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Thematic Parallel Session 3:
Fruit trees for improved nutrition and
livelihoods
• Fruit diversity on farms for improved diets and nutrition: A
household tree portfolio approach. Stepha McMullin, World
Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kenya
• Nutritional value of some indigenous fruits and nuts growing in
Southern Africa, Mangani Katundu, University of Malawi, Malawi
• Quality seed and seedling systems. Ramni Jamnadass, ICRAF, Kenya
• Improving access to fruits for nutrition through better fruit orchard
management. Simon Mng’omba, ICRAF, Malawi.
• Strengthening markets and value addition of fruits for nutrition and
livelihoods: a private sector case study- Malawi Mangoes. Wilson
Gondwe, Malawi
Day 2: Wednesday, April 15, 2015 @ 11:00-12:30
Fruit tree diversity for
improved nutrition
Stepha McMullin,
Katja Kehlenbeck & Ramni Jamnadass
World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
Global Malnutrition
Source: who.int/nugrowthdb
40%
ESAf
Malawi
Figure 1: Malnutrition statistics
Production Dietary Gaps
Source: Herforth 2010
Figure: Food Quantities in sub Saharan Africa 2003/2009)
Past and projected fruit and vegetable consumption globally
2000 – 2030
Consumption of fruits and vegetables
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Latin Amer. + the Caribbean
Sub-Saharan Africa
South Asia
East Asia + Pacific
Eastern Europe + Central Asia
Middle East + North Africa
United States
World
Kg fruit and vegetables/person per year
2000
2000-2030 change
Modified after: Msangi and Rosegrant 2011. Feeding the Future’s Changing Diets; Ruel et al. 2005. Patterns of fruit & vegetable consumption in SSA.
WHO-
recommended 146
kg
Kenya: 114 kg
Malawi: 53 kg fruit + veg
Daily nutrient requirement
Macronutrients = 5 RDA
Carbohydrate 130g
Dietary Fiber 25g
Linoleic Acid 12g
Alpha-Linolenic
Acid 1g
Protein 47g
Vitamins = 14 RDA
Vitamin A 500µg RE
Vitamin C 50mg
Vitamin D 200IU
Vitamin E 15mg
Vitamin K 90µg
Thiamin 1.1mg
Riboflavin 1.1mg
Niacin 14mg
Vitamin B6 1.3mg
Folate 400µg
Vitamin B12 2.4µg
Pantothenic
Acid 5mg
Biotin 30µg
Choline 425mg
Minerals = 12 RDA
Calcium 1000mg
Chromium 25µg
Copper 0.9mg
Flouride 3mg
Iodine 150µg
Iron 18mg
Magnesium 320mg
Manganese 1.8mg
Molybdenum 45µg
Phosphorus 700mg
Selenium 55µg
Zinc 8mg
 Adult female, 31-50 years old, not pregnant or lactating, sedentary lifestyle
 31 nutrients
to be covered
RDA=Recommended dietary allowance
Agro-biodiversity for balanced diets
or 50 g cassava leaves
or 70 g moringa leaves
or 9 g red palm oil
or 90 g butternut
or 125 g mango (orange)
or 60 g sesame seeds
or 70 g Grewia tenax
fruits
or 20 g guava
or 20 g baobab pulp
or 30 g moringa leaves
or 80 g mango
High agro-biodiversity = diverse, balanced diets
Food trees contribute much to healthy diets
Modified from WHO/FAO 2004: Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition; Tang et al. 2009 Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 89.
or 200 g moringa leaves
or 90 g pigeon peas
Species
Vit C
(mg/100 g)
Vit A (RE)
(mg/100 g)
Iron
(mg/100 g)
Calcium
(mg/100 g)
Adansonia digitata 150-500 0.03-0.06 1.7 360
Grewia tenax N.A. N.A. 7.4 610
Tamarindus indica 3-9 0.01-0.06 0.7 260
Ziziphus mauritiana 70-165 0.07 1.0 40
Mango 28 0.04-0.4 0.1 10
Orange 51 0.07 0.2 54
Moringa leaves 164 0.74 6.1 434
Table 1: Nutrient contents of selected fruits.
• Fruits provide an easily
available source of
micronutrients
Importance of fruits for
Food & Nutrition security
Sources: Freedman (1998) Famine foods. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods; Fruits for the
Future Series, ICUC; Fineli (http://www.fineli.fi/), etc.
Developing Fruit Tree Portfolios
The portfolio approach recommends the
optimum number and combination of
ecologically suitable tree species to provide for
household food and nutrition gaps
Fruit tree diversity for improved nutrition
& diets
English name Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Tickberry Lantana camara
Pawpaw Carica papaya
Mango Mangifera indica
Banana Musa x paradisiaca
Loquat Eriobotrya japonica
Mulberry Morus alba
Tamarind Tamarindus indica
Waterberry Syzygium spp.
Custard apple Annona reticulata
Guava Psidium guajava
Pomegranate Punica granatum
White sapote Casimiroa edulis
Wild medlar Vangueria madagascariensis
Lemon Citrus limon
Orange Citrus sinensis
Chocolate berry Vitex payos
Avocado Persea americana
Passionfruit Passiflora edulis
Jacket plum Pappea capensis
Desert date Balanites aegyptiaca
Bush plum Carissa edulis
Available species 4 7 8 7 9 8 6 5 6 4 3 4
Hunger gap
 Ripe fruits
available
year-round
Machakos baseline data
(2014, EC Fruit
Project, 300 house-
holds, 4 Focus Group
Discussions)
Provitamin A supply from diverse
fruit trees
Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec P.Vit A
Lantana camara
Carica papaya +++
Mangifera indica +++
Musa x paradisiaca
Eriobotrya japonica +++
Morus alba
Tamarindus indica
Syzygium spp. +++
Annona reticulata
Psidium guajava +
Punica granatum
Casimiroa edulis
Vangueria madagascariensis
Citrus limon
Citrus sinensis
Vitex payos +++
Persea americana
Passiflora edulis +
Pappea capensis
Balanites aegyptiaca
Carissa edulis
Available species 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 2
Hunger gap
 Provitamin
A-rich fruits
available
year-round
Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Vit C
Lantana camara
Carica papaya +
Mangifera indica +
Musa x paradisiaca
Eriobotrya japonica
Morus alba (+)
Tamarindus indica
Syzygium spp.
