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CAUSES OF OVER
By Fayaz Ahmad
Department of Statistics University of Malakand Chakdara
K.P.K Dir (L)
Population of Pakistan is increasing rapidly day by day due to the following
• HIGHER BRITH RATE
• ECONOMIC FINACIAL
• SOCIO CULTURAL
• OLD TRADITION OF EARLY MARRIAGE
• RELIGIOUS SUPPORT
• POLITICAL CONSTRAINTS TO FAMILY PLANING
• MEDICAL TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS TO FAMILY PLANNING SUPPORT TO HIGHER BIRTH
• QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS TO FAMILY PLANNING SUPPORT TO HIGHER BIRTH
• DEATH CONTROL
• HIGHER MIGRATION
• DEPENDENCY RATION
HIGHER BIRTH RATE
•Pakistan birth rate is higher than the rest of
the world developed nations its birth rate is
2.7% and stands on 7th population of the
world. There are so many reasons of this
higher birth rate in Pakistan some are the
• In all the third world countries including Pakistan
children(particularly male) are considered as a
source of income and helping hands in old age,
therefore desire for maximum male children leads
to over population in the third world countries
• There are so many socio cultural reasons of over population in Pakistan
some are included here.
• Ignorance and illiteracy of the messes
• Sons are the guns power and prestige of the family
• Male inheritance of property
• Purda and shyness no say of women
OLD TRADITION OF EARLY MARRIAGE
•Tradition of large family
•Polygamy among rural Muslims (keeping
more than one wife)
•Propaganda against family planning
The religion of Islam is giving support and the rate of fertility among
Muslims is higher and adult Muslims is allowed to have four wives which
enhances population growth the remarriage with a window among Muslims
gives enhance to the expansion of the population early marriage of the
children and antagonistic attitude of the Muslims against the family
planning programs further enhance the rate of population growth .
The masses are fatalistic and have belief that whatever has been written in
the fate cannot be changed by the efforts of human beings so fatalism leads
to expansion of population.
POLITICAL CONSTRANTS TO FAMILY
• There are so many political reasons of failure of family program and leading
to higher birth rate in Pakistan.
• Avoid participating
• Political instability
• Lift on the mercy of foreign aid / flowcharting budget
• Policy change
• Policy change
MEDICAL TECHNICAL CONSTRANTS
TO FAMILY PLANNING SUPPORT TO
• There are so many medical and health problems side effect of contraceptives which
lead to no practice of family planning and higher birth the
• Weight problem swelling
• Body pain
• Health weakness
• Problem in conception pregnancy
• Child health problems
• Mother general and reproductive health problems.
QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS
TO FAMILY PLANNING SUPPORT TO
• Quality of service constraints to family which are supporting to higher birth is the following.
• Lack of proper supervision and evaluation
• Inadequate coverage of the population
• In sufficient in for motion
• Low quality contraceptives
• Lack of government and community support
• Lack of male support involvement
• Lack of field and technical staff.
•One of the reasons of over population is
higher life expectancy due to modern
medicines and health care which control
the death rate and a person survive stay in
society for longer period of time.
• Higher migration is one of the major reasons of over population following
are some factors
• Health facilities
• High standard of living
• Job opportunities
• Better security of life and property .
• Typically defined as the ratio of those of non active age to those of active age in a given population OR
• A measure of the portion of a population which is composed of dependents (people who are too young or
too old to work). The dependency ratio is equal to the number of individuals aged below 15 or above 64
divided by the number of individuals aged 15 to 64 expressed as a percentage this gives
• (total) Dependency ratio=(no of people aged 0 to 14)+(no of people aged 65 and over)/no of people aged
• Or DR=children+Elders/working *100
This ratio is important because as it increases there may be an increased cost on the productive part of the
population to maintain the up bring and pension of the economically dependent there are direct impacts on
financial elements like social security .
• The (Total ) dependency ratio can be partitioned into the child dependency
ratio and the aged dependency ratio.
Child dependency ratio =(no of people aged 0-14)/(no of people aged 15-
Aged dependency ratio = (no of people aged 65 and over)/(no of people aged
For England and Wales there were in 1985 an estimated 10251300 children
30571500 adults and 9098700 elders thus
D.R = C +E/adults *100
D.R = 10251300+9098700/30571500*100
D.R = 63%