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EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ON DDVP

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(DICHLORVOS) USING CATFISH FINGERLINGS (CLARIAS GARIEPIENUS) AS BIOINDICATOR

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EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ON DDVP

  1. 1. (DICHLORVOS) USING CATFISH FINGERLINGS (CLARIAS GARIEPIENUS) AS BIOINDICATOR BY ONASANYA, IDOWU FRANCIS SLT/ENV.BIO/HND/115042086 A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE: DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY LAGOS STATE POLYTECHNIC, IKORODU. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY (ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY OPTION) OCTOBER, 2013
  2. 2. ii CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this project work was carried out by Onasanya, Idowu Francis (Matric No. 115042086), in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Environmental Biology option, Lagos State polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, during the 2012/2013 academic session, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma from the polytechnic. ------------------------------ --------------------------- SANYAOLU, V.T. (MRS.) DATE SUPERVISOR ---------------------------------------- --------------------------- COKER, J.O. (MR.) DATE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
  3. 3. iii DEDICATION To God the Almighty, With whom all things are possible To my Mother, Without whom I would not have come to this world. For showering me with love, for teaching me how to endure and happy. For not giving up on me and being with me all the way. And to Myself For keep keeping on For not letting myself and everybody down.
  4. 4. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I thank God for his mercy, guidance and strength all through these years, for giving a purpose, making me to be part of this life with many capabilities to unleashed and also enabling me complete this work. I sincerely acknowledge my able supervisor, Mrs. V. T. Sanyaolu; for without her this project would not have been a reality. She is a tireless worker, she assisted me in making sure that things were done right, making sure the right journals were cited. ‘‘mummy, God bless you’’. Furthermore, I will not forget the assistance and kind gesture of her husband, Mr. A .A. Sanyaolu. He helped me come out in flying colours in my seminar presentation, even though we only met once. He showed me much love, understanding, patience and kindness. Sir, God bless your ministry. My dearest thanks goes to my mother, Mrs. V .O. Onasanya for all her support in every way; ‘I must confess, she’s the best on planet earth’. I also commend the effort of my lovely sisters and brother. Mrs. E.O. Shorunke, Mrs. C. T. Brown and Mr. P.K. Onasanya, for their immense support in the course of this work. I did appreciate my Head of Department, Mr. J.O Coker for his tireless effort in making SLT department worthy of emulation, most especially Environmental Biology option, he made our option gain ground in the tree planting project that would be coming up every year. God continue to shine more light on u sir.
  5. 5. v My deep gratitude also goes to a mother I should call her; my lecturer, adviser as well, Miss Shokekun. I pray the good Lord continue to guide your way ma. Also a big thanks to my very good friends Pastor Seun Famubode, Rasheedat Kazeem, Haleemat Jamiu, my little daughter SimiatTemitope Kazeem and to manys’ I never mentioned. I pray the blessing of the most high continue to shower in your lives. Finally to all members of the 2012/2013 final year family of Environmental Biology option, Science Laboratory Technology Department, Lagos Sate Polytechnic Ikorodu, I say ‘it is a privilege knowing you guys’ for the wonderful two years we have been together. I tell you all that; ‘we have just been unleashed; and we are up for the summit’. I gallantly salute and appreciate you all. God bless and be with us all. Amen!
  6. 6. vi ABSTRACT Pesticides like organophosphate are routinely employed as part of the integrated farming practices to protect crops, and animals from insects, weeds and diseases. This pesticide through surface runoff gets to unrestricted areas like ponds and rivers where they alter the physiochemical properties of water leading to deleterious effect and even death of aquatic organism. Activated charcoal has been reported as the universal adsorbing material for most pesticides. This study was carried out to determine the ability of Activated charcoal to reduce the toxicity of dichlorvos. Exactly 0.5ml of DDVP was added to distilled water, and activated charcoal was added to the mixture in various weight namely; 100g, 200g, and 300g. A mixture of water and DDVP only was considered as a positive control whereas water only was use as a negative control. The experiment was setup in 3 replicates. 10 catfish (Clarias gariepienus) fingerlings were introduce into the mixture and observed for 3 days. Result obtained from the fingerlings mortality showed a decrease with increase in concentration of activated charcoal. Average mortality was 10, 6 and 2 for 100g, 200g and 300g of activated charcoal respectively. Furthermore fingerlings mortality was 10 and 0 for positive control and negative control respectively. This result shows that the activated charcoal has the capacity to reduce the toxicity of DDVP in water.