Annona reticulata (+)
Psidium guajava +++
Punica granatum
Casimiroa edulis (+)
Vangueria madagascariensis
Citrus limon +
Citrus sinensis +
Vitex payos
Persea americana
Passiflora edulis
Pappea capensis
Balanites aegyptiaca (+)
Carissa edulis
Available species 2 3 5 4 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 2
Hunger gap
Vitamin C supply from diverse fruit trees
 Vitamin C-
rich fruits
available
year-round
English name Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Vit C Vit A
Tickberry Lantana camara
Pawpaw Carica papaya + +++
Mango Mangifera indica + +++
Banana Musa x paradisiaca
Loquat Eriobotrya japonica +++
Mulberry Morus alba (+)
Tamarind Tamarindus indica
Waterberry Syzygium spp. +++
Custard apple Annona reticulata (+)
Guava Psidium guajava +++ +
Pomegranate Punica granatum
White sapote Casimiroa edulis (+)
Wild medlar Vangueria madagascariensis
Lemon Citrus limon +
Orange Citrus sinensis +
Chocolate berry Vitex payos +++
Avocado Persea americana
Passionfruit Passiflora edulis +
Jacket plum Pappea capensis
Desert date Balanites aegyptiaca (+)
Bush plum Carissa edulis
Available species 2 4 6 4 4 5 4 2 3 1 2 2
Hunger gap
Fruit tree portfolio for vitamin supply
 (Pro)vitamin A
and C supply
possible year-
round
 Cultivation of 8-
13 fruit tree
species on each
farm
Frequency Mean abundance
English name Species name Origin (plots with spp.) on farms with spp. Recommendation
Tickberry Lantana camara
Pawpaw Carica papaya Exotic 65% 16 (commercial)  increase frequency
Mango Mangifera indica Exotic 92% 29 (commercial)  check varieties
Banana Musa x paradisiaca
Loquat Eriobotrya japonica Exotic 10% 4  promote
Mulberry Morus alba Exotic 24% 2  promote
Tamarind Tamarindus indica
Waterberry Syzygium spp. Exot/indig. 23% 1.5  promote
Custard apple Annona reticulata Exotic 13% 2  promote
Guava Psidium guajava Exotic 31% 4  promote
Pomegranate Punica granatum
White sapote Casimiroa edulis Exotic 19% 1.5  promote
Wild medlar Vangueria madagascariensis
Lemon Citrus limon Exotic 50% 5 (commercial)  increase frequency
Orange Citrus sinensis Exotic 39% 11 (commercial)  increase frequency
Chocolate berry Vitex payos Indig. 6% 6  promote
Avocado Persea americana
Passionfruit Passiflora edulis Exotic 14% 5  promote
Jacket plum Pappea capensis
Desert date Balanites aegyptiaca Indig. 18% 11  increase frequency
Bush plum Carissa edulis
Fruit trees already on farms and gaps
 Some species are not yet
frequent or abundant on farms
 Need to promote cultivation of
certain species, particularly the
indigenous spp.
• Harvest of different fruits possible year-round
due to high species diversity  filling the
‘hunger gap’ before harvest of staples
• Need to develop and disseminate location-
specific fruit/food tree portfolios
• Awareness creation Ag+Nutrition
• Fruits provide an easily available source of
micronutrients
Importance of fruits for
F & N security
• Fruit trees more tolerant against
droughts than annual crops
 food security, resilience, climate
change adaptation
• High potential for income generation
from sales of fresh and processed fruits,
particularly for women
Photo: Lisa Jaeckering
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
16
Nutritional Value of Indigenous
fruits and nuts from Southern Africa
John DK Saka¹, Mangani Katundu¹, Simon
Mng’omba² and Kahlenbeck Katja²
¹ UNIMA, Zomba, Malawi, ² ICRAF, Lilongwe/Nairobi
Fruits and nuts
Green Mangoes Adansonia digitata (Baobao)
P. curatellifolia fruits (Maula) Strychnos cocculoides fruits
17
U.Kirkiana (Masuku)
Mongongo- a Tough nut
Food Security
• What does it mean?
• Food security
• “A situation that exists when all people, at all
times, have physical, social and economic
access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food
that meets their dietary needs and food
preferences for an active and healthy life.”
FAO
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
19
Introduction
 Fruits and nuts are critical for sustenance of human life, they
provide food and nutrition security, health and economic
welfare.
 Indigenous fruits and nuts are:
– sources of food nutrients
– providing cash incomes through sale of fresh and or processed
products- Mango, nthudza, mpoza
– Available throughout the year
 Health benefits also derive from flavour compounds which
have also other functional properties, antioxidative activity,
antimicrobial activity and health-promoting functions.
Introduction (2)
• Fruits and nuts play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as
sources of vitamins [C (ascorbic acid), A, thiamine (B1), niacin (B3),
pyridoxine (B6), folacin (also known as folic acid or folate) (B9), E],
minerals, and dietary fibre
• They contribute about 91% of vitamin C, 48% of vitamin A, 30% of folacin,
27% of vitamin B6, 17% of thiamine, and 15% of niacin in the U.S. diet.
• Tree nuts (such as almond, filbert, pecan, pistachio, and walnut)
contribute about 5% of the per capita availability of proteins in the U.S.
diet, and their proteins are of high quality based on essential amino acids.
• Nuts are a good source of essential fatty acids, fibre, vitamin E, and
minerals: copper, iron zinc, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus.
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17
April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
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Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
21
Nutritive constituents impacting on human health and their
sources
Constituent Sources Potential effects on human-
wellness
Vitamin C Fruits
(Mango,Adanson
ia digitata)
Prevents scurvy, aids wound
healing, health immune –system,
cardiovascular diseases
Vit A Orange-flesh
fruits
Night blindness prevention, chronic
fatigue, heart disease, stroke,
cataracts, psoriasis
Vitamin K Nuts Synthesis of pro-coagulant factors,
osteoporosis
Vitamin E Nuts-almonds,
cashew nuts,
walnuts,
peanuts
Heart diseases, immune system,
diabetes, cancer
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April,
2015, BICC, Lilongwe
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Non-nutritive constituents beneficial to human
health and their sources
Constituent Sources Potential effects on human-
wellness
Carotenoids
Lycopene Papaya, guava, red
grapefruit, berries
Cancer, heart diseases, male
infertility
α-carotene Kiwifruit, prunes,
mango, peaches,
papaya
Tumor growth
β-carotene Apricots, mango cancer
Monoterpenes Citrus (grape fruit,
tangerines)
cancer
Nutritional value of some indigenous fruits and
nuts (/100 DM)
Fruit/Nut Source Vitamin C (mg)
(A/µg)
Calorific value
(kJ)
Protein (g)
Boabob Malawi 300-350 (21) 1480 3.1
Madagascar 60-138 2.5-6.3
Parinari curatellifolia Malawi 10.4 (357) 1517 3.0
Monkey orange Botswana 1.4
Malawi 22.9 (22) 1390 11.5
Macadamia nuts 852.7 2
Ziziphus mauritiana
(Masau)
Malawi 13.6 (35) 1588 4.1
Vitex payos Mbeere, Kenya 26.3±4.9 1064.1±11.0
(1445, Mw)
3.4±0.07
Sclerocarya birrea
(nut)
Malawi (35) (30)
Botswana 65
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17
April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
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100 g Mangoes
• 100 g mangos contains
– 60 kcal
– Carbohydrates (15g; sugar 13.7 and fiber 1.6)
– Fat, 0.38 g
– Protein 0.82g
– Vitamin A (54 microgram), thiamine, riboflavin ,
niacin , pantothenic acid, Vit C,
– Minerals (Fe, Zn---)
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17
April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
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Dry matter, ash, pH and total soluble sugars of 10
