ 2 columna de la lista de verbos irregulares. S+ Did + Not + Inf . Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Did + S + Inf. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 27
  28. 28. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL PASADO CONTINUO I was reading Time. I was not sleeping Were they playing chess? Sujeto+ Was, Were + Ing. Sujeto+ Was, Were + Not + Ing. Was, Were + Sujeto+ Ing. Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa . USOS DEL PASADO CONTINUO I was reading when she came. I was reading a novel while she was watching TV. I was riding a car and then... Para hablar acerca de lo que estaba sucediendo. Cuando dos acciones estaban ocurriendo al mismo tiempo. En descripciones. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO • Este tiempo hace referencia a acciones ya acabadas • Como todos los tiempos perfectos, se forma con el verbo to have y el Participio Pasado. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO I have played tennis. I have not played chess. Have you played golf? Sujeto + Have, Has + Participio Pasado. Sujeto+ Have, Has not + Participio Pasado. Have, Has + Sujeto + Participio Pasado. Afir. Neg. Inter. USOS DEL PRESENTE PERFECTO I have eaten paella. I have visited Paris. He has visited Madrid many times. Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado Acciones que se han repetido en el pasado. USOS DEL PRESENTE PERFECTO I have just seen my wife. Have you ever been to Rome? I have always liked the country. We have already finished. Con just, indica que la acción ha ocurrido recientemente. Con ever. (alguna vez) Con always. Con already. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 28
  29. 29. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA FOR Y SINCE Suelen acompañar a éste tiempo para referirse a acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que continúan hasta el momento presente. FOR Y SINCE How long have you been wearing glasses? I have lived in Elda for 40 years. She has had the same car since 1987. I have been wearing glasses since October. How long. Se utiliza para preguntar por la duración. For. Se emplea con períodos de tiempo. Desde hace. Since. Nos remonta a un punto concreto en el pasado. Desde o desde que. EL PASADO PERFECTO I had seen her. I had not gone. Had she been with you? Sujeto+ Had + Participio Pasado. Sujeto + Had not + Participio Pasado. Had + Sujeto + Participio Pasado Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa . USOS DEL PASADO PERFECTO When I had finished all my work, I went to the swimming pool. Acciones que ocurrieron antes que otra. EL FUTURO SlMPLE I will go with you. Iré contigo. I will not pay for that. No pagaré eso. Will you marry me? ¿Te casarás conmigo? Sujeto+ Will+ Inf sin to. Sujeto+ Will not, + Inf sin to. Will + Sujeto+ Inf sin to. Afir. Neg. Inter. USOS DEL FUTURO SlMPLE Shall we go to the cinema? I will buy you the car. En sugerencias. En promesas. Determinaciones. I will go with you. I will never do it again. Énfasis. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 29
  30. 30. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USOS DEL FUTURO SlMPLE They will win the match. I will buy a Harley next year. If you don’t hurry, you’ll be late. Don’t drink too much or you’ll get drunk. I'll help you with your exercises. Predicciones. Lógicamente, indica acciones que ocurrirán. Con advertencias y condiciónes. Para expresar deseo o rechazo ante algo. Ofrecimientos. EL FUTURO CONTINUO I will be driving to Alicante. I will not be eating there. Will you be studying in Elx? Sujeto+ Will be+ Inf sin to + Ing. Sujeto+ Will not+ Inf sin to + Ing. Will + Sujeto+ Be + Inf + Ing. Afir. Neg. Inter. EL FUTURO PERFECTO I will have eaten. I will not have eaten. Will you have eaten? Sujeto + Will have + Participio Pasado. Sujeto+ Will have + Not + Participio Pasado. Will + Sujeto+ Will have + Participio Pasado. Afir. Neg Inter EL FUTURO PERFECTO I will have eaten. I will not have eaten. Will you have eaten? Sujeto + Will have + Participio Pasado. Sujeto+ Will have + Not + Participio Pasado. Will + Sujeto+ Will have + Participio Pasado. Afir. Neg. Inter. EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE I would go with you. I would not pay that. Would you marry me? Sujeto+ Would + Inf sin to. Sujeto+ Would not + Inf sin to. Would + Sujeto + Inf sin to. Afir. Neg. Inter. EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO I would have gone with you. I would not have paid that. Would you have married her? Sujeto + Would + Have+ Participio Pasado. Sujeto+ Would not/ won't + Have+ Participio Pasado. Would + Sujeto + Have+ Participio Pasado. Afir. Neg. Inter. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 30
