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  1. 1. Chapter 3 Gastronomic Identity: The Effect of the Environment and Culture on Prevailing Components, Texture and, Flavors in Wine and Food
  2. 2. Chapter 3 Outline • Aperitif: How should menus and wine lists be organized? • The Environment • Wine: The Impact of Geography and Climate • Culture • History and Ethnic Diversity • Trial & Error, Innovations, and Capabilities • Gastronomic Identity • Old World and New World
  3. 3. Chapter 3 Key Concepts • Heat Summation Units • Climate zones • Flavor Profiles • Macro-Climates, Meso-Climates, and Micro- climates • Appellations • American Viticultural Areas • Prohibition • Terroir • Classic Wine and Food Marriages
  4. 4. The Organization of Menus and Wine Lists • Overall menu and wine list = five main components: presentation, pattern, structure, pricing, and other general requirements. • Organization: by region or traditional classification. • Presentation: style of font, font size, size of the physical menu, style, color, layout, and descriptions. • Pattern: outline of item categories, location of items, special presentations styles, menu or wine list types, and the degree of choice of items.
  5. 5. Menus and Wine Lists Continued • Structure: regional appeal of the menu, variety in price range levels, and meal periods. • Pricing: pricing methodology, and pricing psychology issues. • Other general: aesthetic factors, the ability to produce the type of service needed, and price elasticity of items consistently. • Should reflect the needs of both internal and external customers. • Wine list : minimizes customer intimidation, environment of customer engagement, value-added education, and to create a sense of curiosity.
  6. 6. The Key Elements of The Gastronomic Identity Concept The concept of gastronomic identity illustrates the influences of • the environment (geography and climate) • and culture (history and ethnic influences) on prevailing taste components, textures and flavors in food and drink. Gastronomic identity has great consequences for successful wine tourism, culinary tourism and the introduction of history as a value-added feature of these tourism products.
  7. 7. Elements that define Culinary Identity History Ethnic Diversity Culinary Etiquette Geograph y Prevailing Flavors Recipe s Presentation Techniques Dominant Ingredients Source: R. Danhi. “What is Your Country’s Culinary Identity? Culinology Currents (Winter 2003): 4-5.
  8. 8. Gastronomic Identity Environment Geography Climate Macro/Meso/Micro-Climates Indigenous Products Profitable Adaptability of New Products Culture History Ethnic Diversity Trial & Error Innovations Capabilities Traditions Beliefs Values Gastronomic Identity Flavor Profiles Etiquette Recipes Fusion of Ingredients/Techniques Classic Wine and Food Marriages Climate Zones Old World & New World Styles
  9. 9. The Impact of Climate Zones On Wine Characteristics Climatic factors impact fruit ripeness, acidity levels, alcohol levels, tannin, and flavors. Cool Regions: • Often result in white wine flavors of apples and pears (cool climate tree fruits). • Create red wine aromas and flavors that can be described as red fruits like cranberries, red currants or red cherries.
  10. 10. Climate Zones Continued Moderate Regions • Result in flavors such as citrus, peaches, apricots, nectarines or melons for white wines and black cherries, black currants, plums or blueberries for red wines. Warm Regions: • Results in white wines that have tropical fruit flavors such as mangos, pineapple, papayas, guavas or bananas. • Produce red wines that can take on flavors of dried and heavier fruits like raisins, figs or prunes.
  11. 11. Climate Terms Defined • Macro-climate – the climate of an overall region. • Meso-climate – the local climate of a whole vineyard. • Micro-climate – the climate specific to an individual plot within a vineyard.
  12. 12. Heat Summation Units • Calculated as the total number of days when the average temperature is greater than 50  F (10  C). • This is based on a 10-year average of temperatures • If an average was 70 F (70 -50 = 20), this would provide 20 “degree days” per day. • The coldest regions are about 1,700 degree days and the warmest of 5,200 degree days (calculated in Fahrenheit) .
  13. 13. Degree-Day Equivalents in Celsius and Fahrenheit RegionRegion Celsius HeatCelsius Heat Summation UnitsSummation Units Fahrenheit HeatFahrenheit Heat Summation UnitsSummation Units II ≤ 1390 ≤ 2500 IIII 1391-1670 2501-3000 IIIIII 1671-1940 3001-3500 IVIV 1941-2220 3501-4000 VV ≥ 2221 ≥ 4001 Source: R.S. Jackson. “Wine Science, 2nd ed.” (2000, San Diego, CA: Academic Press).
  14. 14. Climate Zones Based On Heat Summation Units •Region 1: climate zones less than 2,500 units. • New World Examples: Willamette Valley (OR), Tasmania. • Old World Examples: Champagne, Baden. •Region 2: 2501and 3000 units. • New World Examples: Niagara Peninsula, Adelaide Hills. • Old World Examples: Hermitage, Piedmont.
  15. 15. Climate Zones Based On Heat Summation Units Continued •Region 3: 3001 and 3500 units. • New World Examples: Red Mountain (WA), Margaret River (AUS). • Old World Examples: Rhone region, Tuscany. •Region 4: 3501 and 4000 units. • New World Examples: San Joaquin, Sicily. • Old World Examples: Rioja, Ribera Del Duero. •Region 5: 4001 or more. • New World Examples: Stanislaus, South Plains. • Old World Examples: Calabria, Sherry.
