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(DICHLORVOS) USING CATFISH FINGERLINGS
(CLARIAS GARIEPIENUS) AS BIOINDICATOR
ONASANYA, IDOWU FRANCIS
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE:
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY LAGOS STATE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF
HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY
(ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY OPTION)
This is to certify that this project work was carried out by Onasanya, Idowu Francis (Matric No.
115042086), in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Environmental Biology
option, Lagos State polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, during the 2012/2013 academic session, in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma from the
SANYAOLU, V.T. (MRS.) DATE
COKER, J.O. (MR.) DATE
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
To God the Almighty,
With whom all things are possible
To my Mother,
Without whom I would not have come to this world.
For showering me with love, for teaching me how to endure and happy.
For not giving up on me and being with me all the way.
And to Myself
For keep keeping on
For not letting myself and everybody down.
First and foremost, I thank God for his mercy, guidance and strength all through these years, for
giving a purpose, making me to be part of this life with many capabilities to unleashed and also
enabling me complete this work.
I sincerely acknowledge my able supervisor, Mrs. V. T. Sanyaolu; for without her this project
would not have been a reality. She is a tireless worker, she assisted me in making sure that things
were done right, making sure the right journals were cited. ‘‘mummy, God bless you’’.
Furthermore, I will not forget the assistance and kind gesture of her husband, Mr. A .A.
Sanyaolu. He helped me come out in flying colours in my seminar presentation, even though we
only met once. He showed me much love, understanding, patience and kindness. Sir, God bless
My dearest thanks goes to my mother, Mrs. V .O. Onasanya for all her support in every way; ‘I
must confess, she’s the best on planet earth’. I also commend the effort of my lovely sisters and
brother. Mrs. E.O. Shorunke, Mrs. C. T. Brown and Mr. P.K. Onasanya, for their immense
support in the course of this work.
I did appreciate my Head of Department, Mr. J.O Coker for his tireless effort in making SLT
department worthy of emulation, most especially Environmental Biology option, he made our
option gain ground in the tree planting project that would be coming up every year. God continue
to shine more light on u sir.
My deep gratitude also goes to a mother I should call her; my lecturer, adviser as well, Miss
Shokekun. I pray the good Lord continue to guide your way ma.
Also a big thanks to my very good friends Pastor Seun Famubode, Rasheedat Kazeem, Haleemat
Jamiu, my little daughter SimiatTemitope Kazeem and to manys’ I never mentioned. I pray the
blessing of the most high continue to shower in your lives.
Finally to all members of the 2012/2013 final year family of Environmental Biology option,
Science Laboratory Technology Department, Lagos Sate Polytechnic Ikorodu, I say ‘it is a
privilege knowing you guys’ for the wonderful two years we have been together. I tell you all
that; ‘we have just been unleashed; and we are up for the summit’.
I gallantly salute and appreciate you all. God bless and be with us all. Amen!
Pesticides like organophosphate are routinely employed as part of the integrated farming
practices to protect crops, and animals from insects, weeds and diseases. This pesticide through
surface runoff gets to unrestricted areas like ponds and rivers where they alter the
physiochemical properties of water leading to deleterious effect and even death of aquatic
organism. Activated charcoal has been reported as the universal adsorbing material for most
pesticides. This study was carried out to determine the ability of Activated charcoal to reduce the
toxicity of dichlorvos. Exactly 0.5ml of DDVP was added to distilled water, and activated
charcoal was added to the mixture in various weight namely; 100g, 200g, and 300g. A mixture of
water and DDVP only was considered as a positive control whereas water only was use as a
negative control. The experiment was setup in 3 replicates. 10 catfish (Clarias gariepienus)
fingerlings were introduce into the mixture and observed for 3 days. Result obtained from
the fingerlings mortality showed a decrease with increase in concentration of activated
charcoal. Average mortality was 10, 6 and 2 for 100g, 200g and 300g of activated
charcoal respectively. Furthermore fingerlings mortality was 10 and 0 for positive control
and negative control respectively. This result shows that the activated charcoal has the
capacity to reduce the toxicity of DDVP in water.
