1. Dr Fayaz A. Malla
Assistant Professor, Environmental Sciences
Higher Education Department, Govt. of J&K
2. Disaster management is an applied science which
seeks by systematic observation and analysis of
disasters to improve measures relating to prevention,
mitigation, preparedness, emergency, response and
3. A disaster is a situation in which the community is incapable of
It is a natural or human-caused event which causes intense negative
impacts on people, goods, services and/or the environment,
exceeding the affected community’s capability to respond;
therefore the community seeks the assistance of government and
4. Mitigation: Measures put in place to minimize the results from a disaster.
Examples: building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.
Preparedness: Planning how to respond. Examples: preparedness plans;
emergency exercises/training; warning systems.
Response: Initial actions taken as the event takes place. It involves efforts to
minimize the hazards created by a disaster. Examples: evacuation; search and
rescue; emergency relief.
Recovery: Returning the community to normal. Ideally, the affected area should
be put in a condition equal to or better than it was before the disaster took
place. Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical care.
8. Structural mitigation – construction
projects which reduce economic and
social impacts i.e. dams, windbreaks,
terracing and hazard resistant
Non-structural activities – policies and
practices which raise awareness of
hazards or encourage developments to
reduce the impact of disasters
10. Reviewing building codes.
Vulnerability analysis updates.
Zoning and land-use management and planning.
Reviewing of building use regulations and safety codes.
Implementing preventative health measures
Political intervention and commitment
11. Various mitigation strategies or
measures- For instance, varieties
of crops that are more wind, flood
or drought resistant can often be
introduced in areas prone to
floods, drought and cyclones,
Community based Mitigation
Government Based mitigation
12. Investment in infrastructure to support sustainable socioeconomic
Investment in infrastructure for reconstruction and recovery.
i. A backup generator is available in case of power
failure and that a battery-operated radio .
ii. A backup copy of all critical information
iii. The preliminary design should take into consideration the
prevalent hazards and methods to avoid or to minimize the
effects of the extreme natural events.
iv. Strengthening vulnerable areas such as roofs,
exterior doors, windows, and garage doors
13. • Disasters set back development
programming, destroying years of
• Rebuilding after a disaster provides
significant opportunities to initiate
• Development programmes can increase an
area’s susceptibility to disasters
• Development programmes can be designed to
decrease the susceptibility to disasters and
their negative consequences
14. • Partnership-close collaboration among donors,
governments, communities, nongovernmental
organizations, the private sector, and
• Flexibility-. Development agencies must be
efficient and flexible; adaptable to local
environments and capable of adjusting to
changing conditions and seizing
opportunities when they arise.
• Selectivity-resources are the public asset that
must be invested prudently to achieve
15. Preparedness measures include:
Emergency communications systems
Evacuations plans and training
Resource inventories Emergency
Mutual aid agreements
16. • Develop and test warning systems regularly and plan measures to
be taken during a disaster alert period to minimize potential loss
of life and physical damage.
• Educate and train officials and the population at risk to respond to
• Train first-aid and emergency response teams.
• Establish emergency response policies, standards, organizational
arrangements and operational plans to be followed by emergency
workers and other response entities after a disaster.
17. • It forms the action plan to be
implemented before, during and after
• The IFRCRCS (International Federation of
Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies)
defines risk reduction as physical measures
to reduce the vulnerability and exposure
of infrastructure to natural hazards as well
and to provide coping and adaptive
infrastructure in case of a disaster event.
18. • Policy, planning and
capacity building in
• Physical prevention;
example, building sea-
walls against storm surge or
flood shelters during flood
• Capacity building at
systemic level in
• Continued provision of
food, potable water and
19. • EOPallows the community to respond
• Engages responders in the short-
• Must be flexible to be valuable in real
and potential emergencies.
• It doesn’t include the administrative plan,
the mitigation strategy, the long term
recovery or the Standard Operational
20. Aim of Disaster Response
Evacuation, Migration, administrating first-aid,
transportation of affected people to hospital
Discuss the restoration of essential services.