  7. 7. vii CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION In Nigeria, agrochemicals that contain pesticides like organophosphate and chlorinated hydrocarbons are routinely employed as part of the integrated farming practice to protect crops and animal from insects, weeds, and disease (Fafioye et al., 2001). This so called dichlorvos also known as DDVP (O.-O- dimethyl-O-2, 2-dichloro-vinyl phosphate) (USEPA, 2007) is an organophosphate insecticide and have been applied in northern Nigeria as mosquitoes insecticides over the decades (Foll et al., 1965; Foll and Pant, 1966) since its commercial manufacture started in 1961 (BCERF, 1999). Pengman (1996) defined pesticideas any chemical agent used to kill or control undesired insects, weeds, fungi, bacteria, or other organisms. It is also used as an anthelmintic (worming agent) for dogs, swine, and horses, as a botacide; agent that kills fly larvae (USEPA, 1994), the later, being a major menace in northeastern Nigeria and hence the observed large tonnage of various brands of dichlorvos in the open market. Pesticides contain poisonous substance that distort water quality and impose physiological stress on biotic community of the water body which is the home of fish (Asonye et al., 2007). These pesticides through surface runoff gets to unrestricted areas like ponds and rivers where they alter the physiochemical properties of water and is toxic to aquatic organism and cause deleterious effect or even death to aquatic animals (Vasit and patil, 2005). It is use for the formulation of Ota-piapia which had caused the death of so many Nigerian families in recent times (Olebunne, 2009) and worldwide (USEPA, 2007), specifically through
  8. 8. viii food contamination (Akunyili, 2007). Children are especially prone to accidental poisoning of this product (Okeniyi and Lawal, 2007). The impact of agricultural chemicals on surface and ground water quality has become an issue of global importance. Surveys carried out by Garard and Barthelemy (2003) pointed out that using agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides lead to residues in surface and ground waters (Schwartz, 1996). Many pesticides used are resistance to degradation by chemical and biological agents. It is not surprising, therefore, that small amounts of these chemicals have been isolated from many phases of the environment, including water supplies (Schwartz, 1996). Fish population in the water body are susceptible to environmental impacts caused by introduction of exotic species, industrial waste, oil spill, and most especially pesticides pollution (Asonye et al., 2007). Adsorption test using activated carbon to deactivate the potential hazards of these pesticides is highly important (Thkka and Pande, 1999). Activated carbon is an odourless, tasteless powder which adsorb large amount of chemicals or poisons (Thrash et al., 1998). It is created by carbonizing organic matter in a klin method preparation under anaerobic condition and activating the material with oxidizing gases like air or steam at high temperature (Kaufman, 2005). Activated carbon can absorb thousands of times is own weight in gases, toxic metals, poisons and other chemical thus making them ineffective or harmless (Thrash et al., 1998).
  9. 9. ix Pliny the elder was quoted; ‘when charcoal ignites and quench in fire that is when it acquires it characteristics power and only when it seems to have perished that it becomes endowed with a greater virtue (Wikipedia, 2012). 1.1 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To determine the effect of activated charcoal on the toxicity of dichlorvos using catfish fingerlings (Clarius gariepinus) as an indicator.