In Nigeria, agrochemicals that contain pesticides like organophosphate and chlorinated
hydrocarbons are routinely employed as part of the integrated farming practice to protect crops
and animal from insects, weeds, and disease (Fafioye et al., 2001).
This so called dichlorvos also known as DDVP (O.-O- dimethyl-O-2, 2-dichloro-vinyl
phosphate) (USEPA, 2007) is an organophosphate insecticide and have been applied in northern
Nigeria as mosquitoes insecticides over the decades (Foll et al., 1965; Foll and Pant, 1966) since
its commercial manufacture started in 1961 (BCERF, 1999).
Pengman (1996) defined pesticideas any chemical agent used to kill or control undesired insects,
weeds, fungi, bacteria, or other organisms.
It is also used as an anthelmintic (worming agent) for dogs, swine, and horses, as a botacide;
agent that kills fly larvae (USEPA, 1994), the later, being a major menace in northeastern
Nigeria and hence the observed large tonnage of various brands of dichlorvos in the open market.
Pesticides contain poisonous substance that distort water quality and impose physiological stress
on biotic community of the water body which is the home of fish (Asonye et al., 2007).
These pesticides through surface runoff gets to unrestricted areas like ponds and rivers where
they alter the physiochemical properties of water and is toxic to aquatic organism and cause
deleterious effect or even death to aquatic animals (Vasit and patil, 2005).
It is use for the formulation of Ota-piapia which had caused the death of so many Nigerian
families in recent times (Olebunne, 2009) and worldwide (USEPA, 2007), specifically through
food contamination (Akunyili, 2007). Children are especially prone to accidental poisoning of
this product (Okeniyi and Lawal, 2007).
The impact of agricultural chemicals on surface and ground water quality has become an issue of
global importance. Surveys carried out by Garard and Barthelemy (2003) pointed out that using
agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides lead to residues in surface and ground waters
Many pesticides used are resistance to degradation by chemical and biological agents. It is not
surprising, therefore, that small amounts of these chemicals have been isolated from many
phases of the environment, including water supplies (Schwartz, 1996).
Fish population in the water body are susceptible to environmental impacts caused by
introduction of exotic species, industrial waste, oil spill, and most especially pesticides pollution
(Asonye et al., 2007).
Adsorption test using activated carbon to deactivate the potential hazards of these pesticides is
highly important (Thkka and Pande, 1999).
Activated carbon is an odourless, tasteless powder which adsorb large amount of chemicals or
poisons (Thrash et al., 1998).
It is created by carbonizing organic matter in a klin method preparation under anaerobic
condition and activating the material with oxidizing gases like air or steam at high temperature
Activated carbon can absorb thousands of times is own weight in gases, toxic metals, poisons
and other chemical thus making them ineffective or harmless (Thrash et al., 1998).
Pliny the elder was quoted; ‘when charcoal ignites and quench in fire that is when it acquires it
characteristics power and only when it seems to have perished that it becomes endowed with a
greater virtue (Wikipedia, 2012).
1.1 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To determine the effect of activated charcoal on the toxicity of dichlorvos using catfish
fingerlings (Clarius gariepinus) as an indicator.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 PROPERTIES OF DICHLORVOS
The Physical form of dichlorvos is from pure colourless liquid to amber liquid, with a mild, non-
specific aromatic odour. It has the boiling Point of 35˚C at 0.05 mm Hg (Ciba-Geigy 1988;
WHO 1989), 74˚C at 1 mm Hg (Tomlin 1997; WHO 1989) 234˚C at 750 mm Hg (Tomlin 1997).
Differential thermal analysis indicated exothermic decomposition commencing at 180˚C, and
thermo gravimetric analysis indicated weight loss over the temperature range 40-200˚C, but with
evaporation, not decomposition, below 150˚C (Klusacek and Krasemann 1985). It has the
specific Gravity of 1.425 at 20˚C (Tomlin 1997) with vapour Pressure of 1.6 Pa (0.0120 mm Hg)
at 20˚C (WHO 1989; Ciba-Geigy 1988; Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997) 2.1 Pa (0.016
mm Hg) at 25˚C (Tomlin 1997) 7.03 Pa (0.0527 mm Hg) at 25˚C (Howard 1991)
It solubility in water is about 8.8 g/L at 20˚C (Bayer 1988a) ~10 g/L at 20˚C (Ciba-Geigy 1988;
WHO 1989; Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997) 16 g/L at 25˚C (Howard 1991) ~18 g/L at
25˚C (Tomlin 1997) Solubility in other solvents is completely miscible with aromatic
hydrocarbons and alcohols; moderately soluble in diesel oil, kerosene, iso paraffinic
hydrocarbons and mineral oils.