  31. 31. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL PRESENTE SIMPLE I live in Elda. He kisses her. I don’t like coffee. She doesn’t smoke. Do you love me? Does he go to school? I get up at 7.45. Snow is cold. The match starts at 6.00. The train leaves at 6.00. Sujeto + Inf. 3ª p. (He, She, It) añade “-s” o “-es Sujeto + Don’t o Doesn’t + Inf Afir . Neg. Inter. Do o Does + S + Inf? Acciones habituales. Verdades universales. Horarios. Acciones en el futuro sujetas a un horario. Le suelen acompañar: every day, always, usually, often, never, generally , etc. Usos. Otros. EL PRESENTE CONTINUO S + Be (am, is, are) I amreading. + Ing. Afir . Neg. S + Be + Not + Ing. She is not smoking. Am, Is, Are + S + Are you running? Ing? I am readind a book. I am playing tennis tomorrow. He is always talking. Acciones en proceso Planes futuros. Acciones repetidas. Le suelen acompañar: at present, nowadays, now, at the moment, etc. Inter. Usos. Otros. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO I have played tennis. I have eaten paella. I have not washed the dishes. I have not seen her. S + Have (haveo has) + Participio pasado S + Have + Not + Participo pasado. Have o Has + S + Have you been there? Participo pasado? Acciones acabadas de I have read the book. las que no se dice cuando sucedieron. Afir . Neg. Inter. Usos. Otros. Puede llevar just, for, since, already, yet, etc. EL PASADO SIMPLE I played. I ate. I did not play. I did not eat. Did you play? Did you eat? I went to Barcelona. I was reading the paper and then it began to rain. S + Vb. Regular + ed S + Vb Irr ( 2ªColumna). S + Did + Not (didn’t) + Inf. Afir . Neg. Inter. Did + S + Inf? Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado. A veces acompaña al pasado continuo Le suelen acompañar: last year, yesterday , two days ago etc. Usos. Otros. EL PASADO CONTINUO I was writing a letter. I was not writing a letter. Were you writing a letter? I was painting the gate. The girls were smiling. S + Be (Was, Were) + Ing. S + Was, Were + Not + Ing Was, Were + S + Ing? Acciones en proceso en el pasado. En narraciones. Para descripciones. Afir. Neg. Inter. Usos. EL PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO I have been learning English for 20 years. I have not been sleeping. Have you been reading? S + Have o Has + Been +Ing. S + Have o Has+ not + Been + Ing. Have o Has + S + Been + Ing? Afir. Neg. Inter. Usos. Acciones pasadas que todavía continúan. Otros. For y since le suelen acompañar. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 31
  32. 32. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL PASADO PERFECTO S + Had + I had gone . Participio Pasado. S + had + Not + I had not gone. Participio Pasado. Had + S + Had she gone? Participio Pasado?. Acciones que ocurrieron antes que otra acción pasada. Le suelen acompañar: when, before, by the time etc. Afir. Neg. Inter. Usos. Otros. EL PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO I had been watching TV. I had not been watching TV. Had she been ironing? S + Had + Been + Ing. S + Had + Not + Been + Ing. Had + S + Been + Ing?. Acciones que estaban en proceso antes que otra acción pasada ocurriera. Afir. Neg. Inter. Usos. EL FUTURO SIMPLE S + Will o Shall + I will go. Inf. S + Will + Not + I will not go. Inf. Afir. Neg. Inter. Will + S + Inf? Will she come? Acciones futuras. Predicciones Le suelen acompañar: tonight, tomorrow, next year, in a month. Usos. Otros. EL FUTURO CONTINUO I will be reading Valle de Elda. I will not be watching TV. Will you be working? Afir. S + Wil be + Ing S + Will + Not + Be + Ing. Will + S + Be + Ing? Neg. Inter. Usos. Acciones futuras en progreso. EL FUTURO PERFECTO I will have arrived at 7.00. I will not have finished. S + Will have+ Participio Pasado. S + Will + Not + Have + Participio Pasado. Will + S + Have + Will she have paid? Participio Pasado? Afir. Neg. Inter. Usos. Acciones acabadas en el futuro. EL FUTURO PERFECTO CONTINUO I will have been working. I will not have been working. Will you have been working? S + Will have+ Been + Ing. S + Will + Not + Have + Been+ Ing. Will + S + Have + Been + Ing. Afir. Neg. Inter. Usos. Acciones que estarán finalizadas en el futuro. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 32