  10. 10. x CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PROPERTIES OF DICHLORVOS The Physical form of dichlorvos is from pure colourless liquid to amber liquid, with a mild, non- specific aromatic odour. It has the boiling Point of 35˚C at 0.05 mm Hg (Ciba-Geigy 1988; WHO 1989), 74˚C at 1 mm Hg (Tomlin 1997; WHO 1989) 234˚C at 750 mm Hg (Tomlin 1997). Differential thermal analysis indicated exothermic decomposition commencing at 180˚C, and thermo gravimetric analysis indicated weight loss over the temperature range 40-200˚C, but with evaporation, not decomposition, below 150˚C (Klusacek and Krasemann 1985). It has the specific Gravity of 1.425 at 20˚C (Tomlin 1997) with vapour Pressure of 1.6 Pa (0.0120 mm Hg) at 20˚C (WHO 1989; Ciba-Geigy 1988; Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997) 2.1 Pa (0.016 mm Hg) at 25˚C (Tomlin 1997) 7.03 Pa (0.0527 mm Hg) at 25˚C (Howard 1991) It solubility in water is about 8.8 g/L at 20˚C (Bayer 1988a) ~10 g/L at 20˚C (Ciba-Geigy 1988; WHO 1989; Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997) 16 g/L at 25˚C (Howard 1991) ~18 g/L at 25˚C (Tomlin 1997) Solubility in other solvents is completely miscible with aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols; moderately soluble in diesel oil, kerosene, iso paraffinic hydrocarbons and mineral oils. The Volatility from water and moist surfaces is calculated with the flows of Henry’s Law Constant (K in Pa·m3/mole) and as the dimensionless partition coefficient (H): K = 9.71 X 10-2 Pa·m3/mole at 25˚C (H = 3.92 X 10-5) (Howard 1991 – calculated from solubility and vapour
  11. 11. xi pressure data at 25°C) K = 3.54 X 10-2 Pa·m3/mole (H=1.45 X 10-5) (calculated by the Department of the Environment and Water Resources [DEW] for 20°C from solubility and vapour pressure data at 20°C, agrees with Bayer 1988b) K = 7 X 10-3 Pa·m3/mole (H = 2.82 X 10-6) (Tomlin 1997) K = 1.9 X 10-1 Pa·m3/mole (H = 7.8 X 10-5) (Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997 – evidently calculated from the lowest solubility and highest vapour pressure values reported) 3 n-Octanol/Water Log KOW = 1.16 (Howard 1991) Partition Coefficient: = 1.43 (Bayer 1988a; Tomlin 1997; Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997) = 1.47 (WHO 1989) = 1.90 (Tomlin 1997 – HPLC method) = 1.99 (Ciba-Geigy 1988 – HPLC method) 2.2Health implications of pesticides Pesticides are toxic and are potentially hazardous to human, animals, other organisms and the environment. The toxicity of a pesticide is a measure of its capacity or ability to cause injury or illness (Lorenz, 2007) pesticide pollution was reported to have killed fishes and resulted in reproductive failure in birds. However, humans become exposed to the pesticides through oral (mouth), inhalation (lungs), ocular (eye), and or dermal (skin) contact (Lorenz, 2007). Chronic effects from exposure to certain pesticide include birth defects, toxicology to a fetus, development of benign or malignant tumors, nerve disorder, blood disorder, genetic changes, endocrine disruption and reproductive effect. The signs and symptoms of acute exposure for several pesticides vary according to chemical nature of the pesticides. (Lorenz, 2007) 2.3ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE 2.3.1 Methods of use methods of application include: “ready to use” (resin strips or slow release blocks for treatment of confined areas, and aerosol with carbondioxide propellant for treatment of closed-up areas);
