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Brain development

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Brain development

  2. 2. THE BRAIN  Three-pound organ of pinkish-gray tissue.  10 billion nerve cells.  Responsible for all mental functions.  Control center for movement, sleep, hunger, thirst and virtually other vital activity necessary to survival.  All human emotions, including love, hate, fear, anger, elation and sadness.  Receives and interprets the countless signals sent from our body and environment.
  3. 3. The Brain Before and at Birth 4th month • Medulla, Cerebellum, and Cerebrum • All clearly separated 6th month (middle) • A dentlike fissure appears on the surface of the cerebrum At birth • Baby‘s brain contain 100 billion neurons
  4. 4. Anatomy and Composition of the Brain • Refers to all structures lying between the cerebrum and the spinal cord • Diencephalon, Midbrain, Pons and Medulla • Covered by three membranes called Meninges: • Dura mater – outer one; tough and shiny • Arachnoid layer – middle; encloses the brain loosely and does not slip down into brain’s convolutions, or ridges. • Pia mater – inner; consists mainly of small blood vessels that adhere to the surface of the brain. THE BRAIN STEM
  5. 5. THE CEREBRUM The largest part of the human brain. 85% of the brain’s weight. Cortex - Large surface area - Intricate development account for superior intelligence. Corpus Callosum - Slab of white nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. Cerebral Cortex - Outer layer of gray matter - 3 to 4 mm thick Five lobes - Occipital, frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. - Insular lobe, located internally, not visible at the outside brain.
  6. 6. THE CEREBELLUM - Lies in the posterior or hind part of the cranium, underneath the cerebral hemispheres, Vermins - White fibers that connects the two multiridged hemispheres. Cerebral peduncles - Three band of fibers that connects cerebellum to the other parts of the brain. - Superior (top) – midbrain - Middle – pons - Inferior (bottom) - medulla - Essential to the control movement of the body. - Reflex center for the coordination and precise maintenance of equilibrium.
  7. 7. THALAMUS - Part of diencephalon - Consist of two rounded mass of gray tissue. (very middle of the brain) - Crucial relay station for incoming sensory signals and outgoing motor signals (going to and from cerebral cortex)
  8. 8. HYPOTHALAMUS - Lies just below the thalamus on the midline base of the brain. Vital activities necessary for survival - eating, drinking, temperature regulation, sleep, emotional behavior, and sexual activity. - Appears to act as biological timer.
  9. 9. Pons - Located between medulla and midbrain, directly in front of cerebellum. - Consist mainly of transverse and longitudinal white nerve fibers. - A transverse bridge of fibers arises from the peduncle of the cerebellum and join its two halves. - An intricate longitudinal fiber system connects the medulla with the cerebral hemispheres.
  10. 10. Limbic System Makes up o portions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampsal formation, amygdala, caudate nucleus, septum, and mesencephalon. Linked together in a unique way by fiberpaths. Control multifaceted behavior, including emotional expression, seizure activity, and memory storage and recall.
  11. 11. CEREBRAL CORTEX Brain’s outer layer of gray matter 3 to 4 mm. thick It is composed of layers of unmyelinated (unsheated) cells which in turn cover an inner mass of myelinated (white sheathed) fibers called white matter.
  12. 12. • Somatomotor area – in front of central fissure; responsible for nearly all voluntary movements of the body muscles. • Somatosensory area – behind the central fissure; receives impulses from the skin surface as well as from structures beneath the skin; sensation such as touch and taste are processed here.
  13. 13. • Frontal lobe – Personality, behavior, emotions – Judgment, planning, problem solving – Speech: speaking and writing (Broca’s area) – Body movement (motor strip) – Intelligence, concentration, self awareness • Parietal lobe – Interprets language, words – Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip) – Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory – Spatial and visual perception • Occipital lobe – Interprets vision (color, light, movement) • Temporal lobe – Understanding language (Wernicke’s area) – Memory – Hearing – Sequencing and organization
  14. 14. • Theories of neuroscientists on cellular mechanisms by which nerve cells store memories (Nash, 1998) : – A change occurs in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the cells of the cortex to code the memory trace in the brain’s protein material. – Peptides – (hormonlike substances) in the brain are activated as an event is being stored as a memory. – Neurotransmitters (chemicals that relay nerve impulses between two or more neurons) are altered as impulses stored.
  15. 15. THANK