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Respiratory problems application of vaccines

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Respiratory problems application of vaccines

  1. 1. Respiratory Problems of Poultry & Application of Vaccines Dr. Mohammad Akram Ph.D. (Microbiology) Consultant Microbiologist MICRO LABORATORIES KARACHI
  2. 2. Respiratory System of Chicken Non Viral Respiratory Diseases ( Parasitic, Fungal, Mycoplasmosis & Bacterial) Viral Respiratory Diseases ( ND, IB, AI, ILT, APV & FP) Application of Vaccines in Poultry
  3. 3. Respiratory System of Chicken Lungs of chicken are smaller than mammals, therefore they have 9 Air Sacs:- 2 pairs of Thoracic 2 Pairs of Abdominal 1 single Intraclavicular Nose / Nasal Passage
  4. 4. Respiratory System of Chicken Respiratory system is one of the most important system of birds which is not only supplying Oxygen to blood via lungs to keep the birds alive but also helping to remove toxic Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from bird’s body. Due to the absence of sweat gland in birds, respiratory system is playing a vital role to maintain body temperature through panting, specially during hot days. Normal respiration rate of resting birds is between 15-25 / min., but it can be up to 50 / min depending upon the CO2 content of blood.
  5. 5. More than 25 ppb of Ammonia gas can cause stress and decreases the PH of tracheal mucosa (ACIDIC), therefore movement of tracheal Celia disturbed and chances of entry of pathogens directly in blood increases like E. Coli. Therefore, very few numbers of microorganisms can cause infection. Excess Ammonia damaging the Respiratory System
  6. 6. NON VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASES Parasitic Problem Fungal Problem Mycoplasmosis &Bacterial Problems
  7. 7. Gape worm – Presence of Syngamus Trachea in the LRT is responsible for dry rales, gasping and coughing. Thiabendazole @ 0.5% in feed for 10 days can control the problem. Parasitic Respiratory Problem
  8. 8. Fungal Infection Example : Apergillosis Aspergillus fumigatus (Brooder Pneumonia) is causing respiratory problem in young chicks. Source of infection is contaminated hatcher & brooding houses, particularly wood shaving. Treatment: Copper Sulphate solution(1:2000-4000) in drinking water for 3 days.
  9. 9. Mycoplasmosis Mycoplasma is smaller than bacteria with out having cell wall. Mostly kept in between Bacteria & Virus. Important spp. are M.gallisepticum and M.synoviae causing respiratory problem and Synovitis respectively. These infections are transovarian therefore difficult to control.
  10. 10. Infectious Coryza Caused by Haemophillus paragallinarum. Birds older than 12 weeks are most Susceptible. Transmission from bird to bird is very fast, feed and water is the mode of spread in infected flock. Recovered birds remain latent carrier and become source of infection for next flock. Coryza is not transovarian.
  11. 11. Pasteurellosis (Fowl Cholera) Caused by Pasteurella multicoda. Susceptible age is more than 6 weeks, recovered birds remain carriers for next flocks. Rodents & free flying birds are the major source of spread. Infected parent does not transfer the infection in hatching eggs / day old chicks Swelling of wattles Infected heart and liver
  12. 12. Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) is causing septicemia in poultry. It could be a primary cause of infection or mostly act as opportunist bacteria causing secondary infections after Mycoplasmosis, Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bronchitis (IB), Avian influenza (AI) and infectious Bursal Disease (IBD). Colibacillosis is an environmental disease spread by air, water, feed and litter. Oral route of infection is common but when trachea damaged by Mycoplasmosis and/or respiratory viruses it can enter through respiratory route and cause severe septicemia in short time. Colibacillosis can easily be diagnosed due to the observation of pericarditis & perihepatitis on PM examination but culture sensitivity is necessary for confirmation and treatment. All ages are susceptible but young chicks are facing heavy losses, particularly when having yolk sac infection due to contaminated hatchers. Colibacillosis
  13. 13. E. coli infection showing Pericarditis / Perihepatitis
  14. 14. Treatment of Bacterial Diseases & Mycoplasmosis
  15. 15. Important Points to use Drug Site of infection Septicemia e.g. Coli Septicemia (Blood Stream). Digestive tract e.g. Necrotic enteritis. Absorption of drug Good Absorption (water medication) Poor Absorption (I/M or S/cut) Required MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Conc.) of drug To find out the dose Drug interaction Synergism (penicillin + Antagonism (Quinolones + Oxy.) Drug Residue Every drug has different residual effect on meat & egg.