  33. 33. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE I would go to London. I would not go to London. Would you go to Lisbon? Afir. S + Would + Inf. S + Would + Not+ Inf. Neg. Inter Would + S + Inf? . Usos Deseos en el presente o en el futuro. . EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO I would have gone to London. I would not have gone to London. Would you have gone to Paris? S + Would + Have+ Participio Pasado. S + Would + Not + Have + Participio Pasado. Would + S + Have+ Participio Pasado? Afir. Neg. Inte. Usos. Lamentos sobre acciones pasadas. ORACIONES COPULATIVAS And. He is tall and intelligent. Y. They both teach French and Italian. It rained a lot, moreover it snowed. I bought a ham; likewise did my neighbour. I have no money, besides I don’t want to buy anything else. Both…and. Tanto...como. Moreover. Además. Likewise. De igual modo. Besides. Además. ORACIONES DISYUNTIVAS Or. You can stay or come with us. O. They are either Italian or Greek. I neither like Wagner nor the Rolling Stones. Either…or. O…o. Neither…nor. Ni...ni. ORACIONES ADVERSATIVAS But. I like Verdi but I prefer Puccini. Pero. Not only I read Valle de Elda but I also read Vivir en Elda. She is pretty, yet nobody loves her. Although he is rich, he hasn’t many friends. Not only…but also. No sólo...sino también. Yet. Aunque. Although. Aunque. ORACIONES CAUSALES I became rich because I saved a lot. Because. Porque. For. She studies for being a lawyer. Para. As I had studied French I could travelled alone. Since they are adults they can go. The recital was cancelled owing to lack of audience. As. Como. Since. Puesto que. Owing to. Ya que, debido a. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 33
  34. 34. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ORACIONES FINALES In order to be accepted you have to pay first. They voted so as to elect the new President. I have an insurance in case I need it. He eats a lot of oranges for fear of getting a cold. In order to. Para. So as to. Con el fin de. In case. En el caso de que. Por si. For fear. Por miedo a. ORACIONES CONSECUTIVAS He won the pools so he bought a new house. He has many friends therefore he is never alone. He is boring, which is why he’s always alone. I bought a present so that you liked it. So. Por eso. Therefore. Por lo tanto. Which is why. Esa es la razón por la que. So…that. Para que. ORACIONES COMPARATIVAS As. He is as intelligent as his sister. Como. As…as. He is not as honest as his brother. Tan como. So…as. He is not so tall as me. No tan como. Petrel has nice parks, similarly Elda has nice museums. Similarly. Del mismo modo. ORACIONES DE MODO As. As a pianist she is the best. Como. Like. He eats like a lion. Como. ORACIONES CONCESIVAS Although I prefer to stay I have to go now. Though he is ill, he never complains. Even though he is rich he never shows off. Although. Aunque. Though. Aunque. Even though. Incluso. Even if. Even if it rains I will go. Incluso s i. ORACIONES ADVERSATIVAS However. I liked it, however, I didn’t buy it. Sin embargo. No matter if you love her, she doen’t love you. In spite of having lived in France she doesn’t speak French. Despite all the efforts he didn’t win. No matter. No importa. In spite of. A pesar de . Despite. A pesar de. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 34
  35. 35. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ORACIONES CONDICIONALES If. If you need me, phone me. Si. Unless. Unless you pay you can’t come A menos que ORACIONES DE TIEMPO When you want to visit us, let us know. While I was in Italy I ate a lot of pasta. Before I worked in Elda, I worked in Crevillente. When. Cuando. While. Mientras. Before. Antes. Since. I have lived here since 1962 Desde. Whenever. Whenever he comes I visit him. Cada vez que Until. Until I found it I was sad. Hasta. ORACIONES DE TIEMPO Now. Now I am hungry. Ahora. Once I pay the house I will buy a car. No sooner had they gone than I was asleep. Once. Una vez. No sonner…than Apenas. Finally. Finally I read the book. Finalmente. In short. In short they will be here. En breve. ORACIONES DE TIEMPO This is the house where we lived until 1996. Wherever she goes she buys some clothes. Where. Donde. Wherever. Dondequiera que. ORACIONES DE RELATIVO This is the man who came here yesterday. This is the man that came yesterday. This is the book which I bought in Martín Fierro. Personas. Who. That. Cosas. Which. That. The house that I sold. ORACIONES DE RELATIVO The boy whose bike is this is Mike. This is the school where I studied. This is the day when I was born. Posesión. Whose. Lugar. Where. Tiempo. When. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 35