Ideal Command Centre
Modern and traditional methods of response
21. Evacuation, Migration, administrating first-aid, transportation of
affected people to hospital
Discuss the restoration of essential services.
Ideal Command Centre
Modern and traditional methods of response
22. The mission of the response phase is to meet the basic needs of the people until more
permanent and sustainable solutions are formulated.
There is growing awareness of costs associated with improper management of disasters
and hence communities and government are trying hard to improve the first responder
Disaster response is aimed at providing instant support to maintain life and health of the
There is a wide array of response activities carried out after disaster like first-aid,
transportation, shelter and food, initial repairs to damaged infrastructure.
23. The level & kind of disaster response depends on a number of factors – the
scale of disaster, the nature and number of affected people and site-
Response comprises the decisions and actions taken to deal with an urgent
situation that has adversely affected life and property.
It calls for collaboration, coordination and communication between agencies
involved in administrating rescue and relief operations.
The main aim of response is to save and protect human life.
24. The other aims of response are-
1. To guarantee the continued existence of the maximum possible number of
affected population and ensuring that they are in the best possible physical and
mental health in the circumstances.
2. To reinstate critical services and provide food, clothing and water.
3. To restore or replace demolished or damaged infrastructure.
4. To make alternate housing arrangements in camps.
5. To help in relieving suffering.
6. To protect the health and safety of responding personnel.
25. AN INTELLIGENT CITY KNOWS WHAT IS HAPPENING
AND WHAT TO DO WHEN PEOPLE, BUILDINGS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE ARE THREATENED
TSUNAMI RUN UP
FOUR PILLARS OF
27. • Notification (recognition)
• Search and rescue
• Medical care of disaster
• Disaster communications
• Record keeping
• Transportation and
29. Disaster Response
• Local response
• most effective first 24 hour
• EMS driven
• External response
• ultimate responsibility
• may designate lead agency
• health, foreign affairs, public works, agriculture, education
30. Internal Response Management
• Rapid response
• Socially and culturally appropriate
• Family and community support
• Assists in immediate recovery
• Reduces dependency
• Builds upon local response mechanisms
• Develops internal capacity
31. Internal Response Management
• Limited capacity
• Limited experience and planning
• Lack of large scale sectoral ability
• Lack of coordination on large scale
• Lack of large scale funding
• Lack of monitoring
• Limited ability to address prevention and preparedness
33. External Response Management
• Duplication of services
• Draws from local capacity building
• Non-sustained funding and dependency
• Culturally and socially problematic
• Lack of standardization of NGO response
• Difficult to coordinate and monitor
• Unrealistic expectations of donor assistance
• Local partners overloaded
• Program is poorly conceptualized
34. Control Process and Measurement
Controlling is a systematic efforts by which it is ensured that plans
are strictly followed and actual performance is measured and
compared with that standard performance.
At the planning level, the tasks and roles are clearly stated and
responders are made aware of their responsibilities.
This helps them to control their behavior and priorities their tasks.
35. Control Process and Measurement
The control process is a three step process-
1. Setting performance standards.
2. Measuring actual performance.
3. Comparing actual performance with standards.
36. Security Issues
It is vital to ensure the security of the most vulnerable
population that is women, children and the elderly.
Generally, it is seen that security is not always a priority issue
after a disaster because rescue and relief operations are
Along with police, military personnel are also deployed to
respond to a disaster.
37. Security Issues
vulnerabilities of the
physical security and
Given the state of
public order in the
should be established.
It helps prevent the public order from turning
into an undesirable state of panic and chaos.
38. Evacuation and Migration
Evacuation involves the relocation of individuals and
members of the affected community from risk-zone to a
Evacuation can help individual and communities avoid
the aftermath of disasters such as building collapse,
outbreak of diseases, etc.