  16. 16. Absorption of drugs Drug Gut Absorption Activity Against Mycoplasma E.Coli Colistin Low Low High Neomycin Low Low High Spectinomycin Low Low High Gentamycin Low Low High Streptomycin Low Low High Tetracyclines High Moderate High Amoxycillin High Low High Chloremphenicol High Low High Nitrofuran Moderate Low High Kitasamycin High High Low Tiamutin High High Low Tylocin High High Low Spiramycin High High Low Lincomycin - Moderate Low Trimethoprim + sulpha High Low High Flemequine High Moderate High Kitasamycin + Amoxicillin High High High Quinolones High High High
  17. 17. Synergism ( Can be Use ) NEOMYCINwithSPIRAMYCIN & TETRACYCLINE STREPTOMYCINwithPENICILLIN & SPIRAMYCIN SPECTINOMYCINwithLINCOMYCIN FLUMEQUINEwithCOLISTIN ERYTHROMYCINwithCOLISTIN & NITOFURAN SUPHONAMIDESwithTRIMETHOPRIM TYLOCINwithCOLISTIN & GENTAMYCIN TETRACYCLINEwithNEOMYCIN & COLISTIN Antagonism ( Do Not Use) TETRACYCLINEwithGENTAMYCIN, QUINOLONES & PENICILLIN PENICILLINwithSULPHONAMIDES & TETRACYCLINE NITROFURANwithQUINOLONES & SULPHONAMIDES TYLOCINwithAMOXYCYLIN & AMPICILLIN SULPHONAMIDESwithAMOXYCYCLIN, AMPICILLIN, NITROFURAN & PENICILLIN QUINOLONESwithNITROFURAN & TETRACYCLINE STREPTOMYCINwithSULPHONAMIDES GENTAMYCINwithTETRACYCLINE
  18. 18. Drug With drawal time (day) Chlorotetracycline 1 Streptomycin 0 Penicillin 1 Erythromycin 1 – 2 Gentamycin Sulphate 35 Virginiamycin 0 Lincomycin 0 Spectinomycin 5 Madoramycin 5 Monensin 5 Neomycin 14 Sulphonomides 5 – 10 Tylocin feed Premix 5 Tylocin Injectable 5 Tylocin W/Soluble 1 Drug residue in eggs
  19. 19. Vaccination of Bacterial diseases / Mycoplasmosis Bacterial Vaccines Inactivated vaccine against Salmonella SE / ST, E.coli, Fowl Cholera & Infectious Coryza and live vaccine against SG are availabl No doubt bacterial vaccines are weak vaccines and not giving full protection but vaccinated flocks with related strains are less susceptible to infection, therefore losses in vaccinated flocks are much lesser than unvaccinated flocks.
  20. 20. Mycoplasma Vaccines Inactivated vaccines of Mycoplasma are not effective. Live vaccines against MG, e.g. F Strain & TS- 11 are working with some limitations and precautions, by replacing the field strain. It is recommended to use these vaccines at the age of 6 weeks in MG free Layers & Breeders. If flocks are already infected before the age of 6 weeks with field strain, then MG live vaccine will not be effective. Vaccination of Bacterial diseases / Mycoplasmosis
  21. 21. New Castle Disease (ND) Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Avian Influenza (AI) Infectious Laryngo Tracheitis (ILT) Avian Pneumo Virus (APV) Fowl Pox (FP) Viral Respiratory Diseases
  22. 22. ND virus is a RNA virus and belong to paramyxovirus family. Antigenically different strains are almost same but they are classified and differentiated on the basis of Virulence for chickens. Types of ND virus based on virulence:- Lentogenic ( Mild) Mesogenic ( Intermediate) Velogenic ( Highly Virulent) Types of ND Virus based on site of infection:- Pneumotropic - Respiratory tract Neurotropic - Brain Infection and/or Respiratory Viscertropic - Intestinal tract Highly virulent ND virus belong to viscerotropic type. Asciatic type is called Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (VVNDV). New Castle Disease (ND)
  23. 23. Heamagglutination of chickens RBCs. Incubation Period = 5 - 7 Days. Disease Course = 10 - 14 Days. Virus remain alive in litter = 2 Months. Virus remain alive in dead carcasses = 1 year. Inactivation by heat = 30 minutes at 60oC. Important Characteristics of ND virus
  24. 24.  Sudden onset and rapid spread through the flock.  Chilling. Watery discharged from nostrils.  Gasping.  Facial swelling.  Paralysis.  Trembling & twisting of neck (Torticollis).  Mortality in young chickens from 10 to 80% and drop in egg production in adult birds from 20 to 100 % (Depending upon the virulence of ND virus).  Loss of appetite.  Decreased water consumption. Diagnosis of ND Field Diagnosis
  25. 25. Torticollis VVNDV
  26. 26. The effective control of ND depends equally on:-  Understanding the methods of spread.  Vaccines and their application. Control of ND
