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Commercial-aircraft-operation.pptx

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Pixel Scientific™, Inc. provides custom displays, both standard and custom-sized, into all markets. These spaces include aerospace, industrial, medical, transportation and the rapidly-growing digital signage industry. Our solutions cover the spectrum of display sizes and system integration levels from small panels to full smart-display systems. We manufacture to exacting tolerances including suitable for aerospace where our modules are used in both flight simulators and actual aircraft flight-decks with flight-certified custom displays. At the other end of the spectrum our display systems used for instance in train cars like at the Seattle and Atlanta airports with their self-contained, wirelessly-connected, embedded computers and audio systems. We provide hard to get, custom display solutions such as electronic shelf labels and transparent displays. In addition to mainstream products, Pixel Scientific has a business providing prototyping for early-stage concepts in consumer electronics, concept cars and other industries. In a word, Pixel Scientific is all things, well, pixels.

Pixel Scientific™, Inc. provides custom displays, both standard and custom-sized, into all markets. These spaces include aerospace, industrial, medical, transportation and the rapidly-growing digital signage industry. Our solutions cover the spectrum of display sizes and system integration levels from small panels to full smart-display systems. We manufacture to exacting tolerances including suitable for aerospace where our modules are used in both flight simulators and actual aircraft flight-decks with flight-certified custom displays. At the other end of the spectrum our display systems used for instance in train cars like at the Seattle and Atlanta airports with their self-contained, wirelessly-connected, embedded computers and audio systems. We provide hard to get, custom display solutions such as electronic shelf labels and transparent displays. In addition to mainstream products, Pixel Scientific has a business providing prototyping for early-stage concepts in consumer electronics, concept cars and other industries. In a word, Pixel Scientific is all things, well, pixels.

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Commercial-aircraft-operation.pptx

  1. 1. Commercial aircraft operation engine realibility & safety Olivier Petit & Henrik Ekstrand Applied Mechanics department, fluid mechanics division 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Lunch Seminar
  2. 2. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 2 Background There is a market pull to fly further and further away. Average of 6 000 – 10 000 planes in the sky at any time. (expected 5% per year increase for the coming 10 years) Need for regulations to avoid accidents, and manage take-off and landings. Creation of highways in the sky to avoid collision.
  3. 3. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 3 Aviation safety A wide topic where interaction typically occurs between all stakeholders (e.g. Airspace Users (AUs), Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs), Airport Operators etc.). Airspace Users typically has great redundancy in various systems (e.g. three hydraulic systems). Communication, Navigation & Surveillance (CNS). ANSPs and AUs are using various surveillance systems for traffic sequencing and separation, including airborne anti collision systems such as the Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Satellite navigation used as primary navigation source associated with very high accuracy. Communication is established all around the world via ground stations or SatCom.
  4. 4. 1 2.03 3.36 4.97 6.84 8.94 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Failure probability per 10 000 hours Engine horsepower 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 4 8.12 10.08 13.68 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1500 2000 3000 Failure probability per 10 000 hours for 6 000 HP Failure probabilities 6 000 HP installed 1953 data from ICAO(International Civil Aviation Organisation) Early airplanes were powered by piston engine. The reliability of piston engine at the time was rather poor. There is a close correlation between engine failure and engine power (see left picture). As a consequence, a 60 minute rule was established In 1953: to always operate an aircraft within 100 NM from an adequate airport (100 NM ≈ 60 min flying with one engine inoperative). 1 NM (Nautical Mile=1.852 km) Probability of failure for piston engines vs. power at a constant engine speed of 1 000 rpm.
  5. 5. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 5 Reliability of jet engines since the 1950s and onwards The introduction of jet engines significantly enhanced the reliability and safety of propulsion systems. The failure probability of a jet engine in neither affected by the thrust nor by the size of the engine. In today’s operation it is possible to operate > 180 minutes from an adequate airport with a twin engine aircraft (based on single engine operation). 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 22-30 37-40 48-50 50-60 65-70+ Failure rate per 1000 hours Engine thrust (kilo Pounds)
  6. 6. ETOPS certification operational since 1985 (ETOPS-90, ETOPS-120) ETOPS definition: extended range operations are those flights conducted over a route that contain a point further than one hour flying time at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport. Combined safety measure, EROPS: En Route Alternate Airports. It denotes that this airport is adequate for use as an ETOPS alternate (weather, runway length, wide and strength…). Military airports are available as En Route Alternate. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 6 ETOPS certification: Extended-range Twin engine OPerationS ETOPS certification representation
  7. 7. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 7 180 min operation Operational impact 120 min operation Direct route = 4350 NM 60 min rule = 5700 NM 180 min rule = 4350 NM
  8. 8. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 8 Engine certification There are hundreds of tests that need to be performed for certification of a turbine engine. Amongst them are: Maximum static thrust tests Vibration tests Endurance tests Water ingestion test Hail ingestion test Ice cloud test Bird strike test
  9. 9. Engine certification: electronic code of federal regulations: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div5&node=14:1.0.1.3.16#_top 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 9
  10. 10. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 10 Engine certification: electronic code of federal regulations: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div5&node=14:1.0.1.3.16#_top
  11. 11. 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 11 Aviation statistics Boeing Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents 1959-2015 You can travel 7 times to the moon or 14 000 times around the globe before experiencing an emergency landing to En Route Alternate Airports. There were four accidents resulting in passenger fatalities in 2015, all of which involved turboprop aircraft, with 136 fatalities. This compares with an average of 17.6 fatal accidents and 504 fatalities per year in the previous five-year period (2010-2014). IATA: International Air Transport Association, trade association for the world’ airlines
  12. 12. Thank you for your attention! 01/12/2022 AoA Transport Seminar 12

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Thule in Greenland, Keflavik in Iceland, Gander in Canada
    Airbus A300 twinjet aircraft had been operated across the North Atlantic, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean under a 90-minute ICAO rule since 1976. However, ETOPS officially began in 1985 with the newly issued ETOPS criteria.

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