BY: JAMES FANE A. ALMAZAN & JANNEIAH
What is Protista?
Prostista are considered the simplest eukaryotes. Ernst Haekel
coined the termed Protista in 1886. Protista range from unicellular
to multicellular species that have a nucleus. However, the
multicellular species lack complex tissues and organs unlike those of
plants and animals. Some protista are microscopic, while others are
macroscopic. Protista are categorized into three: Animal-Like
Protists, Plant-Like Protists, & Fungus-Like Protists. Based on this
categories, protists can be inferred to have different modes of
nutrition, autotrophic and various forms of heterotrophic nutrition.
I. Animal-Like Protists
The protozoans “first animal” represent the animal-like protists.
Protozoans are generally free living although some are parasitic.
Protozoa range in size from 1/5,000 to 1/50 of an inch (5 to 500 µm)
in diameter. They are classified according to their shapes and types
of locomotor structures.
4 Groups of Animal-Like Protists
1. Sarcodines (Amoeboids)
The Amoeboids are found in the phylum
Rhizopoda. Sarcodines (Amoeboids) are split into
to group those with shells and those without,
testate amoebae, which have a shell-like covering,
and the naked amoebae, which don't have this
covering. These shells form limestone, marble and
Amoeba irregular in shape and move by
cytoplasmic streaming (like the Blob!). The
projections that are formed are called
pseudopodia. They can cause dysentery.
Ciliates came from the phylum
Ciliophora. These are generally the
largest protozoa. Have cilia on the
outside of their cells. Tiny hair-like
projections used for movement, to
gather food and as feelers.
Paramecium is slipper shapped that
moves using its hair like cilia.
Flagellates are one of the phylum
Zoomastigina. the smallest of the
protozoa. Flagellates use their flagella
to move. Contains Flagellum a long
whip-like structure used for movement.
Trypanosoma is a spindle-shaped and
flagellated. This protozoan can cause
One of the Protozoans come from the
phylum, Sporozoa. All Sporozoans are
parasites. They feed on cells and body
Plasmodium has an irregular shape and
immobile. All species can cause
malarial fever o humans.
II. Plant-Like Protists
The algae, euglena, and dinoflagellates are representatives of the plant-like protists.
Plant-Like Protists generally thrive in the aquatic environment. The algae have
chlorophyll that makes them photosynthetic. They can be unicellular or multicellular.
Algae are classified according to their colors type of chlorophyll present, and kind of
stored food formed. The macroscopic algae generally referred to as seaweeds.
There are three unicellular phyla of algae:
Phylum Euglenophyta (Eugelnoids) Phylum Bacillariophyta (Diatoms) Phylum Dinoflagellata
There are three multicellular phyla of algae which are classified by color:
Red Algae Green Algae Brown Algae
Euglenoids is a genus of single cell flagellate
eukaryotes. It is the best known and most
widely studied member of the class
Euglenoidea, a diverse group containing
some 54 genera and at least 800 species.
Species of Euglenoids are found in
freshwater and salt water.
Euglena is a unicellular protest that can
move using its flagellum.
Diatoms are a major group of algae
specifically microalgae, found in the
oceans, waterways and soils of the
world. Make up a large portion oh
phytoplankton, a source of Earth’s
oxygen. Diatoms are microscopic,
Dinoflagellates is the unicellular
alga that causes “red tide.” The
dinoflagellates are protists
constituting the phylum
Dinoflagellata. Usually considered
algae, dinoflagellates are mostly
marine plankton, but they also are
common in freshwater habitats.
4. Red Algae
They are found in warm or cold marine
environments along coast lines in
deeper water “Multicellular
Seaweeds.” They absorb green, violet,
and blue light waves. These light waves
are able to penetrate below 100
Galaxaura is a marine red alga.
5. Green Algae
One of the multicellular algae are the green
algae from the Phylum Chlorophyta. Most
are unicellular, few are multicellular. Green
Algae can live in fresh and salt water and on
land in damp places.
Spirogyra is a microscopic and filamentous
Halimeda is a marine green alga.
6. Brown Algae
Brown Algae is commonly called seaweed. Can
contain brown, green, yellow, orange and black
pigments. They are found in cool salt water
along rocky coasts. Phylum Phaeophyta is
made up of the brown algae.
Giant Kelp are the largest and most complex
brown algae. They have hold fasts and air
bladders. Giant Kelp can be 100 meters long!
Padina and Sargassum are both marine brown
III. Fungus-Like Protists
Fungus-Like Protists thrive in moist, damp places where
there is a lot of rotting organic matter. They participate a life
cycle involving an alternate change from motile protozoan
stage (amoeba-like stage) to stationary fungus-like stage.
The protozoan stage is the feeding stage. When food in the
environment becomes scarce, the protozoan stage
differentiates into a fruiting body (fungus-like stage) that
produces spores o survive harsh environmental conditions.
Fungus-Like Protists is categorized in 3 types: Slime Molds,
Watery and Downy Molds.
Watery and Downy Molds
Watery and Downy
Watery and Downy Molds lives in water or
moist places. Tiny threads that look like fuzz.
They attack food crops and they caused the
Irish Potato Famine in Ireland 1845-1849.
Water Molds from the Phylum Oomycota
are classified as protists because they have
flagellated reproductive cells.
Downy Mildews parasitize plants and are
decomposers in freshwater ecosystems.
Slime Molds are reproduced by Fruiting
Bodies: The Fruiting Bodies contain
At first they look like an amoeba, then
later they look like a mold.
Slime Molds lives on moist shady
places and feed on bacteria and other
Slime Molds contd.
Slime Molds have traits like both fungi and animals. During good
times, they live as independent, amoeba-like cells, dining on fungi
and bacteria. But if conditions become uncomfortable (not enough
food available, the temperature isn't right, etc.) individual cells begin
gathering together to form a single structure. The new communal
structure produces a slimy covering and is called a slug because it so
closely resembles the animal you sometimes see gliding across
sidewalks. The slug oozes toward light. When the communal cells
sense that they've come across more food or better conditions, the
Worktext in Science and Technology Science Links Grade 8 K-12 Curriculum
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