  27. 27.  Human agency (workers, advisors, vaccination crew, visitors).  Multiage groups (cycle of infection).  Breeding Farms (proper vaccination to get uniform MAB levels).  Disposal of litter and dropping (virus remain alive 2 months).  Air born spread (1 kilometer).  Spread by rodents and other small mammals (cats can act as carriers). Control on spread of ND Virus
  28. 28. Cost involved. Degree of immunity necessary for protection. Exposure to local field virus in terms of its virulence and prevalence.1 In general the more active vaccines (Mesogenic) are used in areas where the field disease is severe. A vaccination program based on lentogenic vaccines is adopted in areas where the field virus is of lesser virulence. Lentogenic vaccines and Inactivated vaccines of high quality applied which can result the degree of protection that are equal to those obtained with Mesogenic strain. Live Vaccines Lentogenic (HB1, Lasota Strain) Mesogenic (Mukteswar & Komarov Strain) Inactivated vaccine (oil base) Types of ND Vaccines Choice of ND vaccine based on
  29. 29. In Pakistan Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (VVNDV) is being isolated and confirmed through labs. Therefore more rigid vaccination program against ND is required to get optimum protection. Lentogenic + Mesogenic or Lentogenic + Inactivated vaccines should be use. Revaccination of live vaccination in layers/breeders every 6 – 8 weeks during production shall maintain the humoral as well as local immunity and save the production losses.
  30. 30. Infectious Bronchitis ( IB ) Infectious Bronchitis (IB) in chicken has been reported in 1931 in North Dakota. Now prevalent in all parts of the world. IB is a RNA virus belong to Corona family. All ages of chickens are susceptible to the virus. The virus is highly contagious, transmitted rapidly through respiratory route within flock and by aerosol over considerable distances. Incubation period of IB is only 17-36 hrs.
  31. 31. Antigenic Variation of IB Virus High incidence of mutations of IB virus is complicating the diagnosis and prevention of disease. IB Virus contain three antigen-inducing epitopes :- -Nucleocapsid Portein -Membrane Protein:- Induces group specific antibodies -Spike Proteins:- Responsible for the great antigenic variation of the IB virus
  32. 32. Antigenic Variation of IB Virus Every year there are many reports about new isolates of IBV, which are more or less antigenically different from the strains already know . Since 1975 the occurrence of many new serotypes is reported not only in Europe but in many other countries world wide, e.g. Dutch variant strains ( D-274, D-1466, D-3128).These strains has caused severe losses in past but now antibodies against these strains were found in many countries indicating the presence of antigenically related strains in the field. But only in few cases these strains could be identified as the cause of IB problem in the field.
  33. 33. In 1991 a new disease condition was found in breeder flocks of UK which was associated with higher mortality and morbidity of birds, including drop in egg production, poor shell quality, discoloration of egg shell and severe drop in Hatchability. Later on identified as IB variant 4/91 or 793B or CR88. Now this IB variant strain reported in many European and other countries around the world Antigenic Variation of IB Virus
  34. 34. USA :- Massachusetts, Arkansas, Florida, Holte, Gray, Connecticut. EUROPE :- D-274, D-1466, D-3128, PL- 88088, 4/91, 793-B, CR- 88, Italy-02 AUSTRALIA:- T- Strain ( Nephropathogenic) CHINA :-QX ( new genotype) Presence of most of the above strains have been confirmed in Asia and Middle East Important IB Strains
  35. 35. IB QX genotype Originally this genotype was identified in China. In December 2003, GD Animal Health Service Deventer, Netherlands discovered the new very common IB D- 388 strain (genotype QX) in the south of Netherlands. This Dutch variant was the first of its kind to be detected in Europe and remains the most diagnosed type. In the period 2008-2009, IBV serotype D-388 (genotype QX ), is the most indicated type; the number of cases in layers are still increasing. Since 2004, this genotype is not only detected in Netherlands but also in Germany, Belgium and France.