  12. 12. xii coarse wet spray (application to the floor and around doorways and windows by watering can or as a very coarse spray, relying on volatilisation to fumigate the air space and penetrate less accessible areas); surface spray (application to the surface of manure heaps, potato bag surfaces, grain piles, grain elevators, wasp nests etc); space spray (released from pressurised cylinders via spray gun or EC diluted in water and released into the building air space as a fine spray) 2.3.2 Implications for environmental exposure Dichlorvos may potentially reach non-target areas directly through sprayed of dichlorvos solutions, through vapours released from slow release matrices or aerosol dispensers;or indirectly, through movement of directly released vapours or dichlorvosvolatilising from sprayed surfaces, through spray drift, through water draining from treated areas after washing, irrigation or rain, through treated material such as stored products, cut flowers or manure and also residues remaining in containers or slow release matrices. Thus use of dichlorvos in Australia occurs predominantly in protected environments, where the main means by which the substance is likely to reach the external environment is as vapour, unless treated material is disposed of or treated surfaces are washed or reached by irrigation water before residues have dissipated to the atmosphere, degraded or have been absorbed. Where the substance is applied on external surfaces or sprayed on crops direct spray or spray drift may also contribute to environmental contamination. 2.3.3 Bioconcentration Kenaga (1980) predicted the bioconcentration factor for dichlorvos from its water solubility, the predicted value being 3 (from log BCF = 2.791 – 0.564 X log WS, where WS is the water
  13. 13. xiii solubility of 10,000 mg/L). Moreover, DEW notes that the substance hydrolyses readily at relevant pHs, further limiting the possibility of bioaccumulation. This prediction is highly consistent with the results of a bioconcentration and excretion study of a range of organophosphates with the fish species willow shiner (Gnathopogoncaerulescens) reported by Tsuda et al. (1992). Fish were exposed to dichlorvos in a continuous flow through system for 168 hours, followed by a depuration period of 72 hours. The mean measured dichlorvos concentration (± standard deviation) was 2.3±0.3 μg/L (water pH 7.0-7.1, temperature 21±1°C). Calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for dichlorvos at 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours were 0.8, 0.4, 1.2 and 0.8. The low concentrations of dichlorvos in the fish decreased rapidly during depuration and were below the limit of detection by 6 hours. 2.3.4 Acute toxicity of active constituent and formulations to fish According to WHO (1989) listed in Table 6.5. The listed reports generally indicate that dichlorvos is highly toxic (LC50 in the range 0.1-1 mg/L) to moderately toxic (LC50 in the range 1 to 10 mg/L) to fish, with a few reports indicating slight toxicity (LC50 in the range 10-100 mg/L). The range in acute toxicity (LC50) of dichlorvos to fish from these studies was ~0.2 mg/L to >40 mg/L, with the lowest value being 0.122 mg/L for larvae of the herring. A brief report (Bayer 1980) of a study with a 50EC formulation of dichlorvos (555 g ac/L) indicated that the 96 h LC50 of the product to rainbow trout was 0.93 (95% confidence limits = 0.85-1.04) mg product/L, a dose which would result in a dichlorvos concentration of approximately 0.5 mg ac/L. A similar study (Bayer 1981) with golden orfe indicated a 96 h LC50 of 0.45 (95% confidence limits = 0.40-0.52) mg product/L, a dose which would result in a dichlorvos concentration of approximately 0.2 mg ac/L. Both tests were rated as acceptable by
  14. 14. xiv DEW (respectively, control + 4 dose levels with 10 or 20 fish at each concentration, and control + 7 dose levels, with 10 fish at each concentration, but concentrations not measured). Lewallen and Wilder (1999) reported that dichlorvos (evidently active constituent added in acetone) was not lethal to either 1 week old or 1 month old fry of rainbow trout at 1 mg/L, but caused 100% mortality at 10 mg/L 2.3.5 Use of dichlorvos in fish farming Dichlorvos is much less toxic to fish species such as salmon than it is to fish parasites such as the salmon louse Lepeophtheirussalmonis (24-48 h LC50 < 5 μg/L to 40 μg/L according to the US EPA AQUIRE database) and the freshwater isopod Alitropustypus (48 h LC50 = 9.25 μg/L - Nair and Nair 1982). Hence dichlorvos has been widely used to control ectoparasites in finfish culture, though this use may have declined due to problems with louse resistance (Ross 1989) and environmental concerns (Davies 1995). Trichlorfon, which degrades to dichlorvos in water, has also been used for the same purpose (Samuelsen 1987). 