Malawi mangoes
Variety Dry matter (%) Ash (%) pH TSS (%)
Tommy Atkins 17.3 15.7 4.66 ±0.03 16.5
Domasi 22.6 25.9 4.74 ±0.01 19.0
Ireen 16.6 20.7 4.52 ±0.07 20.9
Laisani 24.8 17.9 4.50 ±0.05 20.3
Nanadzi 24.9 5.84 4.13 ±0.02 30.1
Boloma (Lifa) 23.3 9.59 4.72 ±0.02 15.5
Kabaifa 16.9 19.4 3.77 ±0.02 14.4
Kanunkhira 28.8 11.2 4.65 ±0.02 15.1
Peach 17.3 14.1 4.82 ±0.03 16.9
Merica 26.2 10.3 4.25±0.05 19.8
Katondo 49.6 32.7 4.39±0.02 21.8
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17
April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
25
Mineral Content of 10 Malawi mangoes
(mg/kg DM)
Variety Fe Cu Ni Zn
Tommy Atkins 18.0 ±5.65 13.83± 0.14 0.92 ±0.30 3.00 ±0.00
Domasi 12.92 ±2.31 19.75± 0.25 0.42 ±0.14 3.50±0.00
Ireen 12.33 ±2.90 22.83± 0.63 0.92 ±0.30 1.33±0.05
Laisani 11.25 ±2.38 3.25± 0.25 1.17 ±0.14 2.25 ±0.00
Nanadzi 9.67 ±2.32 18.83± 0.14 0.25 ±0.00 3.17 ±0.14
Boloma (Lifa) 8.50 ±1.75 14.75± 0.25 0.17 ±0.14 3.42 ±14
Kabaifa 10.50 ±2.61 18.00± 0.25 0.25±0.00 2.75 ±0.00
Kanunkhira 8.42 ±1.89 32.3± 11.0 0.25 ±0.00 2.50 ±0.00
Peach 10.17 ±2.58 19.0± 0.25 0.58 ±0.38 18.25 ±0.25
Merica 24.42 ±6.68 4.92± 0.72 2.08 ±0.95 2.67 ±0.14
Katondo 10.25 ±3.07 20.08± 0.14 0.17 ±0.00 4.00 ±0.00
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17
April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
26
27
Acknowledgements
• World Agroforestry Centre- SADC IF
Domestication Programme
• ANAFE/Southern Africa RAFT
Beating Famine Conference, 14-17
April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
Food and Nutritional Security
• Food and nutrition security are
fundamental challenges for human
welfare and economic growth in
Africa
• 200 million Africans are
undernourished
• More than a third of African children
are stunted due to malnutrition
• Food and nutritional security are
closely tied to
Agricultural/Agroforestry
productivity
Key Bottleneck
Quality planting
Material –
seeds and seedlings!
Enhancing productivity and resilience
1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species
and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and
productive small holder farming systems
2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and
delivery systems
3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the
future for multiple priority tree species to increase
productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience
(adaptation)
4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs)
5. Building capacity of national restoration support units
(National tree genetic resource programmes)
Enhancing productivity and resilience
1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species
and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and
productive small holder farming systems
2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and
delivery systems
3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the
future for multiple priority tree species to increase
productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience
(adaptation)
4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs)
5. Building capacity of national restoration support units
(National tree genetic resource programmes)
Decision-support tools for species selection
(the right tree for the right place)
Useful Tree Species for Africa VECEA
“ICRAF have a nifty new tool out called Useful Tree Species for
Africa. I’ve been playing with it and I have to say it’s impressive”
Luigi Guarino, http://agro.biodiver.se/
http://www.sl.life.ku.dk/English/outreach_publications/computerbased_tools/
vegetation_climate_change_eastern_africa.aspx
http://www.sl.life.ku.dk/English/outreach_publications/computerbased_tools/vegetation_climate_change_eastern_africa.aspx
VECEA: A higher resolution map for 7 countries in eastern Africa
(Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia)
Enhancing productivity and resilience
1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species
and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and
productive small holder farming systems
2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and
delivery systems
3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the
future for multiple priority tree species to increase
productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience
(adaptation)
4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs)
5. Building capacity of national restoration support units
(National tree genetic resource programmes)
Enhancing productivity and resilience
Enhancing productivity and resilience
1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of
species and seed sources in forest landscape
restoration
2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and
delivery systems
3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of
the future for multiple priority tree species to
increase productivity (mitigation) and secure
resilience (adaptation)
4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs)
5. Building capacity of national restoration support units
(National tree genetic resource programmes)
Traditional and novel
approaches to breeding for
productivity and resilience
• Realized gains can be huge (Foster
et al. 1995, Graudal et al. 2014b)
• Fast-track knowledge and
materials: Quasi field trials,
genomic tools and low-input
breeding (Hansen & McKinney 2010, Kjær et al. 2006)
•
– Diversity Breeding -
BSO
• Mobilisation of genetic resources,
conservation, breeding,
adaptability and deployment
combined provides a solution
Enhancing productivity and resilience
1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species
and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and
productive small holder farming systems
2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and
delivery systems
3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the
future for multiple priority tree species to increase
productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience
(adaptation)
4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs)
5. Building capacity of national restoration support units
(National tree genetic resource programmes)
AFRICAN ORPHAN CROPS CONSORTIUM
GENE JOURNEY
VISION
To improve the nutritional content, productivity and climatic
adaptability of some of Africa’s most important food crops;
providing a fundamental step in helping to eradicate chronic
hunger, malnutrition and stunting in the children of Africa
2010-11 Conceptualization of AOCC- an uncommon public-private
partnership under leadership of Mars, ICRAF, University of
California, Davis (UCD) and The New Partnership for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD)
Dr. Ibrahim Mayaki CEO NEPAD presented AOCC to African heads of state at
an African Union Assembly and they voted to endorse the initiative
The Genomics Era: Sequencing Revolution
The price to sequence a base (of the human genome) has fallen 100 million times. That’s
the equivalent of you filling up your car with gas in 1998, waiting until 2011, and now you
can drive to Jupiter and back twice.” — Richard Resnick (CEO – GenomeQuest)
 A. Thaliana: First plant
genome sequenced in 2000
 Around 44 plant genomes
have been sequenced and
published
 Potato, pepper, cucumber,
papaya, banana
 Rice, maize, chickpea,
sorghum, pigeonpea,
soybean, common bean,
rape seed, cotton
 Grape, poplar, apple, pear,
peach, cocoa, eucalyptus
The African Plant Breeding
Academy (AfPBA)
• Dec 3rd 2013: Opened at the World Agroforestry
Centre (ICRAF)
• Dec 2014: 1st batch of 25 breeders graduated
• 250 plant breeders and technicians will be
trained over 5 years.