The Volatility from water and moist surfaces is calculated with the flows of Henry’s Law
Constant (K in Pa·m3/mole) and as the dimensionless partition coefficient (H): K = 9.71 X 10-2
Pa·m3/mole at 25˚C (H = 3.92 X 10-5) (Howard 1991 – calculated from solubility and vapour
pressure data at 25°C) K = 3.54 X 10-2 Pa·m3/mole (H=1.45 X 10-5) (calculated by the
Department of the Environment and Water Resources [DEW] for 20°C from solubility and
vapour pressure data at 20°C, agrees with Bayer 1988b) K = 7 X 10-3 Pa·m3/mole (H = 2.82 X
10-6) (Tomlin 1997) K = 1.9 X 10-1 Pa·m3/mole (H = 7.8 X 10-5) (Teunissen-Ordelman and
Schrap 1997 – evidently calculated from the lowest solubility and highest vapour pressure values
reported) 3 n-Octanol/Water Log KOW = 1.16 (Howard 1991) Partition Coefficient: = 1.43
(Bayer 1988a; Tomlin 1997; Teunissen-Ordelman and Schrap 1997) = 1.47 (WHO 1989) = 1.90
(Tomlin 1997 – HPLC method) = 1.99 (Ciba-Geigy 1988 – HPLC method)
2.2Health implications of pesticides
Pesticides are toxic and are potentially hazardous to human, animals, other organisms and the
environment. The toxicity of a pesticide is a measure of its capacity or ability to cause injury or
illness (Lorenz, 2007) pesticide pollution was reported to have killed fishes and resulted in
reproductive failure in birds. However, humans become exposed to the pesticides through oral
(mouth), inhalation (lungs), ocular (eye), and or dermal (skin) contact (Lorenz, 2007). Chronic
effects from exposure to certain pesticide include birth defects, toxicology to a fetus,
development of benign or malignant tumors, nerve disorder, blood disorder, genetic changes,
endocrine disruption and reproductive effect. The signs and symptoms of acute exposure for
several pesticides vary according to chemical nature of the pesticides. (Lorenz, 2007)
2.3.1 Methods of use
methods of application include: “ready to use” (resin strips or slow release blocks for treatment
of confined areas, and aerosol with carbondioxide propellant for treatment of closed-up areas);
coarse wet spray (application to the floor and around doorways and windows by watering can or
as a very coarse spray, relying on volatilisation to fumigate the air space and penetrate less
accessible areas); surface spray (application to the surface of manure heaps, potato bag surfaces,
grain piles, grain elevators, wasp nests etc); space spray (released from pressurised cylinders via
spray gun or EC diluted in water and released into the building air space as a fine spray)
2.3.2 Implications for environmental exposure
Dichlorvos may potentially reach non-target areas directly through sprayed of dichlorvos
solutions, through vapours released from slow release matrices or aerosol dispensers;or
indirectly, through movement of directly released vapours or dichlorvosvolatilising from sprayed
surfaces, through spray drift, through water draining from treated areas after washing, irrigation
or rain, through treated material such as stored products, cut flowers or manure and also residues
remaining in containers or slow release matrices.
Thus use of dichlorvos in Australia occurs predominantly in protected environments, where the
main means by which the substance is likely to reach the external environment is as vapour,
unless treated material is disposed of or treated surfaces are washed or reached by irrigation
water before residues have dissipated to the atmosphere, degraded or have been absorbed. Where
the substance is applied on external surfaces or sprayed on crops direct spray or spray drift may
also contribute to environmental contamination.