2.3.6 Biology and description of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) The choice of catfish as the experimental animal for this study was informed by its ability to withstand stress (Barton, 2002). The group with which it belongs is large withat least 40 species, which exist in west Africa water alone (Adeke, 2007) the group of clariasgariepinus is hardy and highly valued in Nigeria. They have a wide variety of shapes, but all of them possess well developed barbells, the whiskers which give the group it common name (Reed et al., 1967). Alteration in the aquatic habitat are considered as an adaptive mechanism (De La Tore et al., 2005) which allows the fish to cope with real or perceived stressors so that the normal
  15. 15. xv homeostatic state could be maintained (Barton, 2002)In natural water catfish lived in a moderate to swiftly flowing stream, but they are also abundant in large reservoirs, lakes, ponds, and some sluggish streams (Wikipedia, 2013). They are usually found where bottoms are sand, gravel or rubble, in preference to mud bottoms. They are seldom found in dense aquatic weeds. Catfish are fresh waters fish but they can thrive in blackish water. They generally prefer clear water stream, but are common and do well in muddy water. During the day, they are usually found in deep holes wherever the protection of logs ad rocks can be found. Most movement and feeding activity occurs at night just after sunset and just before sunrise. Young cat fish frequently feed in shallow riffle areas while the adults seem to feed in deeper water immediately downstream from sand bars. Adult rarely move much from one areas toanother and are rather sedentary, while young fish tends to move about more extensively, particularly at night when feeding. Catfish grown best in warm water with optimum growth occurring at temperature of about 850 F (29.40c) with each 180 F (100 c) changes in temperature there is a doubling or halving of their metabolic rate. This means that within limits, their appetite with increase water temperature or decrease with decrease water temperature. In natural water, the average size of catfish caught by fishermen is probably less than 2 or 3 pounds, but the world record of 58 pounds was caught in Santee cooper Reservoir, south Carolina, 1964. Age and growth studies of this fish have shown that in much natural water, catfish do not reach 1 pound in size until they are 2 to 4 years old. 2.3.7 Removal of pesticides from the environment Several attempts had been made in the past to minimize the level of pesticides present in the environment. Some of the pesticides are biodegradable and are naturally broken down by
  16. 16. xvi microorganisms (Fushiwaki and Urano, 2001). It has been observed that organic pesticides found in nearly all living matters have been analyzed. Microorganism can metabolize pesticides if they are biodegradable and if they have chemical structure capable with the organisms’ enzymes that catalyze the biodegradable. Mechanism of degradation includesmineralization, partial degradation to secondary compounds, adsorption, humiliation and volatilization. According to Clausen et al.,(2001), sorption desorption is one of the key processes affecting the fate of agrochemicals in the sediment water environment. Adsorption on the soil is another important physiochemical characteristic governing the fate of pesticides in the environment (Fushiwaki and Urano, 2001). 2.3.8 Preparation of activated charcoal The properties of activated charcoal produced will depends on the material charred and charring temperature is also important. Charcoal contains varying amount of hydrogen and oxygen as well as ash and other impurities that together with the structure determine the properties (Wikipedia, 2012). The two main methods of preparing activated charcoal are:  Klin method  Cast iron retort.