ICRAF Hosting AOCC Genomics Lab and AfPBA
The African Orphan Crops
Consortiums Genomics Lab
• Dec 2013: Life Technologies donated
instrumentation and lab establishment started
• Jan- Sept 2014: Lab set up; Staff was appointed
(2 technical assistants, 1 scientist)
• December 2014: 1st species sent for whole
genome sequencing to BGI, China
• February 2015: 1st re-sequenced genome of
common bean at ICRAF
MEET THE Orphan CROPSThe 101 targeted crops are the home garden crops of rural
Africa and a part of Africa’s agro-forestry systems
BAMBARA
GROUNDNUT
High quality protein,
iron, calcium,
potassium
High quality protein,
micronutrients, iron,
zinc , Vit A
AFRICAN
NIGHTSHADE
FINGER
MILLET
High quality protein,
methionine, calcium,
Vit A, B1, B2
SPIDER
PLANT
Anti-oxidants, Beta
carotene, calcium, iron,
Vit C
High quality fats, anti-
oxidants, medicinal and
industrial use
SHEA TREE MORINGA
Miracle tree, Oleic acid,
calcium, potassium,
iron, copper, Vit A, C
UAPACA
KIRKIANA
Low in fats, potassium,
Vit C, high fiber, high
energy (sugar)
PASSION
FRUIT
High fiber, iron, copper,
magnesium, potassium,
Vit C, A
Activities: AOCC
Phenotyping
data
SNP Chip
Genotyping
data
Breeding and Field trialLab Resource Generation
Using Marker assisted breeding
climate adapted
nutritious
high yielding
varieties
Improving access to fruits for improved
nutrition through better fruit orchard
management
By
Simon Mng’omba
15 April 2015
Presentation overview
• Importance of fruits
• Why low fruit production & consumption – southern Africa?
• Fruit orchard management based on tree growth
• Approaches to scale up IFTs
• Approaches to improve avocado productivity
• Conclusions
Fruits are good for our health
They contain food nutrients
• vitamins (A, E & C)
• Minerals (Iron, calcium)
• Lipids (unsaturated, cholesterol free)
• CHO (low sugar levels and sodium free)
• Proteins
• water
high in fibre good for digestion
low production cost – perennial
Source of income
Introduction
There has been low fruit consumption in SA
• 70 g per day (recommended 200 g per day)
Poor fruit tree management contributes to
• alternate bearing/fruiting
• seasonal fruiting (abundant during the rainy season)
• high pest and disease infestation
Farmers harvest a few fruits per tree
• good quality fruits are sold for income
• undesirable fruits are eaten
Fruit production & consumption – southern Africa
Common management practices
For homestead/field fruit orchards:
(a) No irrigation/fertilizer/manure application
• Fruit trees are provided by nature
(b) Irrigation/fertilizer application without tree manipulation
• Limited knowledge on management based on tree growth
Management based on tree growth
Pawpaw, Banana, Pineapple
Yield: high, year round & steady
What can we do to improve yield?
• Improve growing conditions
– Irrigation/fertilizer/manure
– Pest & disease control
• Plant breeding
Avocado, mango, Uapaca, peach …
What can we do to improve yield?
• Balance between improving
growing conditions &
• tree manipulation – e.g. pruning,
vegetative propagation, fruit thinning
Yield: low, erratic & mostly seasonal
Tree Growth characteristics
Continuous Rhythmical
Managing IFTs - Uapaca fruit size and load
On-farm orchard
• small fruit sizes
• high fruit load
In the wild
• high fruit load: 6000/tree
• small fruit size
2.5
3
3.5
5 cm 10 cm 15 cm
Fruitsize(cm)
Fruit thinning spacing
Thin fruits to improve fruit size
Scaling up model for IFTs
Some IFTs have long juvenile phase- discourages growers e.g.
Uapaca (>15 years for un-grafted plants)
• Supply two species with short & long fruiting precocity
• Use grafted plants to reduce juvenile phase
0
10
20
30
2008 2009 2010
Time (years)
Fruityield(kg)
Fig 1a Grafted Uapaca Fig. 1 b Grafted Vangueria
Both species planted in 2004
0
50
100
150
200
2007 2008 2009 2010
Totalfruityiled(kg)
Time (years)
93%
30%
32%
36%
89%
76% 100%
Approaches to improve avocado productivity
1. Additional pollinators needed
 Honeybees (beehives needed)
2. Harvest fruits when mature
 Do not allow avocado fruits to ripe on a tree
3. Grow two types of avocado
 ‘A’ and ‘B’ cultivars
Conclusions
Good fruit orchard management improves
• Fruit yield (productivity)
• Fruit quality
• Fruit availability
• Planting more fruit trees is not enough to achieve food
and nutrition security. We need better fruit orchard
management
THANK YOU!!!
I N T R O D U C T I O N
MM (Operations) Limited, Which Is
Known As Malawi Mangoes, Is A
Company Which Has Been Operating
In Salima District Since 2011. The
Company Is Promoting Fruit
Production, Processing And
Marketing.
What is Malawi Mangoes?
Malawi Mangoes Goal
The goal of the company is to deliver positive
development, both economically and in terms
of general well-being, to the people of
Malawi, through a financially viable and
commercially driven business that promotes
fruit production, processing and marketing
of fruits and fruit products
OBJECTIVE
The objective is to promote fruit production,
processing and marketing to contribute to the
country’s economic growth and development
to improve the lives of Malawians while
remaining economically viable.
CURRRENT OPERATIONS
1. Malawi Mangoes is based in Salima and has
been operating in the District since 2011.
2. At present the company is producing
bananas and mangoes, but has plans to
include other fruit crops.
3. The company has two arms of operation
CURRRENT OPERATIONS
4. Malawi Mangoes has its own farms which
are growing bananas and mangoes.
5. The company operates two farms – 68
hectares at Matumba village and 200
hectares at Dzuwa village
6. Malawi Mangoes also has smallholder
farmers’ outreach programme which assists
5000 smallholder farmers to grow
mangoes.
CURRRENT OPERATIONS
6. The company is now producing bananas
and gets mango fruits from smallholder
producers
7. Once harvested, the fruits are processed at
our state of the art facility constructed in
Salima pulp or purée.
8. We then export the resulting product to
regional and international fruit drinks
manufacturers.
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
1. The outreach programme has registered
4880 smallholder mango farmers farmers
from the 10 Traditional Areas of Salima
district.
2. A total of 37779 old mango trees have been
cutback for top working or grafting.
3. 17044 of the cutback mango trees have
successfully been grafted and are ready to
flower and fruit.
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
4. At present, the outreach programme which
supports smallholder farmers has registered
4880 mango farmers from the 10 Traditional
Areas of the district.
5. A total of 37779 old mango trees have been
cutback for top working or grafting.
6. 17044 of the cutback mango trees have
successfully been grafted and are ready to
flower and fruit.
7. Farmers who have land sizes are provided with
mango seedlings to establish new plantations.
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
5. One company has 203 hectares of bananas and
56 hectares of mangoes on its farms.
6. A multi-million dollar processing plant or
factory has been built and is now fully
operational.
7. The factoryh was commissioned in 2014 on 22nd
April, 2014 by the former President, Dr. Joyce
Banda. Fruit processing started in 2014.
8. 90 metric tons of pulp has been exported to
Europe and South Africa so far
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
9. The company has employed
 50 people in the field of agriculture from PhD to Diploma
level,
 43 people in the factory and
 27 in administration, management and accounting .
10. A total of 514 permanent labourers are
employed at the farms and during peak labour
periods an additional 800 workers are
employed to assist with different farm
operations.