  36. 36. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA ORACIONES DE RELATIVO LOS VERBOS MODALES Personas. Whom. The girl whom I loved. The reason why I bought this is you. And this is what he said. This is the thing that we should do. Why. What. The thing that. May, might. Poder. Dare. Atreverse Ought to. Deber. Can, could. Poder. Would. Aux.del condicional. Will, shall. Auxiliares de futuro Must. Deber. Need. Necesitar LOS VERBOS MODALES ·Los verbos modales se llaman así al carecer de las mayoría de las formas verbales. ·Se usan para hacer suposiciones, sacar conclusiones, hablar de posibilidades y establecer conjeturas. ·No tienen todos los tiempos verbales, por ejemplo, “must” y “ought to” sólo tienen presente. Can, may, dare y need, tienen presente y pasado. LOS VERBOS MODALES ·Tienen una única forma para todas las personas en presente: I can. He can. Van seguidos de Infinitivo sin to.I can ski. He must study. ·Hacen la negación y la interrogación como el verbo to be. Can you ski? ·No se construyen con to do, to have y to be. Can she go? LOS VERBOS MODALES No tienen imperativo, infinitivo, ni participio de presente ni de pasado. No forman tiempos continuos ni perfectos. Tampoco aparecen en formas pasivas. She can swim. He must study everyday. LOS VERBOS MODALES Usan otros verbos para suplir sus carencias temporales.He was able to go. I had to go alone. ¿Van seguidos de infinitivo sin to, a excepción de ought to, have to y used to. I used to go to the disco. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 36
  37. 37. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA CAN Sólo se usa en el presente, para el resto se utiliza to be able to. Se puede traducir por poder o saber. I can swim . I know how to swim. l'll be able to go tonight. Will he be able to come in time? I have been able to finish it in time. CAN I can play the violin. I can read. Expresa conocimiento y capacidad física e intelectual. Posibilidad. I can go with you. Tambien para dar y Can I go with you? recibir permiso. You can’t smoke here. They can’t be at home. Puede indicar prohibición en la forma negativa. Deducción negativa. CAN COULD Habilidad. I can swim. Ofrecimientos. Can I help you? Solamente se usa para el She can do it alone. presente de indicativo. I could go yesterday. I could go tomorrow. Could se usa para el pasado y el condicional. Sugerencias. You can come with us. I could translate Italian at the age of 9. Indica habilidad en el pasado. Peticiones formales. Could I go with you? MAY It may rain during the weekend. Posibilidad. Permiso. May I come in ? You may not stay here. Prohibiciones. Especulaciones. He may be in Ital If I may say so I will buy it. Sugerencias. MIGHT It might snow in Benidorm but I doubt it. He might be working in a new book. Expresa una posibildad más remota que may. Especulaciones. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 37
  38. 38. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA MUST I must visit my friend, he is ill. You must visit the museum, it is one of the best in Spain. He must be out because nobody answers the phone. You must not come here again. Obligaciónes morales. Consejos. Deducciónes. Prohibiciones. HAVE TO You have to drive with a helmet. I have to take an aspirin every night. You don't have to stay if you have something to do. Obligación normalmente impuesta. Para indicar costumbres. En negativa, indica que algo no es necesario. SHOULD, OUGHT TO You should go to the Yemo Cineplex cinemas. You ought to spend more time with them. Para dar consejos. WILL I will buy a sandwich when I finish this. Auxiliar del futuro simple. Predicciones sobre el It will be sunny. futuro. Decisiones. I will buy a new car. Ofrecimientos. I will do it. Will you pass me the salt? Peticiones. WOULD Would you like to come with me? In 1998 I would walk a lot. Peticiones y ofrecimientos. Hábitos y rutinas en el pasado. SHALL Auxiliar de futuro I shall go. We shall never surrender. Puede expresar cierta determinación Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 38
  39. 39. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA USED TO I used to sing in the shower. Hábitos en el pasado. NEED Verbo modal o verbo ordinario. He needs a lot of money to get married. You needn’t come tomorrow. Need to indica necesidad. I need to consult a good doctor. NEED • He needs to have more money to buy this car. • Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: • Need you buy so much? • Do you need to buy so much? RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES I can swim. Can I come in? He can’t go now. He could read Russian. They could be in Tokyo. I couldn’t buy the car. You could try next year. Habilidades. Petición de permiso. Imposibilidad. Habilidad en el pasado. Posibilidad. Imposibilidad. Sugerencias. Can. Could. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES It may rain tomorrow. May I come in? You may not smoke here. Posibilidad. Permiso. Prohibición Posibilidad It might snow. remota. May. Might. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES They will come. I will buy a Harley. Would you marry me? I would play tennis when I was 10. I would rather go to the cinema. Shall I open the window? I shall visit her. Predicciones. Decisiones. Peticiones formales. Acciones pasadas. Preferencias. Peticiones formales. Acciones futuras. Will. Would. Shall. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 39