  17. 17. xvii
  18. 18. xviii Fig 1: Pictureshowing construction process of klin method of activated charcoal (Wikipedia, 2013)
  19. 19. xix Fig 2: picture showing combustion process of klin method of activated charcoal (Wikipedia, 2013)
  20. 20. xx Fig 3: picture showing the cast iron retort and the inner chamber (Wikipedia, 2013)
  21. 21. xxi 2.3.9 CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL Large surface area: This reveals the high surface area structure of activated carbon. Individual particles are intensely overlapping coiled or fold and displayed various kinds of porosity; there may be many areas where flat surface of graphite-like material run parallel to each other, separated by only a few nanometer or these microspore provides superb condition for adsorption to occur, since adsorbing material can interact with many surfaces simultaneously (Gray et al.,1998). Small pore size: It varies depending on the source of the carbon and the manufact uring process. Large organic molecules are absorbed better than smaller ones (Wikipedia,2012). High adsorption ability: This tends to increase as the PH and temperature decrease. Contaminations are removed more effectively if they are in contact with the activated carbon for a longer time (Zhang et al., 2013). 2.3.10 Adsorption Using Activated Carbon Remediation of contaminated ground water has been practiced using activated carbon adsorption. According to (Stouffer, 2001), the removal of organics in water that are weakly adsorbed and present in trace concentration require an activated carbon with a predominance of high – energy pores. Activated carbons are processed carbon materials that are capable of adsorbing various substances from gas and liquid streams, because of their highly developed pore structure and large internal specific surface areas (Abdul and Aberuagba, 2005). 2.3.11 Use of Activated Carbon to Remove Pesticides
  22. 22. xxii A great deal of research has been performed on the adsorption of pesticide onto activated carbon. As a result of its tremendously large surface area, activated carbon is used widely to adsorb large quantities of materials from solution. The small tiny pores in the activated carbon structure makes removal of very small organic matter possible. Removal of pesticides from contaminated water by activated carbon adsorption is considered as one of the best available technologies (Mishra & Bhattacharya, 2007).
  23. 23. xxiii
  24. 24. xxiv CHAPTER THREE 3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1MATERIALS  Conical flask  Measuring cylinder  Plastic bowl  Beaker  Funnel  Distilled water  Pipette  Filter paper  Powdered Activated charcoal  Grinding stone  African mud catfish ;Clarias gariepinus (fingerlings)  Amput electronic scale  Dichlorvors ( NOPEST) 3.2 LOCATION OF STUDY The experiment was carried out at the in the Environmental Biology Laboratory, Lagos state Polytechnic ,Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria .Coordinate; N06.38’ 38.7’ E 00.31 27.6 3.3 PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
  25. 25. xxv The charcoal was brought from Jakande market in ketu. It was grinded using grinding stone into powder form. After grinding, the powdered activated carbon was weighed with an Amput electronic scale and the total weight was recorded. The powdered charcoal was then divided into various weights namely; 100g, 200g, and 300g. these were used for the experiment to determine the rate of adsorption of toxicant in an aquatic ecosystem. 3.4 TEST MATERIAL The pesticide used is dichlorvos (NOPEST), a member of the family of organophosphate with a chemical formular of 2, 2 – dichlorovoinyl dimethyl phosphate, C 4H7Cl2O4P. it is colourless to amber liquid, with an aromatic odour. The boiling point 35oC at 0.0mmHg, vapour pressure 1.2 x 10-2 mmHg at 20oC.its solubility in water at room temperature Is about 1%. It is a contact and stomach insecticide with fumigant and penetrant action, especially against dipteral and mosquitoes (Hubert, 1986). It is contact acting and fumigant pesticides for control of wide range of insect. It is an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) containing 1000mgL-1. It was purchased from an agrochemical store in the Lagos Island, Lagos State. Nigeria. 3.5 ACCLAMATIZATION The fingerlings of African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinium) was procured from a commercial fish farm at the federal ministry of agriculture estate Ikorodu. The fishes were transported in polythene bag half filled with dichlorinated tap water from storage tank to the laboratory where they were held in a large plastic water container for acclimation over 7days. The fishes were fed once in a day with coppens fish feed containing 45% crude protein as described by (Omoniyiet.al.,2002). The water in which they were kept was renewed daily after feeding. The
  26. 26. xxvi uneaten food and faecal matter were siphoned out. Feeding was stopped 24hours to the toxicity study after which the fingerlings were introduced into the stock solution. 3.6 PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTION Dichlorvos used is in concentration of 1000g/dm3 was used as such (stock solution). The working concentrations were prepared from the stock solution. It was prepared with the use of pipette, adding 0.5 ml of dichlorvos (nopest)to 2L of water (2000ml). 3.7 STUDY DESIGN The toxicity study was conducted using 3litres capacity in the bowls, four different treatment were considered and a control. Each bowl was filled with 2liters of distilled water. 0.5mls of DDVP was added to the water in each of the 4 bowls leaving out the control(2l of distilled water only) and allowed to stay for 24hrs to mix thoroughly, after which activated charcoal was added to three of the bowls in measured weights of 100g, 200g, and 300g respectively. The extra one bowl contained a solution of DDVP only without activated charcoal (positive control). The experiment was setup in 3 replicates. After the addition of the activated charcoal, the bowls were left to stay for another 5 days, after which the contents of each bowls was filtered using a 0.05 pore size filter paper. The bowls were designated as follows  A - A solution of DDVP(Positive control)  B -A solution of DDVP + 100g AC  C - A solution of DDVP + 200g AC  D - A solution of DDVP + 300g AC
  27. 27. xxvii  E -A control (water only) Fig 4: Picture showing the grinding process of activated charcoal (Francis, 2013)
  28. 28. xxviii FIG 5: A picture showing the experimental set-up (Francis, 2013).