11. The company has constructed all season roads
to the farm which has opened up the area to
communities
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
12. The company has brought Airtel
communication system to the area and
people are able to communicate through
cell phones
13. Electricity system has also been brought to
the villages where those who can afford can
access power fort their homes
FUTURE PLANS
1. Malawi Mangoes looks forward to
expanding production by involving
smallholder farmers in irrigated banana
production schemes.
2. The next step is the development of another
farm called NyuNyu farm which has just
recently been acquired.
3. Hep smalllder farmers develop commercial
farms known as incubator farms.
TISSUE CULTURE BANANA
SEEDLINGS
GRAFTING OR TOP-WORKING
GRAFTED MANGO TREE
FRUITING MANGO VARIETY TOMMY
ATKINS
MALAWI MANGOES FACTORY
BANANA PLANTATION

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Fruit trees for improved nutrition and livelihoods

  • 1. Thematic Parallel Session 3: Fruit trees for improved nutrition and livelihoods • Fruit diversity on farms for improved diets and nutrition: A household tree portfolio approach. Stepha McMullin, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kenya • Nutritional value of some indigenous fruits and nuts growing in Southern Africa, Mangani Katundu, University of Malawi, Malawi • Quality seed and seedling systems. Ramni Jamnadass, ICRAF, Kenya • Improving access to fruits for nutrition through better fruit orchard management. Simon Mng’omba, ICRAF, Malawi. • Strengthening markets and value addition of fruits for nutrition and livelihoods: a private sector case study- Malawi Mangoes. Wilson Gondwe, Malawi Day 2: Wednesday, April 15, 2015 @ 11:00-12:30
  • 2. Fruit tree diversity for improved nutrition Stepha McMullin, Katja Kehlenbeck & Ramni Jamnadass World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 4. Production Dietary Gaps Source: Herforth 2010 Figure: Food Quantities in sub Saharan Africa 2003/2009)
  • 5. Past and projected fruit and vegetable consumption globally 2000 – 2030 Consumption of fruits and vegetables 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Latin Amer. + the Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia East Asia + Pacific Eastern Europe + Central Asia Middle East + North Africa United States World Kg fruit and vegetables/person per year 2000 2000-2030 change Modified after: Msangi and Rosegrant 2011. Feeding the Future’s Changing Diets; Ruel et al. 2005. Patterns of fruit & vegetable consumption in SSA. WHO- recommended 146 kg Kenya: 114 kg Malawi: 53 kg fruit + veg
  • 6. Daily nutrient requirement Macronutrients = 5 RDA Carbohydrate 130g Dietary Fiber 25g Linoleic Acid 12g Alpha-Linolenic Acid 1g Protein 47g Vitamins = 14 RDA Vitamin A 500µg RE Vitamin C 50mg Vitamin D 200IU Vitamin E 15mg Vitamin K 90µg Thiamin 1.1mg Riboflavin 1.1mg Niacin 14mg Vitamin B6 1.3mg Folate 400µg Vitamin B12 2.4µg Pantothenic Acid 5mg Biotin 30µg Choline 425mg Minerals = 12 RDA Calcium 1000mg Chromium 25µg Copper 0.9mg Flouride 3mg Iodine 150µg Iron 18mg Magnesium 320mg Manganese 1.8mg Molybdenum 45µg Phosphorus 700mg Selenium 55µg Zinc 8mg  Adult female, 31-50 years old, not pregnant or lactating, sedentary lifestyle  31 nutrients to be covered RDA=Recommended dietary allowance
  • 7. Agro-biodiversity for balanced diets or 50 g cassava leaves or 70 g moringa leaves or 9 g red palm oil or 90 g butternut or 125 g mango (orange) or 60 g sesame seeds or 70 g Grewia tenax fruits or 20 g guava or 20 g baobab pulp or 30 g moringa leaves or 80 g mango High agro-biodiversity = diverse, balanced diets Food trees contribute much to healthy diets Modified from WHO/FAO 2004: Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition; Tang et al. 2009 Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 89. or 200 g moringa leaves or 90 g pigeon peas
  • 8. Species Vit C (mg/100 g) Vit A (RE) (mg/100 g) Iron (mg/100 g) Calcium (mg/100 g) Adansonia digitata 150-500 0.03-0.06 1.7 360 Grewia tenax N.A. N.A. 7.4 610 Tamarindus indica 3-9 0.01-0.06 0.7 260 Ziziphus mauritiana 70-165 0.07 1.0 40 Mango 28 0.04-0.4 0.1 10 Orange 51 0.07 0.2 54 Moringa leaves 164 0.74 6.1 434 Table 1: Nutrient contents of selected fruits. • Fruits provide an easily available source of micronutrients Importance of fruits for Food & Nutrition security Sources: Freedman (1998) Famine foods. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods; Fruits for the Future Series, ICUC; Fineli (http://www.fineli.fi/), etc.
  • 9. Developing Fruit Tree Portfolios The portfolio approach recommends the optimum number and combination of ecologically suitable tree species to provide for household food and nutrition gaps
  • 10. Fruit tree diversity for improved nutrition & diets English name Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Tickberry Lantana camara Pawpaw Carica papaya Mango Mangifera indica Banana Musa x paradisiaca Loquat Eriobotrya japonica Mulberry Morus alba Tamarind Tamarindus indica Waterberry Syzygium spp. Custard apple Annona reticulata Guava Psidium guajava Pomegranate Punica granatum White sapote Casimiroa edulis Wild medlar Vangueria madagascariensis Lemon Citrus limon Orange Citrus sinensis Chocolate berry Vitex payos Avocado Persea americana Passionfruit Passiflora edulis Jacket plum Pappea capensis Desert date Balanites aegyptiaca Bush plum Carissa edulis Available species 4 7 8 7 9 8 6 5 6 4 3 4 Hunger gap  Ripe fruits available year-round Machakos baseline data (2014, EC Fruit Project, 300 house- holds, 4 Focus Group Discussions)
  • 11. Provitamin A supply from diverse fruit trees Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec P.Vit A Lantana camara Carica papaya +++ Mangifera indica +++ Musa x paradisiaca Eriobotrya japonica +++ Morus alba Tamarindus indica Syzygium spp. +++ Annona reticulata Psidium guajava + Punica granatum Casimiroa edulis Vangueria madagascariensis Citrus limon Citrus sinensis Vitex payos +++ Persea americana Passiflora edulis + Pappea capensis Balanites aegyptiaca Carissa edulis Available species 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 Hunger gap  Provitamin A-rich fruits available year-round
  • 12. Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Vit C Lantana camara Carica papaya + Mangifera indica + Musa x paradisiaca Eriobotrya japonica Morus alba (+) Tamarindus indica Syzygium spp. Annona reticulata (+) Psidium guajava +++ Punica granatum Casimiroa edulis (+) Vangueria madagascariensis Citrus limon + Citrus sinensis + Vitex payos Persea americana Passiflora edulis Pappea capensis Balanites aegyptiaca (+) Carissa edulis Available species 2 3 5 4 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 2 Hunger gap Vitamin C supply from diverse fruit trees  Vitamin C- rich fruits available year-round
  • 13. English name Species name Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Vit C Vit A Tickberry Lantana camara Pawpaw Carica papaya + +++ Mango Mangifera indica + +++ Banana Musa x paradisiaca Loquat Eriobotrya japonica +++ Mulberry Morus alba (+) Tamarind Tamarindus indica Waterberry Syzygium spp. +++ Custard apple Annona reticulata (+) Guava Psidium guajava +++ + Pomegranate Punica granatum White sapote Casimiroa edulis (+) Wild medlar Vangueria madagascariensis Lemon Citrus limon + Orange Citrus sinensis + Chocolate berry Vitex payos +++ Avocado Persea americana Passionfruit Passiflora edulis + Jacket plum Pappea capensis Desert date Balanites aegyptiaca (+) Bush plum Carissa edulis Available species 2 4 6 4 4 5 4 2 3 1 2 2 Hunger gap Fruit tree portfolio for vitamin supply  (Pro)vitamin A and C supply possible year- round  Cultivation of 8- 13 fruit tree species on each farm