Kenaga (1980) predicted the bioconcentration factor for dichlorvos from its water solubility, the
predicted value being 3 (from log BCF = 2.791 – 0.564 X log WS, where WS is the water
solubility of 10,000 mg/L). Moreover, DEW notes that the substance hydrolyses readily at
relevant pHs, further limiting the possibility of bioaccumulation.
This prediction is highly consistent with the results of a bioconcentration and excretion study of
a range of organophosphates with the fish species willow shiner (Gnathopogoncaerulescens)
reported by Tsuda et al. (1992). Fish were exposed to dichlorvos in a continuous flow through
system for 168 hours, followed by a depuration period of 72 hours. The mean measured
dichlorvos concentration (± standard deviation) was 2.3±0.3 μg/L (water pH 7.0-7.1, temperature
21±1°C). Calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for dichlorvos at 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours
were 0.8, 0.4, 1.2 and 0.8. The low concentrations of dichlorvos in the fish decreased rapidly
during depuration and were below the limit of detection by 6 hours.
2.3.4 Acute toxicity of active constituent and formulations to fish
According to WHO (1989) listed in Table 6.5. The listed reports generally indicate that
dichlorvos is highly toxic (LC50 in the range 0.1-1 mg/L) to moderately toxic (LC50 in the range
1 to 10 mg/L) to fish, with a few reports indicating slight toxicity (LC50 in the range 10-100
mg/L). The range in acute toxicity (LC50) of dichlorvos to fish from these studies was ~0.2
mg/L to >40 mg/L, with the lowest value being 0.122 mg/L for larvae of the herring.
A brief report (Bayer 1980) of a study with a 50EC formulation of dichlorvos (555 g ac/L)
indicated that the 96 h LC50 of the product to rainbow trout was 0.93 (95% confidence limits =
0.85-1.04) mg product/L, a dose which would result in a dichlorvos concentration of
approximately 0.5 mg ac/L. A similar study (Bayer 1981) with golden orfe indicated a 96 h
LC50 of 0.45 (95% confidence limits = 0.40-0.52) mg product/L, a dose which would result in a
dichlorvos concentration of approximately 0.2 mg ac/L. Both tests were rated as acceptable by
DEW (respectively, control + 4 dose levels with 10 or 20 fish at each concentration, and control
+ 7 dose levels, with 10 fish at each concentration, but concentrations not measured). Lewallen
and Wilder (1999) reported that dichlorvos (evidently active constituent added in acetone) was
not lethal to either 1 week old or 1 month old fry of rainbow trout at 1 mg/L, but caused 100%
mortality at 10 mg/L
2.3.5 Use of dichlorvos in fish farming
Dichlorvos is much less toxic to fish species such as salmon than it is to fish parasites such as the
salmon louse Lepeophtheirussalmonis (24-48 h LC50 < 5 μg/L to 40 μg/L according to the US
EPA AQUIRE database) and the freshwater isopod Alitropustypus (48 h LC50 = 9.25 μg/L -
Nair and Nair 1982). Hence dichlorvos has been widely used to control ectoparasites in finfish
culture, though this use may have declined due to problems with louse resistance (Ross 1989)
and environmental concerns (Davies 1995). Trichlorfon, which degrades to dichlorvos in water,
has also been used for the same purpose (Samuelsen 1987).
2.3.6 Biology and description of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
The choice of catfish as the experimental animal for this study was informed by its ability to
withstand stress (Barton, 2002). The group with which it belongs is large withat least 40 species,
which exist in west Africa water alone (Adeke, 2007) the group of clariasgariepinus is hardy and
highly valued in Nigeria. They have a wide variety of shapes, but all of them possess well
developed barbells, the whiskers which give the group it common name (Reed et al., 1967).
Alteration in the aquatic habitat are considered as an adaptive mechanism (De La Tore et al.,
2005) which allows the fish to cope with real or perceived stressors so that the normal
homeostatic state could be maintained (Barton, 2002)In natural water catfish lived in a moderate
to swiftly flowing stream, but they are also abundant in large reservoirs, lakes, ponds, and some
sluggish streams (Wikipedia, 2013). They are usually found where bottoms are sand, gravel or
rubble, in preference to mud bottoms. They are seldom found in dense aquatic weeds. Catfish are
fresh waters fish but they can thrive in blackish water.