  16. 16. The Role of Appellations • Refers to the location where agricultural products are grown. • Sanctioned by a government or trade association to define procedures in order to “guarantee” quality and genuineness. • A wine appellation may be a large region or a single vineyard. • Stated on a wine bottle label and refers to the specific geographic location. • An example would be the official French system of appellation d’origine controlée.
  17. 17. The Definition of Terroir Terroir can be defined as: “an umbrella term for a subtle interaction of natural factors and human skills that define the characteristics of each wine- growing area”.
  18. 18. History: Prohibition Effects • Prohibition greatly impacted wine production and wine grape growing across both the U.S. and Canada. • The dry movement began in 1816 and persisted for more than 100 years. • Prohibition was enacted into U.S. law in 1920, and repealed in 1933. • In Canada, Prince Edward Island was the first province to enact prohibition in 1901 and did not repeal it until 1948. • Most Canadian repealed prohibition during the 1920’s. • From 1919-1925, wine production dropped 94%. • Dry forces continue to be active today.
  19. 19. Trade’s Impact on Wine Identity • Trade is an element that impacts gastronomic traditions. • Traveling winemakers and roving viticulturists have created a blurring of the lines between Old and New World wine industries. • There are more joint production adventures between the New World and the Old World than ever before. • Therefore regional wine identities are constantly changing.
  20. 20. Which Countries are New World and Old World? • New World: U.S., Australia, Argentina, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. • Old World: Europe – France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Austria and Switzerland.
  21. 21. Cool Climate and Old/New World Traditions • Growing Season: cool/less sunny • Wine Fruit Style: lean • White Wine Fruit Flavors: apple/pear • Red Wine Fruit Flavors: cranberries, redcurrants, red cherries • Overall Wine Style: subtle/elegant • Old World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Red Burgundy with Boeuf Bourguignon, Sancerre and Goat Cheese. • New World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Oregon Pinot Noir and Wild Salmon, New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc and a fusion of influences.
  22. 22. Moderate Climate and Old/New World Traditions • Growing Season: temperate/moderately sunny • Wine Fruit Style: ripe/juicy • White Wine Fruit Flavors: citrus, peaches, apricots, nectarines, melons • Red Wine Fruit Flavors: black cherries, black currants, plums, blueberries, blackberries • Overall Wine Style: medium intensity • Old World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Beaujolais and Salade Lyonnaise, Barolo and Tagiatelle. • New World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Buttery Chardonnay with Dungeness Crab, Zinfandel with Grilled anything.
  23. 23. Warm Climate and Old/New World Traditions • Growing Season: warm/very sunny • Wine Fruit Style: overripe/lush • White Wine Fruit Flavors: mangos, pineapples, papayas, guavas, bananas • Red Wine Fruit Flavors: figs, raisins, prunes • Overall Wine Style: bold/intense • Old World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Nero d'Avola and Spaghetti with Meat Sauce. • New World Examples of Wine and Food Matches: Shiraz with Grilled Pepper Steak, Malbec with Beef Empanadas.
  24. 24. Chapter 3 Lagniappe “Something extra” The Future of Wine Tourism
  25. 25. Wine Tourism Definition: ‘visitation to vineyard, wineries, wine festivals and wine shows for the purpose of recreation’ (Johnson, 1998). • This is a limited notion of wine tourism. It also occurs: • Dining out in restaurants • Is part of other historical or cultural attractions • And a diverse range of location attributes – scenic beauty, regional cuisine, heritage and architecture.
  26. 26. Wine Tourism an Experiential Perspective • Consumer behavior researchers have acknowledged the experiential view to recognize the hedonistic nature of purchases for things such as wine and wine tourism. • Purchase decisions are based not merely on problem-solving. • Also based on things such as fun, amusement, fantasy, arousal and stimulation. • Basic elements of wine tourism may occur at the winery, in the region, or outside the region.
  27. 27. Basics of the Wine Tourism Experience Outside Region Festivals Restaurant Home Wine shows Within Region Accommodation Cuisine Scenery Other Attractions Architecture Winery Tasting Events Inter-personal/personal Winery setting
  28. 28. Who are wine tourists? • Limited research has been undertaken to determine the variation in demographic and pyschographic characteristics of wine tourists. • General demographic description: 30-50 years old, moderate to high income, and within/near proximity of the locale. • Psychographic profile: regular consumers of wine, intermmediate to advanced knowledge, 3 to 4 annual visits to wineries, and purchase 3 to 8 bottles per month.
  29. 29. Predictions of future wine tourism • Will remain a special interest product • But, broaden its market appeal beyond the elite. • Continue the development of strategic links with: festivals, restaurants, accomodations, craft producers, and the development of trails/routes integrating heritage, culture, nature and gastronomy. • Become a growing part of “edutainment” tourism.
  30. 30. Wine as “Attractions” • Disney’s California Adventure – Golden Vine Winery. A theater wine tour on the history of wine in conjunction with Robert Mondavi. • Vinopolis – attracts more than 500,000 visitors per year featuring multimedia “Wine Odyssey” tours, master tasting classes, “Grand Tasting Halls, and dining experiences. http://www.vinopolis.co.uk/
  31. 31. Additional Reading on Wine Tourism Dodd, T. (1995). Opportunities and pitfalls of tourism in a developing wine industry. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 7, 5-16. Hall, C.M. et al. (2002). Wine Tourism Around the World. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Sharpley, R. & Sharpley, J. (1997). Rural Tourism. International Thompson Business Press.


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