  • 14. Frequency Mean abundance English name Species name Origin (plots with spp.) on farms with spp. Recommendation Tickberry Lantana camara Pawpaw Carica papaya Exotic 65% 16 (commercial)  increase frequency Mango Mangifera indica Exotic 92% 29 (commercial)  check varieties Banana Musa x paradisiaca Loquat Eriobotrya japonica Exotic 10% 4  promote Mulberry Morus alba Exotic 24% 2  promote Tamarind Tamarindus indica Waterberry Syzygium spp. Exot/indig. 23% 1.5  promote Custard apple Annona reticulata Exotic 13% 2  promote Guava Psidium guajava Exotic 31% 4  promote Pomegranate Punica granatum White sapote Casimiroa edulis Exotic 19% 1.5  promote Wild medlar Vangueria madagascariensis Lemon Citrus limon Exotic 50% 5 (commercial)  increase frequency Orange Citrus sinensis Exotic 39% 11 (commercial)  increase frequency Chocolate berry Vitex payos Indig. 6% 6  promote Avocado Persea americana Passionfruit Passiflora edulis Exotic 14% 5  promote Jacket plum Pappea capensis Desert date Balanites aegyptiaca Indig. 18% 11  increase frequency Bush plum Carissa edulis Fruit trees already on farms and gaps  Some species are not yet frequent or abundant on farms  Need to promote cultivation of certain species, particularly the indigenous spp.
  • 15. • Harvest of different fruits possible year-round due to high species diversity  filling the ‘hunger gap’ before harvest of staples • Need to develop and disseminate location- specific fruit/food tree portfolios • Awareness creation Ag+Nutrition • Fruits provide an easily available source of micronutrients Importance of fruits for F & N security • Fruit trees more tolerant against droughts than annual crops  food security, resilience, climate change adaptation • High potential for income generation from sales of fresh and processed fruits, particularly for women Photo: Lisa Jaeckering
  • 16. Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 16 Nutritional Value of Indigenous fruits and nuts from Southern Africa John DK Saka¹, Mangani Katundu¹, Simon Mng’omba² and Kahlenbeck Katja² ¹ UNIMA, Zomba, Malawi, ² ICRAF, Lilongwe/Nairobi
  • 17. Fruits and nuts Green Mangoes Adansonia digitata (Baobao) P. curatellifolia fruits (Maula) Strychnos cocculoides fruits 17 U.Kirkiana (Masuku) Mongongo- a Tough nut
  • 18. Food Security • What does it mean? • Food security • “A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” FAO
  • 19. Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 19 Introduction  Fruits and nuts are critical for sustenance of human life, they provide food and nutrition security, health and economic welfare.  Indigenous fruits and nuts are: – sources of food nutrients – providing cash incomes through sale of fresh and or processed products- Mango, nthudza, mpoza – Available throughout the year  Health benefits also derive from flavour compounds which have also other functional properties, antioxidative activity, antimicrobial activity and health-promoting functions.
  • 20. Introduction (2) • Fruits and nuts play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as sources of vitamins [C (ascorbic acid), A, thiamine (B1), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), folacin (also known as folic acid or folate) (B9), E], minerals, and dietary fibre • They contribute about 91% of vitamin C, 48% of vitamin A, 30% of folacin, 27% of vitamin B6, 17% of thiamine, and 15% of niacin in the U.S. diet. • Tree nuts (such as almond, filbert, pecan, pistachio, and walnut) contribute about 5% of the per capita availability of proteins in the U.S. diet, and their proteins are of high quality based on essential amino acids. • Nuts are a good source of essential fatty acids, fibre, vitamin E, and minerals: copper, iron zinc, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 20
  • 21. Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 21 Nutritive constituents impacting on human health and their sources Constituent Sources Potential effects on human- wellness Vitamin C Fruits (Mango,Adanson ia digitata) Prevents scurvy, aids wound healing, health immune –system, cardiovascular diseases Vit A Orange-flesh fruits Night blindness prevention, chronic fatigue, heart disease, stroke, cataracts, psoriasis Vitamin K Nuts Synthesis of pro-coagulant factors, osteoporosis Vitamin E Nuts-almonds, cashew nuts, walnuts, peanuts Heart diseases, immune system, diabetes, cancer
  • 22. Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 22 Non-nutritive constituents beneficial to human health and their sources Constituent Sources Potential effects on human- wellness Carotenoids Lycopene Papaya, guava, red grapefruit, berries Cancer, heart diseases, male infertility α-carotene Kiwifruit, prunes, mango, peaches, papaya Tumor growth β-carotene Apricots, mango cancer Monoterpenes Citrus (grape fruit, tangerines) cancer
  • 23. Nutritional value of some indigenous fruits and nuts (/100 DM) Fruit/Nut Source Vitamin C (mg) (A/µg) Calorific value (kJ) Protein (g) Boabob Malawi 300-350 (21) 1480 3.1 Madagascar 60-138 2.5-6.3 Parinari curatellifolia Malawi 10.4 (357) 1517 3.0 Monkey orange Botswana 1.4 Malawi 22.9 (22) 1390 11.5 Macadamia nuts 852.7 2 Ziziphus mauritiana (Masau) Malawi 13.6 (35) 1588 4.1 Vitex payos Mbeere, Kenya 26.3±4.9 1064.1±11.0 (1445, Mw) 3.4±0.07 Sclerocarya birrea (nut) Malawi (35) (30) Botswana 65 Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 23
  • 24. 100 g Mangoes • 100 g mangos contains – 60 kcal – Carbohydrates (15g; sugar 13.7 and fiber 1.6) – Fat, 0.38 g – Protein 0.82g – Vitamin A (54 microgram), thiamine, riboflavin , niacin , pantothenic acid, Vit C, – Minerals (Fe, Zn---) Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 24
  • 25. Dry matter, ash, pH and total soluble sugars of 10 Malawi mangoes Variety Dry matter (%) Ash (%) pH TSS (%) Tommy Atkins 17.3 15.7 4.66 ±0.03 16.5 Domasi 22.6 25.9 4.74 ±0.01 19.0 Ireen 16.6 20.7 4.52 ±0.07 20.9 Laisani 24.8 17.9 4.50 ±0.05 20.3 Nanadzi 24.9 5.84 4.13 ±0.02 30.1 Boloma (Lifa) 23.3 9.59 4.72 ±0.02 15.5 Kabaifa 16.9 19.4 3.77 ±0.02 14.4 Kanunkhira 28.8 11.2 4.65 ±0.02 15.1 Peach 17.3 14.1 4.82 ±0.03 16.9 Merica 26.2 10.3 4.25±0.05 19.8 Katondo 49.6 32.7 4.39±0.02 21.8 Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 25
  • 26. Mineral Content of 10 Malawi mangoes (mg/kg DM) Variety Fe Cu Ni Zn Tommy Atkins 18.0 ±5.65 13.83± 0.14 0.92 ±0.30 3.00 ±0.00 Domasi 12.92 ±2.31 19.75± 0.25 0.42 ±0.14 3.50±0.00 Ireen 12.33 ±2.90 22.83± 0.63 0.92 ±0.30 1.33±0.05 Laisani 11.25 ±2.38 3.25± 0.25 1.17 ±0.14 2.25 ±0.00 Nanadzi 9.67 ±2.32 18.83± 0.14 0.25 ±0.00 3.17 ±0.14 Boloma (Lifa) 8.50 ±1.75 14.75± 0.25 0.17 ±0.14 3.42 ±14 Kabaifa 10.50 ±2.61 18.00± 0.25 0.25±0.00 2.75 ±0.00 Kanunkhira 8.42 ±1.89 32.3± 11.0 0.25 ±0.00 2.50 ±0.00 Peach 10.17 ±2.58 19.0± 0.25 0.58 ±0.38 18.25 ±0.25 Merica 24.42 ±6.68 4.92± 0.72 2.08 ±0.95 2.67 ±0.14 Katondo 10.25 ±3.07 20.08± 0.14 0.17 ±0.00 4.00 ±0.00 Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe 26