They generally prefer clear water stream, but are common and do well in muddy water. During
the day, they are usually found in deep holes wherever the protection of logs ad rocks can be
found. Most movement and feeding activity occurs at night just after sunset and just before
sunrise. Young cat fish frequently feed in shallow riffle areas while the adults seem to feed in
deeper water immediately downstream from sand bars. Adult rarely move much from one areas
toanother and are rather sedentary, while young fish tends to move about more extensively,
particularly at night when feeding.
Catfish grown best in warm water with optimum growth occurring at temperature of about 850 F
(29.40c) with each 180 F (100 c) changes in temperature there is a doubling or halving of their
metabolic rate. This means that within limits, their appetite with increase water temperature or
decrease with decrease water temperature. In natural water, the average size of catfish caught by
fishermen is probably less than 2 or 3 pounds, but the world record of 58 pounds was caught in
Santee cooper Reservoir, south Carolina, 1964. Age and growth studies of this fish have shown
that in much natural water, catfish do not reach 1 pound in size until they are 2 to 4 years old.
2.3.7 Removal of pesticides from the environment
Several attempts had been made in the past to minimize the level of pesticides present in the
environment. Some of the pesticides are biodegradable and are naturally broken down by
microorganisms (Fushiwaki and Urano, 2001). It has been observed that organic pesticides found
in nearly all living matters have been analyzed. Microorganism can metabolize pesticides if they
are biodegradable and if they have chemical structure capable with the organisms’ enzymes that
catalyze the biodegradable. Mechanism of degradation includesmineralization, partial
degradation to secondary compounds, adsorption, humiliation and volatilization. According to
Clausen et al.,(2001), sorption desorption is one of the key processes affecting the fate of
agrochemicals in the sediment water environment. Adsorption on the soil is another important
physiochemical characteristic governing the fate of pesticides in the environment (Fushiwaki and
2.3.8 Preparation of activated charcoal
The properties of activated charcoal produced will depends on the material charred and charring
temperature is also important. Charcoal contains varying amount of hydrogen and oxygen as well
as ash and other impurities that together with the structure determine the properties (Wikipedia,
The two main methods of preparing activated charcoal are:
Cast iron retort.
Fig 1: Pictureshowing construction process of klin method of activated charcoal
Fig 2: picture showing combustion process of klin method of activated charcoal
Fig 3: picture showing the cast iron retort and the inner chamber
2.3.9 CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
Large surface area: This reveals the high surface area structure of activated carbon. Individual
particles are intensely overlapping coiled or fold and displayed various kinds of porosity; there
may be many areas where flat surface of graphite-like material run parallel to each other,
separated by only a few nanometer or these microspore provides superb condition for adsorption
to occur, since adsorbing material can interact with many surfaces simultaneously (Gray et
Small pore size: It varies depending on the source of the carbon and the manufact
uring process. Large organic molecules are absorbed better than smaller ones (Wikipedia,2012).
High adsorption ability: This tends to increase as the PH and temperature decrease.
Contaminations are removed more effectively if they are in contact with the activated carbon for
a longer time (Zhang et al., 2013).
2.3.10 Adsorption Using Activated Carbon
Remediation of contaminated ground water has been practiced using activated carbon adsorption.
According to (Stouffer, 2001), the removal of organics in water that are weakly adsorbed and
present in trace concentration require an activated carbon with a predominance of high – energy
pores. Activated carbons are processed carbon materials that are capable of adsorbing various
substances from gas and liquid streams, because of their highly developed pore structure and
large internal specific surface areas (Abdul and Aberuagba, 2005).
2.3.11 Use of Activated Carbon to Remove Pesticides
A great deal of research has been performed on the adsorption of pesticide onto activated carbon.
As a result of its tremendously large surface area, activated carbon is used widely to adsorb large
quantities of materials from solution. The small tiny pores in the activated carbon structure
makes removal of very small organic matter possible. Removal of pesticides from contaminated
water by activated carbon adsorption is considered as one of the best available technologies
(Mishra & Bhattacharya, 2007).