  36. 36. IB QX genotype Positive Serology against this strain found in Syria but further study is required to confirm the presence of same strain in other parts of Middle East through virus isolation etc. GD – Animal Health Service Deventer, Netherlands can be contacted for further study on IB Viruses. Website www.gddeventer.com E-mail info@gddeventer.com
  37. 37. It is not only affecting the respiratory system of chicken but affecting other organs:- Lesions of the respiratory system: Tracheitis & Bronchitis Increased mortality by secondary infections (e.g. E coli, Mycoplasmosis and Coryza ) Lesions of kidney: Nephritis ( Urolithiasis) Lesions of the reproductive system: Reduction of egg production / reduction of egg weight. Shell quality (thin shells) / Liquidation of the albumen. Misshapen eggs / reduced hatchability.
  38. 38. IB infected table eggs Discolored and Misshapen Misshapen
  39. 39. Normal eggs IB infected eggs of same flock IB infected Broiler hatching eggs
  40. 40. Normal egg white IB Infected egg white
  41. 41. IB (QX) Infected bird
  42. 42. IBV infections can be diagnosed by detection of IB Virus itself by these tests :- Virus Isolation (VI) Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) Immunoperoxidase Assay (IPA) Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) IBV Diagnostic Techniques
  43. 43. IBV infections are detected serologically by these tests:- Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) Agar Gel Precipitation (AGP) Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) Virus Neutralization (VN) IBV Diagnostic Techniques
  44. 44. Use of live IB vaccinations can interfere with the diagnosis of IB. Vaccine strains are growing very fast while field viruses of IB are growing slowly. Choice of tests and interpretation of their results can be very difficult and confusing. Depending on the demands and local circumstances, a best choice or best combination of techniques for that situation can be made IBV Diagnostic Techniques
  45. 45. Classification MYXOVIRUS (RNA Virus) Paramyxovirus e.g. ND, APV (TRT/ART) Orthomyxovirus e.g. A.I A Humans & Other mammals All Avian Virus belong to “A” B Humans C Humans & Pigs Avian Influenza Virus (A.I)
  46. 46. Severe depression, decreased activity. Decreased feed consumption and emaciation. Drop in egg production. Mild to severe respiratory signs: coughing, sneezing, rales, excessive lacrimation. Ruffled feathers. Swollen heads ( necrosis of combs & wattles) Cyanosis of legs. Nervous disorders (torticollis – after 5 days of infection) Diarrhoea. Commonly observed signs
  47. 47. Inflammation of Trachea Haemorrhages on visceral organs. Congestion of lungs. Nephritis. Visceral gout. Damage of ovaries. Post mortem lesions
  48. 48. Diagnosis of AI Serology Antibodies are detectable from 7-10 days p.i by:- HI test AGPT VN test ELISA etc. Retesting after 3-4 weeks intervals to see the changes in titres
  49. 49. Virus Isolation & Identification Samples: Swabs from trachea or cloaca; other infected organ in case of systemic infection. Method: Inoculation of 0.1-0.2 ml of the sample into the allantoic cavity of 9-11 days old embryonated chicken eggs. HA activity in the allantoic fluid. Test for the presence of Type A AIV and typing of HA and NA.
  50. 50. Antigen detection: Directigen® Flu A kit Anigen antigen detection Direct RNA detection: RT-PCR Advance techniques for diagnosis
  51. 51. Control of AI 1. Isolation /identification and serotyping of AI Virus 2. Eradication and disposal of infected flocks 3. Strict boisecurity measures including spray of 1:10 ratio of cresylic acid and diesel every three to four weeks intervel 10 fts surrounding area of each poultry house in the presence of birds and in the absence of birds inside the poultry houses. 4. Vaccination against AI and regular monitoring of its titers know the efficacy of vaccine and timing of revaccination.