  • 27. 27 Acknowledgements • World Agroforestry Centre- SADC IF Domestication Programme • ANAFE/Southern Africa RAFT Beating Famine Conference, 14-17 April, 2015, BICC, Lilongwe
  • 28. Food and Nutritional Security • Food and nutrition security are fundamental challenges for human welfare and economic growth in Africa • 200 million Africans are undernourished • More than a third of African children are stunted due to malnutrition • Food and nutritional security are closely tied to Agricultural/Agroforestry productivity
  • 29. Key Bottleneck Quality planting Material – seeds and seedlings!
  • 30. Enhancing productivity and resilience 1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and productive small holder farming systems 2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and delivery systems 3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the future for multiple priority tree species to increase productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience (adaptation) 4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs) 5. Building capacity of national restoration support units (National tree genetic resource programmes)
  • 31. Enhancing productivity and resilience 1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and productive small holder farming systems 2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and delivery systems 3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the future for multiple priority tree species to increase productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience (adaptation) 4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs) 5. Building capacity of national restoration support units (National tree genetic resource programmes)
  • 32. Decision-support tools for species selection (the right tree for the right place) Useful Tree Species for Africa VECEA “ICRAF have a nifty new tool out called Useful Tree Species for Africa. I’ve been playing with it and I have to say it’s impressive” Luigi Guarino, http://agro.biodiver.se/ http://www.sl.life.ku.dk/English/outreach_publications/computerbased_tools/ vegetation_climate_change_eastern_africa.aspx
  • 33. http://www.sl.life.ku.dk/English/outreach_publications/computerbased_tools/vegetation_climate_change_eastern_africa.aspx VECEA: A higher resolution map for 7 countries in eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia)
  • 34. Enhancing productivity and resilience 1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and productive small holder farming systems 2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and delivery systems 3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the future for multiple priority tree species to increase productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience (adaptation) 4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs) 5. Building capacity of national restoration support units (National tree genetic resource programmes)
  • 36. Enhancing productivity and resilience 1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species and seed sources in forest landscape restoration 2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and delivery systems 3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the future for multiple priority tree species to increase productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience (adaptation) 4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs) 5. Building capacity of national restoration support units (National tree genetic resource programmes)
  • 37. Traditional and novel approaches to breeding for productivity and resilience • Realized gains can be huge (Foster et al. 1995, Graudal et al. 2014b) • Fast-track knowledge and materials: Quasi field trials, genomic tools and low-input breeding (Hansen & McKinney 2010, Kjær et al. 2006) • – Diversity Breeding - BSO • Mobilisation of genetic resources, conservation, breeding, adaptability and deployment combined provides a solution
  • 38. Enhancing productivity and resilience 1. Provision of recommendation domains for use of species and seed sources in degraded landscape restoration and productive small holder farming systems 2. Establishment of seed and seedling information and delivery systems 3. Mobilising and building the tree genetic resources of the future for multiple priority tree species to increase productivity (mitigation) and secure resilience (adaptation) 4. Marker assisted breeding (genomics but not GMOs) 5. Building capacity of national restoration support units (National tree genetic resource programmes)
  • 39. AFRICAN ORPHAN CROPS CONSORTIUM GENE JOURNEY VISION To improve the nutritional content, productivity and climatic adaptability of some of Africa’s most important food crops; providing a fundamental step in helping to eradicate chronic hunger, malnutrition and stunting in the children of Africa 2010-11 Conceptualization of AOCC- an uncommon public-private partnership under leadership of Mars, ICRAF, University of California, Davis (UCD) and The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Dr. Ibrahim Mayaki CEO NEPAD presented AOCC to African heads of state at an African Union Assembly and they voted to endorse the initiative
  • 40. The Genomics Era: Sequencing Revolution The price to sequence a base (of the human genome) has fallen 100 million times. That’s the equivalent of you filling up your car with gas in 1998, waiting until 2011, and now you can drive to Jupiter and back twice.” — Richard Resnick (CEO – GenomeQuest)  A. Thaliana: First plant genome sequenced in 2000  Around 44 plant genomes have been sequenced and published  Potato, pepper, cucumber, papaya, banana  Rice, maize, chickpea, sorghum, pigeonpea, soybean, common bean, rape seed, cotton  Grape, poplar, apple, pear, peach, cocoa, eucalyptus
  • 41. The African Plant Breeding Academy (AfPBA) • Dec 3rd 2013: Opened at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) • Dec 2014: 1st batch of 25 breeders graduated • 250 plant breeders and technicians will be trained over 5 years. ICRAF Hosting AOCC Genomics Lab and AfPBA The African Orphan Crops Consortiums Genomics Lab • Dec 2013: Life Technologies donated instrumentation and lab establishment started • Jan- Sept 2014: Lab set up; Staff was appointed (2 technical assistants, 1 scientist) • December 2014: 1st species sent for whole genome sequencing to BGI, China • February 2015: 1st re-sequenced genome of common bean at ICRAF
  • 42. MEET THE Orphan CROPSThe 101 targeted crops are the home garden crops of rural Africa and a part of Africa’s agro-forestry systems BAMBARA GROUNDNUT High quality protein, iron, calcium, potassium High quality protein, micronutrients, iron, zinc , Vit A AFRICAN NIGHTSHADE FINGER MILLET High quality protein, methionine, calcium, Vit A, B1, B2 SPIDER PLANT Anti-oxidants, Beta carotene, calcium, iron, Vit C High quality fats, anti- oxidants, medicinal and industrial use SHEA TREE MORINGA Miracle tree, Oleic acid, calcium, potassium, iron, copper, Vit A, C UAPACA KIRKIANA Low in fats, potassium, Vit C, high fiber, high energy (sugar) PASSION FRUIT High fiber, iron, copper, magnesium, potassium, Vit C, A
  • 43. Activities: AOCC Phenotyping data SNP Chip Genotyping data Breeding and Field trialLab Resource Generation Using Marker assisted breeding climate adapted nutritious high yielding varieties