  40. 40. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES You should buy her a diamond. I must study. You must not go with that boy. Should Consejos. Ought to. Obligación. Prohibiciones. Must. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES They may have gone. She could have seen her. You are going to need a lot of help. You needn’t come tomorrow. Deducciones donde no tenemos mucha seguridad. May, might Could, + Have + Participio Pasado. Need. Necesidad. Ausencia de necesidad. Needn’t. RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) You have to drive on the right. He is able to make a cake. They must have bought a new house. They can’t have come here this morning. Obligaciones impuestas. Have to. Be able to. Habilidades. Must, can’t Deducciones. have + PP. Preguntas que sirven para confirmar una suposición. Tienen dos partes, si la primera es afirmativa, la segunda será negativa. Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectivos forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo. Con los demás verbos se usan las partículas do, does, en presente. QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) You are from Petrel, aren't you? You aren’t from Petrel, are you? She isn’t from Sax, is she? He has a Harley, hasn't he? You can swim, can't you? QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) She couldn't run fast, could she? You study every day, don't you? She plays golf, doesn't she? You don't speak Chinese, do you? She doesn't write very well, does she? You went to Milan, didn't you? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 40
  41. 41. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) ·En futuro se usa will y won't. They will come tomorrow, won't they? They won't come tomorrow, will they? ·En condicional se usa would. They would buy it if they could, wouldn't they? She wouldn't buy it, would she? QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS) • Recuerda que son como una pila • Positivo-negativo • Negativo-positivo SAY Y TELL · Tienen el mismo significado, decir y contar. · To tell va con un complemento indirecto. ·To say solo necesita un complemento directo. I told her your story I told your story to her. I said that I was going to move to Sax. MAKE Y DO ·Comparten el significado de hacer ·No existen reglas ·To make tiene el matiz de fabricar. MAKE Y DO Everybody makes I always do the ironing. mistakes. He is always How do you do? making friends. He makes a lot of I do the cooking. noise. We do business with Japan. I´m going to make you my last offer. MAKE Y DO His son is doing badly at university. I make many telephone calls. I make the beds in He does well in his job. the morning. I do the dusting on Tuesday. My sister does the washing up. Make me a promise. She is making coffee. She made a fortune She did her hair yesterday. in Cuba. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 41
  42. 42. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EXCLAMACIONES What a. What a yacht. Se usa con sustantivos. También con adjetivos What a pretty girl. What pretty girls. What horribe films. What weather. What. Se usa con plurales e incontables. EXCLAMACIONES How beautiful. How fast. Isn’t he the perfect football player? How. Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios. Oraciones interrogativas negativas. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES TERCER TIPO Acciones imposibles. Si hubiera llovido me habría mojado. PRIMER TIPO SEGUNDO TIPO Acciones improbables, situaciones hipotéticas. Si lloviera me mojaría. Acciones probables en presente o futuro. Si llueve me mojo. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES If I eat chocolate, I get fat. If I eat chocolate, I will get fat. If I ate chocolate, I would get fat. If I had eaten chocolate, I would have get fat. Primer tipo: If + presente + presente. También podemos tener: If + presente + futuro. Segundo tipo: If + pasado simple + conditionalsimple. Tercer tipo: If + pasado perfecto + condicional perfecto. OTRAS COMBINACIONES If + presente + If I finish early I can go. modal. Should you see her give her my regards. Stop shouting or I will get angry. We won’t go out unless you pay. If you are hungry, eat something should + imperativo. Imperativo + conjunction + clause Unless se suele emplear en lugar de if not. Con imperativo. OTRAS COMBINACIONES Suppose you are rich, would you live in a big house? Supposing you find a wallet with money, what will you do? You could go as long as you pay your part. On the condition that you pay you can be with us. Provided you want it I will give it to you. Suppose. Supposing. As long as. On the condition that. Provided. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 42