  52. 52. Infectious Laryngo Tracheitis ( ILT ) ILT is caused by Herpes virus, which is a DNA virus. It can infect the respiratory as well as reproductive systems of chicken. It is causing gasping with expectoration of bloody Mucous and severe drop in production with higher mortality ( 10-20%) and morbidity ( 90-100%). It can affect chicken of all ages but adult birds are more susceptible and showing signs of ILT within 2-4 days. Since last 2 years cases of ILT diagnosed on the basis of P.M. finding in Karachi Vaccination of layers with live vaccine at 7 and 15 weeks of age via eye drop can control the problem.
  53. 53. ILT Infected Bird
  54. 54. Avian Pneumo Virus ( APV ) Belong to Paramyxo group of virus ( same group of NDV). First described in 1970 in South Africa. The disease caused by this virus termed as Turkey RhinoTracheitis (TRT), Swollen Head Syndrome (SHS) and Avian RhinoTracheitis (ART). This is a respiratory virus but also damaging the reproductive system of chicken and turkeys, resulting losses in egg production in layers and acting as primary cause of CRD, particularly in broilers and also producing signs of Swollen heads. Live and inactivated vaccines are available, but should be used only on confirmation of the presence of APV in the area.
  55. 55. Respiratory sign of APV SHS
  56. 56. It is an upper respiratory viral disease caused by Pox virus, which is a DNA virus and the largest poultry virus. Pox are of 2 types 1. Dry Pox ( cutaneous type ) 2. Wet Pox ( diphtheric type ) In dry pox, lesions are formed on combs, wattles and eye lids, while in wet pox cheesy nodules are formed in the larynx and pharynx. Cheesy nodules mostly blocking the trachea and causing death. Pox vaccine can safely be used at the age of 6-8 weeks via wing web route to control the problem. Fowl Pox ( F P )
  57. 57. Wet Pox Dry Pox
  58. 58. Application of vaccines
  59. 59. Successful vaccination against the disease is dependent on the amount of antigen which enters the tissues of the birds. This depends on the successful application of vaccines. Application of vaccines
  60. 60. Eye drop / Intra Nasal Beak dipping Wing Web Intramuscular injection (I/M) & Subcutaneous injection (S/cut) In Ovo Vaccination Drinking Water Vaccination Spray Vaccination (Course or Fine spray) Application of vaccines INDIVIDUAL APPLICATIONS MASS APPLICATION
  61. 61. Precautions in Eye Drop/Intra- Nasal Vaccination Prepare the vaccine suspension with the appropriate diluent. Use the calibrated dropper (1000 doses in 30ml). Hold the bottle in upside down position and apply one drop per bird onto the eye or into the nasal duct. Use the reconstituted vaccines immediately after mixing in dropper.
  62. 62. Try to finish the mixed vaccine within 1 hr. and prepare fresh dropper for further use. Compulsory route of vaccination for e.g. ILT Simultaneous vaccination with inactivated vaccine is possible. The vaccination can be considered correct on complete absorption of the drop in eye / nostril, therefore bird should be hold till absorption of drop. Precautions in Eye Drop/Intra- Nasal Vaccination
  63. 63. Precautions in Beak-Dipping Vaccination Prepare the vaccine suspension with distilled water. Use about 150 – 200ml per 1000 chicks. Dip the beak of each bird up to the nostrils. Simultaneously vaccination with inactivated vaccine is possible. Fast and easy vaccination during the early days of life. Advantages All birds can be immunized. Avoid problems with irregular water consumption. Avoid respiratory reactions as seen after spray vaccination.
  64. 64. Precautions in Wing Web Vaccination -This method is used for Fowl Pox or Fowl Pox + AE vaccination. - Always use proper diluents available with vaccine. -Never forget to dip the needle after vaccinating each bird. -Insert needles in the middle part of the wing web. Do not insert the needles in feathers or muscles. -Check at least 100 birds, to see the pock lesions ( swellings), 5-7 days post vaccination at the site of vaccination. - Presence of pock lesions will confirm the successful vaccination and affectivity of vaccine used.
  65. 65. Precautions in I/M or S/Cut. Vaccination Use Sterile equipment only. Dilute live vaccine in their appropriate diluents e.g. Marek’s Disease vaccine, Reo vaccine etc. Oil Base vaccine should have room-temperature before application. Length of the needle: 10 mm & Diameter of needle should be 1 – 1.5 mm. Subcutaneous route: Inject into the lower part of the neck. Intramuscular route: Inject in the thigh or breast muscles.