39. Evacuation and Migration
People are reluctant to evacuate even in the most
dangerous situations because of inadequate social
or economical resources.
The three pre-requisites ofeffective evacuation are:
1. A Plan of action and place to relocate the evacuees.
2. Clear identification of escape routes.
3. A timely and accurate warning system to inform about the exact
turn of events.
40. Evacuation and Migration
Evacuation is immediate and urgent movement of people
away from the threat or actual occurrence of a rapid onset
of a disaster.
This type of migration is temporary in nature and after the
crisis is over the families return to their homes.
41. Administering First-Aid
The process of addressing the needs of a
is physically injured or is
distressed is referred to as
Though first-aid is not substitute for
professional medical help, but still it can make
a difference between life and death.
42. Administering First-Aid
When addressing the first-aid after disasters, there are certain
aspects that need to be taken care of –
1. Check the surroundings.
2. Seek help whenever necessary.
3. Remain with the victim.
4. Stay Calm.
5. Determine responsiveness.
6. Help to stop bleeding first.
7. Psychological support.
43. Administering First-Aid
Training in first-aid should be made
compulsory at School and College level.
The kind of first-aid differs according to the
nature of disaster.
First-aid training must be packaged in a way
that ‘clearly outlines its aims, mechanism,
when it is used, where it can be applied and
who benefits from its use, who can deliver it’.
44. Mobilization and Restoration of Essential
To ensure effective command and control of an
emergency situation, it is crucial that essential services
1. Telephone Lines
2. Electricity and power supply
3. Drinking water supply & non-perishable food
4. Alternate roads
45. Search and rescue Work
Disaster response activities begin with the detection
of the crisis and end with the normalization of the
situation following impact.
The response activities entail triggering search and
rescue mechanism to find the injured, providing
emergency medical care and transferring them to
46. Search and rescue Work
The response phase differs from other phases of
disaster management in the sense that there are two
important aspects namely, uncertainty and urgency.
The emergency response actions should be well
coordinated with disaster recovery as they form the
foundation for carrying out recovery activities.
47. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response
The responses to disasters may utilize a mix
of methods from traditional to modern.
The situation and nature of the affected
population play a decisive role in choosing an
effective response mechanism.
Traditional methods of response have been
used since long and they are the most
common and practical methods of response.
48. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response
They entail assistant provided in the form of
food, shelter materials, blankets, etc.
Money is also provided so that affected people
can buy things according to their needs.
Charitable organizations offer help to
communities that have suffered a disaster.
New technologies can be very useful and
powerful in disaster response.
49. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response
These basically form the basis of the modern
methods of disaster response.
Mobile phones can act as warning devices.
SMS provided by operators can prove to be
useful medium to send warning signals of
GPS for tracing location of victims.
50. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response
The disaster management team also uses the potential
of mapping technologies, such as geographic
information system (GIS), remote sensing (satellite
imagery) and global positioning system (GPS), to aid
emergency response operations.
51. Modern and Traditional Methods of Response
1. Remote Sensing: the scanning of the earth by satellite or
high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
1. Visible and Reflective Infrared remote sensing.
2. Thermal Infrared Remote sensing.
3. Microwave Remote sensing.
2. GIS – GIS is a system that collects, displays, manages
and analyzes geographic information.
3. Other Methods – Social Media & Social networking.
52. A Model of an Ideal Command Centre
Incident command center is a standardized, on-
scene, all-hazard incident management concept.
The primary role of this center is the coordination of
efforts for effective and efficient management of
When any disastrous event occurs, they first identify
and assess the situation.
53. A Model of an Ideal Command Centre
The functions of an Incident Command Centre are:
1. Development of objectives.
2. Preparation of Incident Action Plan to meet
incident objectives, collection and evaluation of
54. A Model of an Ideal Command Centre
The functions of an Incident Command Centre
3. Maintenance of resource status and incident
4. Providing logistics support to meet
5. Financial administration to monitor costs,
accounting, procurement and cost analysis.