  • 44. Improving access to fruits for improved nutrition through better fruit orchard management By Simon Mng’omba 15 April 2015
  • 45. Presentation overview • Importance of fruits • Why low fruit production & consumption – southern Africa? • Fruit orchard management based on tree growth • Approaches to scale up IFTs • Approaches to improve avocado productivity • Conclusions
  • 46. Fruits are good for our health They contain food nutrients • vitamins (A, E & C) • Minerals (Iron, calcium) • Lipids (unsaturated, cholesterol free) • CHO (low sugar levels and sodium free) • Proteins • water high in fibre good for digestion low production cost – perennial Source of income Introduction
  • 47. There has been low fruit consumption in SA • 70 g per day (recommended 200 g per day) Poor fruit tree management contributes to • alternate bearing/fruiting • seasonal fruiting (abundant during the rainy season) • high pest and disease infestation Farmers harvest a few fruits per tree • good quality fruits are sold for income • undesirable fruits are eaten Fruit production & consumption – southern Africa
  • 48. Common management practices For homestead/field fruit orchards: (a) No irrigation/fertilizer/manure application • Fruit trees are provided by nature (b) Irrigation/fertilizer application without tree manipulation • Limited knowledge on management based on tree growth
  • 49. Management based on tree growth Pawpaw, Banana, Pineapple Yield: high, year round & steady What can we do to improve yield? • Improve growing conditions – Irrigation/fertilizer/manure – Pest & disease control • Plant breeding Avocado, mango, Uapaca, peach … What can we do to improve yield? • Balance between improving growing conditions & • tree manipulation – e.g. pruning, vegetative propagation, fruit thinning Yield: low, erratic & mostly seasonal Tree Growth characteristics Continuous Rhythmical
  • 50. Managing IFTs - Uapaca fruit size and load On-farm orchard • small fruit sizes • high fruit load In the wild • high fruit load: 6000/tree • small fruit size 2.5 3 3.5 5 cm 10 cm 15 cm Fruitsize(cm) Fruit thinning spacing Thin fruits to improve fruit size
  • 51. Scaling up model for IFTs Some IFTs have long juvenile phase- discourages growers e.g. Uapaca (>15 years for un-grafted plants) • Supply two species with short & long fruiting precocity • Use grafted plants to reduce juvenile phase 0 10 20 30 2008 2009 2010 Time (years) Fruityield(kg) Fig 1a Grafted Uapaca Fig. 1 b Grafted Vangueria Both species planted in 2004 0 50 100 150 200 2007 2008 2009 2010 Totalfruityiled(kg) Time (years) 93% 30% 32% 36% 89% 76% 100%
  • 52. Approaches to improve avocado productivity 1. Additional pollinators needed  Honeybees (beehives needed) 2. Harvest fruits when mature  Do not allow avocado fruits to ripe on a tree 3. Grow two types of avocado  ‘A’ and ‘B’ cultivars
  • 53. Conclusions Good fruit orchard management improves • Fruit yield (productivity) • Fruit quality • Fruit availability • Planting more fruit trees is not enough to achieve food and nutrition security. We need better fruit orchard management
  • 55. I N T R O D U C T I O N MM (Operations) Limited, Which Is Known As Malawi Mangoes, Is A Company Which Has Been Operating In Salima District Since 2011. The Company Is Promoting Fruit Production, Processing And Marketing. What is Malawi Mangoes?
  • 56. Malawi Mangoes Goal The goal of the company is to deliver positive development, both economically and in terms of general well-being, to the people of Malawi, through a financially viable and commercially driven business that promotes fruit production, processing and marketing of fruits and fruit products
  • 57. OBJECTIVE The objective is to promote fruit production, processing and marketing to contribute to the country’s economic growth and development to improve the lives of Malawians while remaining economically viable.
  • 58. CURRRENT OPERATIONS 1. Malawi Mangoes is based in Salima and has been operating in the District since 2011. 2. At present the company is producing bananas and mangoes, but has plans to include other fruit crops. 3. The company has two arms of operation
  • 59. CURRRENT OPERATIONS 4. Malawi Mangoes has its own farms which are growing bananas and mangoes. 5. The company operates two farms – 68 hectares at Matumba village and 200 hectares at Dzuwa village 6. Malawi Mangoes also has smallholder farmers’ outreach programme which assists 5000 smallholder farmers to grow mangoes.
  • 60. CURRRENT OPERATIONS 6. The company is now producing bananas and gets mango fruits from smallholder producers 7. Once harvested, the fruits are processed at our state of the art facility constructed in Salima pulp or purée. 8. We then export the resulting product to regional and international fruit drinks manufacturers.
  • 61. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS 1. The outreach programme has registered 4880 smallholder mango farmers farmers from the 10 Traditional Areas of Salima district. 2. A total of 37779 old mango trees have been cutback for top working or grafting. 3. 17044 of the cutback mango trees have successfully been grafted and are ready to flower and fruit.
  • 62. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS 4. At present, the outreach programme which supports smallholder farmers has registered 4880 mango farmers from the 10 Traditional Areas of the district. 5. A total of 37779 old mango trees have been cutback for top working or grafting. 6. 17044 of the cutback mango trees have successfully been grafted and are ready to flower and fruit. 7. Farmers who have land sizes are provided with mango seedlings to establish new plantations.
  • 63. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS 5. One company has 203 hectares of bananas and 56 hectares of mangoes on its farms. 6. A multi-million dollar processing plant or factory has been built and is now fully operational. 7. The factoryh was commissioned in 2014 on 22nd April, 2014 by the former President, Dr. Joyce Banda. Fruit processing started in 2014. 8. 90 metric tons of pulp has been exported to Europe and South Africa so far
  • 64. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS 9. The company has employed  50 people in the field of agriculture from PhD to Diploma level,  43 people in the factory and  27 in administration, management and accounting . 10. A total of 514 permanent labourers are employed at the farms and during peak labour periods an additional 800 workers are employed to assist with different farm operations. 11. The company has constructed all season roads to the farm which has opened up the area to communities
  • 65. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS 12. The company has brought Airtel communication system to the area and people are able to communicate through cell phones 13. Electricity system has also been brought to the villages where those who can afford can access power fort their homes
  • 66. FUTURE PLANS 1. Malawi Mangoes looks forward to expanding production by involving smallholder farmers in irrigated banana production schemes. 2. The next step is the development of another farm called NyuNyu farm which has just recently been acquired. 3. Hep smalllder farmers develop commercial farms known as incubator farms.
  • 70. FRUITING MANGO VARIETY TOMMY ATKINS