  43. 43. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LA VOZ PASIVA ·Se usa para resaltar más la acción que el sujeto. · Puede que desconozcamos al autor de la acción o que no nos interese. ·En inglés se usa mucho más que en castellano. FÓRMULA • CD pasa a Sujeto • Se utiliza el verbo To be en el mismo tiempo • Aparece el Participio Pasado • Yo como pan. El pan es comido LA VOZ PASIVA T. SIMPLES ACTIVA PASIVA Bread with olive oil is eaten. Bread with olive oil was eaten. I eat bread with olive oil. I ate bread with olive oil. I will eat bread Bread will be eaten I would eat braed Bread would be eaten LA VOZ PASIVA T. CONTINUOS ACTIVA PASIVA I am eating bread Bread is being eaten I was eating bread Bread was being eaten I will be eating Bread will be being eaten bread I would be eating Bread would be being eaten bread LA VOZ PASIVA T. PERFECTOS ACTIVA PASIVA I have eaten Bread has been eaten bread I had eaten bread Bread had been eaten I will have eaten Bread will have been eaten bread I would have Bread would have been eaten eaten bread LA VOZ PASIVA by indica el complemento agente. It was done by my mother. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 43
  44. 44. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA LA VOZ PASIVA. C INDIRECTO Con estos verbos se puede usar el complemento indirecto como sujeto. Esto no ocurre en español. Pay. Pagar. Show. Mostrar. Offer. Ofrecer. Send. Enviar. Lend. Prestar. Refuse. Negarse a. Give. Dar. Promise. Prometer. LA VOZ PASIVA. C INDIRECTO Mary was given a kiss. My friend was shown my house. I gave Mary a kiss. I showed my friend my house. It is said that he is going to be promoted. LA VOZ PASIVA. OTROS VERBOS To believe. Creer. To consider. Considerar To know. Saber. To say. Decir . To think. Pensar. It is said that it was stolen It is believed thathe was murdered EL ESTILO INDIRECTO ·Para contar lo que dijo alguien. ·Los verbos suelen ir en pasado. ·En estilo indirecto la frase suele empezar con un verbo. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. VERBOS Ask. Preguntar. Warn. Advertir. Announce. Anunciar. Claim. Reclamar Protest. Protestar Tell. Contar. Complain. Quejarse. State. Afirmar. Think. Pensar. Remark. Remarcar. Say. Decir Explain. Explicar. Declare. Declarar. Inquire. Solicitar. Point out. Señalar. CAMBIOS El tiempo de lo narrado da un salto hacia atrás Las preguntas dejan de serlo. Cambios: en expresiones temporales, en los tiempos verbales y en los pronombres. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 44
  45. 45. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. Presente Simple. Pasado Simple. I live in Elda. He said he lived in Elda. Presente Continuo. Pasado Continuo. He said he was reading a book. I am reading a book. Presente Perfecto Simple. Pasado Perfecto Simple. He said he had bought a car. I have bought a car. Presente Perfecto Pasado Perfecto Continuo. Continuo. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. He said he had been working with him. I have been working with him. Pasado Simple. Pasado Perfecto. He said he had gone to London. I went to London. Pasado Continuo. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. He said he had been writing a letter. I was writing a letter. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. Pasado Perfecto. Pasado Perfecto. I had been there. He said he had been there. Pasado Perfecto Pasado Perfecto Continuo. Continuo. He said he had been waiting for him. I had been waiting for you. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. Futuro Simple. Condicional Simple. He said he would live in Alicante. I will live in Alicante. Futuro Continuo. CondicionalContinuo. He said he would be singing in a karaoke. I will be singing in a karaoke. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES Can. Could. I can swim. He said he could swim. Shall. Should. I shall do it. He said he should do it. May. Might. He said it might rain that day. It may rain today. Must. Have To. Had To. I must study. He said he had to study. Now. Then. He said he was happy then. I am happy now. Today. That day. He said he was sad that day. The day before, The previous day. He said he had gone to Madrid the previous day. I am sad today. Yesterday. Yesterday I went to Madrid. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 45