  29. 29. xxix CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION Various treatments A (containing water and DDVP only), B (100g of activated charcoal and dichlorvos), C (200g of activated charcoal and dichlorvos), D (300g of activated charcoal and dichlorvos), and E (water only) with three replicates were used to determine the mortality of fingerlings. Results obtained were as follows. When the fingerlings were introduced, it was observed that the fingerlings displayed various effects in different bowls containing different treatments. In treatment A, it was observed that as soon as the fingerlings were introduced, they began to show erratic movement, unconditional swimming which lasted for about 5 seconds. They started coming to the surface to gasp for oxygen which shows that they are suffocating. Eventually, the fingerlings all died. Highest mortality of fingerlings was recorded. A total loss and average mortality of 10 out of 30 was as indicated in the below graph. A total loss and average mortality of 10 out of 30 was indicated in the below table and the slope of the graph shows that mortality increases as there was no activated charcoal added. And after 24hrs, the fingerlings were bleached to show a change in colour. In treatment B,it was observed that there was initial stability in the fingerlings but after about 2hrs, the fingerlings started coming to the surface of the water to gasp for oxygen. I began to observe irregular movement in the fingerlings which shows that there may still be possible presence of dichlorvos (DDVP) in the water. Highest mortality of fingerlings was also recorded.
  30. 30. xxx A total loss and average mortality of 10 out of 30 wasindicated in the below table and the slope of the graph shows that mortality increases as the activated charcoal has got no effect on the contaminated water. After 24hrs they were all dead and bleached like the contaminant in A. In treatment C, opercular movement was increased at the initial stage of exposure to the water. After about 57secs, I observed that the fishes became normal and active. Low mortality of fingerlings was recorded. Total losses of 12 out of 30 fingerlings were recorded dead after 72hrs. And an average mortality of 4 was indicated in the below table while the slope of the graph shows that mortality decreases in this treatment. And in the treatment D, fingerlings shows a slow movement at the initial stage but later became active and stable .Least mortality was recorded. Total losses of 6 out of 30 fingerlings were recorded dead after 72hrs. An average mortality of 2 was indicated in the below table while slope of the graph shows a maximum decrease in the fingerlings mortality compare to treatment B and C Whilein treatment E, fingerlings were highly active and stable just like in their natural habitat and no mortality recorded after 72 hrs. An average mortality of 0 out of 30 was all alive as indicated in the below table while also the slope of the graph shows no decrease in the mortality of the fingerlings.