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
Powdered Activated charcoal
African mud catfish ;Clarias gariepinus (fingerlings)
Amput electronic scale
Dichlorvors ( NOPEST)
3.2 LOCATION OF STUDY
The experiment was carried out at the in the Environmental Biology Laboratory, Lagos state
Polytechnic ,Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria .Coordinate; N06.38’ 38.7’ E 00.31 27.6
3.3 PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
The charcoal was brought from Jakande market in ketu. It was grinded using grinding stone into
powder form. After grinding, the powdered activated carbon was weighed with an Amput
electronic scale and the total weight was recorded. The powdered charcoal was then divided into
various weights namely; 100g, 200g, and 300g. these were used for the experiment to determine
the rate of adsorption of toxicant in an aquatic ecosystem.
3.4 TEST MATERIAL
The pesticide used is dichlorvos (NOPEST), a member of the family of organophosphate with a
chemical formular of 2, 2 – dichlorovoinyl dimethyl phosphate, C 4H7Cl2O4P. it is colourless to
amber liquid, with an aromatic odour. The boiling point 35oC at 0.0mmHg, vapour pressure 1.2 x
10-2 mmHg at 20oC.its solubility in water at room temperature Is about 1%. It is a contact and
stomach insecticide with fumigant and penetrant action, especially against dipteral and
mosquitoes (Hubert, 1986). It is contact acting and fumigant pesticides for control of wide range
of insect. It is an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) containing 1000mgL-1. It was purchased from an
agrochemical store in the Lagos Island, Lagos State. Nigeria.
The fingerlings of African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinium) was procured from a commercial
fish farm at the federal ministry of agriculture estate Ikorodu. The fishes were transported in
polythene bag half filled with dichlorinated tap water from storage tank to the laboratory where
they were held in a large plastic water container for acclimation over 7days. The fishes were fed
once in a day with coppens fish feed containing 45% crude protein as described by
(Omoniyiet.al.,2002). The water in which they were kept was renewed daily after feeding. The
uneaten food and faecal matter were siphoned out. Feeding was stopped 24hours to the toxicity
study after which the fingerlings were introduced into the stock solution.
3.6 PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTION
Dichlorvos used is in concentration of 1000g/dm3 was used as such (stock solution). The working
concentrations were prepared from the stock solution. It was prepared with the use of pipette,
adding 0.5 ml of dichlorvos (nopest)to 2L of water (2000ml).
3.7 STUDY DESIGN
The toxicity study was conducted using 3litres capacity in the bowls, four different treatment
were considered and a control. Each bowl was filled with 2liters of distilled water. 0.5mls of
DDVP was added to the water in each of the 4 bowls leaving out the control(2l of distilled water
only) and allowed to stay for 24hrs to mix thoroughly, after which activated charcoal was added
to three of the bowls in measured weights of 100g, 200g, and 300g respectively. The extra one
bowl contained a solution of DDVP only without activated charcoal (positive control). The
experiment was setup in 3 replicates. After the addition of the activated charcoal, the bowls were
left to stay for another 5 days, after which the contents of each bowls was filtered using a 0.05
pore size filter paper.
The bowls were designated as follows
A - A solution of DDVP(Positive control)
B -A solution of DDVP + 100g AC
C - A solution of DDVP + 200g AC
D - A solution of DDVP + 300g AC
E -A control (water only)
Fig 4: Picture showing the grinding process of activated charcoal (Francis, 2013)
FIG 5: A picture showing the experimental set-up (Francis, 2013).
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Various treatments A (containing water and DDVP only), B (100g of activated charcoal and
dichlorvos), C (200g of activated charcoal and dichlorvos), D (300g of activated charcoal and
dichlorvos), and E (water only) with three replicates were used to determine the mortality of
fingerlings. Results obtained were as follows.