  46. 46. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA CAMBIOS TEMPORALES The next day. The following day. The day after. He said he would go to Valencia the day after. Tomorrow. I will go to Valencia tomorrow. Next week. The following week. He said he would be in Milan the following week. Next week I will be in Milan. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES Last week. The previous week. He said he had cooked paella the previous week. I cooked paella last week. A Week Ago. The Week Before. He said he had played tennis in Almería the week before. A week ago I played tennis in Almeria. OTROS CAMBIOS ORDENES This. That. He said he was going to buy that. I am going to buy this. These. Those. He said that those were his friends. These are my friends. Here. There. I live here. He said he lived there. Now. Then. He said that then he wanted a coffee. Now I want a coffee. Go out. He told us to go out. He ordered me to drink the milk. He invited me to go out. Drink the mik . Go out. SUGERENCIAS He suggested taking a taxi. He suggested that we should take a taxi. Let’s take a taxi. PREGUNTAS He asked where Mary was. He asked me how he could go to Elche? He wanted to know why I smoked. Where's Mary? How can I go to Elche? Why do you smoke? Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 46
  47. 47. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA PREGUNTAS He asked what she did. He asked me when I had gone to Petrel. What does she do? When did you go to Petrel? WHAT IS LIKE ·Se utiliza para recabar información sobre el aspecto físico de alguien pues para saber cómo es alguien de carácter usamos how. What is your girlfriend like? She is very pretty. DESEOS Y QUEJAS I wish I had lived in America. I wish you would be rich. DESEOS I would like to go to Paris. I would like you to come with me. Would like. Expresa deseos, para su traducción se debe usar el subjuntivo. I’d prefer a coffee. I wish you were quiet. Wish. I would like a sandwich. I would prefer to go with you. Would prefer. DESEOS I prefer tea to coffee. I prefer swimming to running. I prefer to stay at home. If only she would stop complaining. I’d rather not go. I’d rather not go now. Prefer. If only. Would rather. EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS I had better go to have a drink. It's time to eat. It's time for us to eat. It's time we ate. Had better. It's time. It's about time. It’s about time he came. He used to drink quite a lot. I used to wear glasses, but now I use contact lenses. Used to. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 47
  48. 48. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS I am used to reading the paper. I have enough money. I am rich enough. She is too old to climb the mountain. To be used to. Enough. Too. EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS He speaks English fairly well. He speaks English quite well. He speaks English rather well. He speaks English pretty well. Fairly. Quite. Rather. Pretty. EL CAUSATIVO HAVE ·El que realiza la acción no es el sujeto sino otra persona. · Cortarse el pelo, hacerse un empaste. ·El sujeto no se hace un empaste ni se corta el pelo, sino que contrata un servicio. I have my hair cut every month. I have my car repaired when it breaks down. EL CAUSATIVO HAVE ·Esta estructura se puede usar en todos los tiempos. ·En la interrogrativa y negativa utilizan los auxiliares, do, does, did. •Se usan los verbos causativos havey get. Did you have your tooth fill? Do you have your carpets cleaned every year? VERBOS CON PREPOSICÓN Muchos verbos ingleses van acompañados de preposiciones o adverbios. EJ. To look I'm looking for a new job. I am going to look up a word in the dictionary. We are looking forward to the festivities. VERBOS CON PREPOSICÓN ·Pueden ser: separables e inseparables. · Serán separables si podemos colocar los complementos entre el verbo y la preposición. I am going to put my coat on. I am going to put on my coat. Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 48
  49. 49. RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA FINAL Para cualquier comentario o sugerencia Pedro Civera Coloma direelda@centres.cult.gva.es pcivera@elx.uned.es Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 49

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