  66. 66. In ovo vaccination This is a new method of vaccination used to vaccinate few live vaccines e.g. Marek’s Disease Vaccine or IBD Vaccine. Vaccine can be injected before hatching of chicks at the age of 18 days of embryo via amniotic sacs. This method of vaccination is helpful to produce immunity before the hatching of chicks and avoid the field exposure of disease virus. This method is highly sophisticated and can only be done by special expensive complicated machines run by experts of exclusive companies.
  67. 67. Prior to vaccinate the birds through drinking water, deprive the birds of water for 1 – 2 hrs. in hot climate and 2 – 4 hrs. in cold climate. Only live vaccines can be use by this route. As a rule do not use this rout up to 14 days of age, due to insufficient water in take. Do not use any disinfectant or chlorine in drinking water 24 hrs. before, the day of vaccination and 24 hrs. after vaccination. Drinking lines(Nipples) and manual drinkers must be empty, cleaned and rinsed with plain water before using vaccine. Precations in Drinking Water Vaccination Age (Days) 7 21 30 40 & above Volume of water in liters/1000 birds 7 21 30 40 Following table can be used as reference for dilution of live vaccine.
  68. 68. Precautions in Drinking Water Vaccination Use clean plastic or non metallic container of an adequate capacity to dilute the vaccine. Use good quality of water free from chlorine, disinfectant and antibiotics. Mix 2.5gm powdered skim milk or 50ml liquid non fat milk for each liter of water to be used for vaccine. Now Blue colored vaccine stabilizer /chlorine neutralizer available as an alternate of skim milk. It also work as an indicator.
  69. 69. Precautions in Drinking Water Vaccination Add some ice to cool the water roughly between 10 to 15oC Allow all the ice to melt and add skimmed milk or Blue dye as recommended. Keep the water for 15-30 minutes before adding vaccine.
  70. 70. Remove the aluminum seals of vials of vaccine and take the vials with rubber stopper in the same water prepared for vaccination. Now remove the rubber stopper keeping the vial under the surface of water. Add water in the vials and close them with rubber stopper to reconstitute the lyophilized vaccine. Rinse the vials several times to transfer the total quality of vaccine in water. Precautions in Drinking Water Vaccination
  71. 71. Place half of the quantity of reconstituted vaccine in case of manual drinkers and remaining half quantity after 30 minutes. For nipple drinkers whole quantity should be added at once in the tank. Use enough drinkers so that at least 70% of birds can drink at the same time. Movement of workers inside the house during vaccination will improve the water intake and more number of birds will get chance to drink. Birds should consume vaccinated water at the most 2 hr. but not less than 1 hr. Precautions in Drinking Water Vaccination
  72. 72. Precautions in Spray Vaccination More suitable for close system houses. Only live vaccines can use by this method Two methods: Course Spray (70 – 150u) & Fine spray (15 – 50u) Use distilled water for preparation of vaccine solution. First time try with plain water only to know the exact quantity of water for particular house and number of birds.
  73. 73. Precautions in Spray Vaccination Shut down the ventilation and reduce the light intensity. Do not forget to restart the ventilation after vaccination Mixing procedure is same as of drinking water vaccination. Quantity of water should be based on type of Spray (Coarse or Fine), Sprayer machine and capacity of birds in the house, ranging from 250ml to 1000 ml / 1000 birds. As a rule of thump, younger the birds, bigger the droplets size and older the birds, smaller the droplets size
  74. 74. Manual Coarse Spray of DOC at Farm Use 250 ml Distilled Water for 1000 chicks. Spray from 30 to 40 cm distance with large droplets of 150 microns.
  75. 75. Day old vaccination in hatchery by machine
  76. 76. Use 500 ml – 1000 ml Distilled Water for 1000 birds Droplet size should be 100 – 150 microns KNAP SACK SPRAYER Coarse Spray on older birds at Farm
  77. 77. Use 200 ml – 500 ml Distilled Water for 1000 birds, depending on the flow rate of sprayer. Droplet size - less than 50 microns. Follow the recommendations of manufacturer of sprayer for further details. Fine Spray on older birds at Farm
  78. 78. Routes of live vaccination and efficacy Method of vaccination Remarks Intra Ocular (Eye Drop) Excellent Intra Nasal Excellent Spray Good Beak Dipping Good Drinking Water Fair Mouth Drop Not Recommended
  79. 79. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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