Fixed point photograph
Marker (post, rocks)
Base line Base line Base line Base line
Hinweis der Redaktion
Do – be careful of snakes!
Use sharp tools and always try to prune upwards to avoid undue damage to the bark and stem and branches.
This stem has been pruned half way up the stem. The farmer has pruned very hard because he wants to minimize shading to his crop. This will not result in maximum tree re-growth – but we need to remember that this is ‘Farmer managed’ natural regeneration and the farmers views must be taken into consideration. More collaborative research with farmers is required to determine the best compromise.
When FMNR was first promoted farmers were concerned about what impact trees would have on crop yields, so they left only one stem per stump. Today many farmers are not only leaving many trees per hectare (40-150) in their farmland, they are leaving multiple stems per stump – and still realizing an increase in crop yields.
Local farm tools are encouraged – but in some contexts, this can include secateurs, saws and pruning shears.
After the first pruning it is good to return from time to time to remove unwanted re-growth.
Always try to cut upwards. This reduces the likelihood that bark will be torn and a big wound left on the tree. Prune upwards with sharp tools. We do not encourage the project to supply tools – it is far better if farmers use what they have: axe, knife, sickle, even hoes – by using their own tools, this puts farmers firmly in charge of the process – they do not need to depend on the project to commence work.
Wrong. Cutting down is more likely to result in stripping bark down the trunk. When the tree is damaged in this way disease and insects can enter and cause the death of the tree, or weak growth.
Wrong – too many side branches have been pruned here, leaving a weak tree that is more likely to be damaged by winds and livestock. It will also take longer to recover from pruning.
This is a very important point – how you prune in the early stages can protect emerging trees from severe livestock damage and prevent the need for fencing. Sometimes farmers tie thorn branches onto the pruned stem to give added protection from livestock.
Over pruned tree broken by livestock.
Left: side branches have been left on the stem.
Right: many stems have been left – this will help protect the regrowth from livestock damage.
In this field, livestock are free ranging, but they have caused minimal damage to the trees, mostly because they were only lightly pruned while still small.
In some areas, communities decided to mark their pruned trees with ribbons or paint. This is a recognized warning to others not to cut these trees. In most places, farmers simply agreed amongst themselves not to cut down other peoples trees and no markers were used.
Notice – the ribbon has been tied tightly around the trunk. If not removed this will cause problems as the tree grows.
It is best to tie ribbons loosely on a side branch.
Do your base line – photographic evidence, surveys – No. of trees per hectare, species, etc. before you start FMNR implementation. Come back each year and take photos from the same spot and do tree counts etc.
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