When the fingerlings were introduced, it was observed that the fingerlings displayed various
effects in different bowls containing different treatments. In treatment A, it was observed that as
soon as the fingerlings were introduced, they began to show erratic movement, unconditional
swimming which lasted for about 5 seconds. They started coming to the surface to gasp for
oxygen which shows that they are suffocating. Eventually, the fingerlings all died. Highest
mortality of fingerlings was recorded. A total loss and average mortality of 10 out of 30 was as
indicated in the below graph. A total loss and average mortality of 10 out of 30 was indicated in
the below table and the slope of the graph shows that mortality increases as there was no
activated charcoal added. And after 24hrs, the fingerlings were bleached to show a change in
In treatment B,it was observed that there was initial stability in the fingerlings but after about
2hrs, the fingerlings started coming to the surface of the water to gasp for oxygen. I began to
observe irregular movement in the fingerlings which shows that there may still be possible
presence of dichlorvos (DDVP) in the water. Highest mortality of fingerlings was also recorded.
A total loss and average mortality of 10 out of 30 wasindicated in the below table and the slope
of the graph shows that mortality increases as the activated charcoal has got no effect on the
contaminated water. After 24hrs they were all dead and bleached like the contaminant in A.
In treatment C, opercular movement was increased at the initial stage of exposure to the water.
After about 57secs, I observed that the fishes became normal and active. Low mortality of
fingerlings was recorded. Total losses of 12 out of 30 fingerlings were recorded dead after 72hrs.
And an average mortality of 4 was indicated in the below table while the slope of the graph
shows that mortality decreases in this treatment.
And in the treatment D, fingerlings shows a slow movement at the initial stage but later became
active and stable .Least mortality was recorded. Total losses of 6 out of 30 fingerlings were
recorded dead after 72hrs. An average mortality of 2 was indicated in the below table while slope
of the graph shows a maximum decrease in the fingerlings mortality compare to treatment B and
Whilein treatment E, fingerlings were highly active and stable just like in their natural habitat
and no mortality recorded after 72 hrs. An average mortality of 0 out of 30 was all alive as
indicated in the below table while also the slope of the graph shows no decrease in the mortality
of the fingerlings.
TABLE 1: AVERAGE MORTALITY PATTERN OBSERVED IN DIFFERENT
Treatments Average no fingerlings
Average mortality of % Mortality
A 10 10 100
B 10 10 100
C 10 4 40
D 10 2 20
E 10 0 0
Fig 6: A Graph showing average mortality of Fingerlings against the weight of activated charcoal
A B C D E
Farmer as well as the general public is concern about the effect of pesticide on the environment.
At the same time, the agricultural community realizes that pesticides are vital for consistence
profitable, production of reliable, safe, high quality of pesticide community (Fred et al., 1996).
Large quantity of pesticide is handled by farmer; thus pesticides accident may occur, even when
the most stringent safety guidelines are followed. If a pesticides spills accidentally, or applied
wrongly or applied at an excessive rate, proper corrective measure can help prevent
environmental contamination of soil and water resources (Fred et al., 1996).
In the course of the study the effect of activated charcoal was test on the acute toxicity of
dichlorvos using C. gariepinus as a test organism.
Various treatments A, B, C, D, E were used and their responses were observed. In treatment A
and B the activated charcoal was not added as there were behavioural response of fish to toxicant
and difference in reaction time has been observed due to the effect of the chemicals, their
concentration, size of fish and specific environmental condition which inhibits the enzyme
cholinesterase as cited by (Oh et al., 1991).
Applying material that can adsorb or inactivated the pesticides is best suitable. Once pesticide
has been adsorbed, it is biologically inactive and cannot cause environmental contamination by
runoff in surface or leaching into the ground water.
Activated charcoal was used in this situation and it prove it worth in treatment C and D as there
was less mortality compare to the ones it is not added. Activated charcoal isa universal adsorbing
material for most pesticides. It is made up of very small carbon particles that have a high affinity
for organic chemicals such as dichlorvos (Fred et al., 1996). Activated charcoal has large surface
area which organic molecules can bind. When applied to pesticides contaminated soil, the
pesticides molecules are attracted to charcoal particles and bind to them when they come on
contact. This was achieved by applying different amount of activated charcoal as cited by (Fred
et al., 1996).
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study has shown that activated charcoal has the ability to deactivate dichlorvos in aqueous
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BOWL SOLUTION OF DDVP
BOWL DDVP + 100g AC
BOWL DDVP + 200g AC
BOWL DDVP + 300g AC
BOWL WATER ONLY