  31. 31. xxxi
  32. 32. xxxii TABLE 1: AVERAGE MORTALITY PATTERN OBSERVED IN DIFFERENT TREATMENTS Treatments Average no fingerlings Exposed Average mortality of % Mortality Fingerlings A 10 10 100 B 10 10 100 C 10 4 40 D 10 2 20 E 10 0 0
  33. 33. xxxiii Fig 6: A Graph showing average mortality of Fingerlings against the weight of activated charcoal 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 A B C D E AverageMortality Treatments
  34. 34. xxxiv 4.1 DISCUSSION Farmer as well as the general public is concern about the effect of pesticide on the environment. At the same time, the agricultural community realizes that pesticides are vital for consistence profitable, production of reliable, safe, high quality of pesticide community (Fred et al., 1996). Large quantity of pesticide is handled by farmer; thus pesticides accident may occur, even when the most stringent safety guidelines are followed. If a pesticides spills accidentally, or applied wrongly or applied at an excessive rate, proper corrective measure can help prevent environmental contamination of soil and water resources (Fred et al., 1996). In the course of the study the effect of activated charcoal was test on the acute toxicity of dichlorvos using C. gariepinus as a test organism. Various treatments A, B, C, D, E were used and their responses were observed. In treatment A and B the activated charcoal was not added as there were behavioural response of fish to toxicant and difference in reaction time has been observed due to the effect of the chemicals, their concentration, size of fish and specific environmental condition which inhibits the enzyme cholinesterase as cited by (Oh et al., 1991). Applying material that can adsorb or inactivated the pesticides is best suitable. Once pesticide has been adsorbed, it is biologically inactive and cannot cause environmental contamination by runoff in surface or leaching into the ground water. Activated charcoal was used in this situation and it prove it worth in treatment C and D as there was less mortality compare to the ones it is not added. Activated charcoal isa universal adsorbing material for most pesticides. It is made up of very small carbon particles that have a high affinity
  35. 35. xxxv for organic chemicals such as dichlorvos (Fred et al., 1996). Activated charcoal has large surface area which organic molecules can bind. When applied to pesticides contaminated soil, the pesticides molecules are attracted to charcoal particles and bind to them when they come on contact. This was achieved by applying different amount of activated charcoal as cited by (Fred et al., 1996).
  36. 36. xxxvi CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The study has shown that activated charcoal has the ability to deactivate dichlorvos in aqueous media in aquatic ecosystem. Therefore it is recommended that activated charcoal can be used in aquatic ecosystem polluted with dichlorvos.
  37. 37. xxxvii REFRENCES Abdul, A. and Aberuagba, F. 2005. Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Phosphate by Activated Carbon from Corncobs, Groundnut Shell and Rice-husk.A.U.J.T. 9 (1) p59– 63. Asonye, C. C., Okolie, N. P., Okoenwa, E. E. and Iwauanyawu, U. G. (2007): some physic – chemical characteristics and heavy metal profiles of Nigeria Rivers, streams and waterways. African Journal of Biotechnology 6(5): 617-624. Australia Ltd Agricultural Division, Dichlorvos TGAC Submission to the Technical Committee on Agricultural Chemicals. Book II, Part 1: Chemical data, pp 1:014-018. Unpublished Report. B. R. Francis, G. F. Lee, Adsorption dichlorvous and dieldrin pesticides on unconsolidated aquifer sand, Environ. Sci. Technol. 6 (2009) 538-543. Bayer Australia Ltd Agricultural Division (1988a). Dichlorvos TGAC Submission to the Technical Committee on Agricultural Chemicals. Book I, Part 1: Submission summary. Unpublished Report. Bayer Australia Ltd Agricultural Division (1988b). Dichlorvos TGAC Submission to the Technical Committee on Agricultural Chemicals. Book II, Part 1: Chemical data. Unpublished Report. BCERF: Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors (1999).Pesticides and Breast Cancer Risk, An Evaluation of DichlorvosinNew York State Institute for Comparative
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  43. 43. xliii APPENDICES Appendix 1 TREATMENT A BOWL SOLUTION OF DDVP 1 10 2 10 3 10 TOTAL 30 AVERAGE 10 TREATMENT B BOWL DDVP + 100g AC 1 10 2 10 3 10 TOTAL 30 AVERAGE 10
  44. 44. xliv TREATMENT C BOWL DDVP + 200g AC 1 4 2 2 3 6 TOTAL 12 AVERAGE 10 TREATMENTD BOWL DDVP + 300g AC 1 2 2 2 3 2 TOTAL 6 AVERAGE 2 TREATMENT E BOWL WATER ONLY 1 0 2 0 3 0
  45. 45. xlv TOTAL 0 AVERAGE 0

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