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What is Marketing
Marketing is Planning
Marketing is Pricing
Marketing is Promoting
Marketing is Distributing
What is Marketing (Cont’d)
Marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan, price,
promote and distribute WANT-SATISFYING products/services/ideas to
target market to achieve organizational objectives
Marketing is the process by which companies create value for customers
and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from
customers in return. “Kotler”
• Situation Analysis covers External environmental forces
“PESTL” as well as Internal Forces “SWOT”.
• Situation Analysis is a critical task as it includes numerous
subjective as well as objective judgments.
• SWOT Analysis is the most Famous assessment Framework.
External environmental forces
• GDP trends
• Interest rates
• Money supply
• Inflation rates
• Unemployment levels
• Wage/price controls
• Energy availability and
• Disposable and
• Total government
spending for R&D
• Total industry
spending for R&D
• Focus of
• Patent protection
• New products
• New developments in
from lab to
• Antitrust regulations
• Tax laws
• Special incentives
• Foreign trade
• Attitudes toward
• Laws on hiring and
• Stability of
• Lifestyle changes
• Career expectations
• Consumer activism
• Rate of family
• Growth rate of
• Age distribution of
• Regional shifts in
• Life expectancies
• Birth rates
Internal Forces “SWOT”
market such as
vacated by an
your product or
The objective is the starting point of the marketing
Objectives should seek to answer the question
'Where do we want to go?'. The purposes of
• To enable a company to control its marketing plan.
• To help to motivate individuals and teams to reach a
• To provide an agreed, consistent focus for all functions of an
Positioning & Differential Advantage
• Positioning is all about “perception”
• Positioning: Refers to a product’s image in relation to directly
competitive products as well as other products marketed by
the same company.
• Differential Value: Refers to any feature of an organization or
brand perceived by customer to be desirable and different
from those of the competition.
Target Market: Refers to a group of people or organizations
at which a firm directs a marketing program through knowing:
Marketing Mix – Product – Cont’d
The product is promoted to create awareness.
The product has no or few competitors, & a skimming
price strategy is employed.
Limited numbers of product are available in few channels
Competitors are attracted into the market with very
Products become more profitable.
Advertising spend is high and focuses upon building brand.
Market share tends to be stabilized.
Marketing Mix – Product – Cont’d
• Producers attempt to differentiate products and brands are
key to this.
• Price wars and intense competition occur.
• Producers begin to leave the market due to poor margins.
• Promotion becomes more widespread and use a greater
variety of media.
• Declining happens either because more innovative
products are introduced or consumer tastes have changed.
• There is intense price-cutting and many more products are
withdrawn from the market
Marketing Mix - Price
Promotional pricing including approaches such as BOGOF (Buy One Get One Free).
Is used where external factors such as recession exists
The cost of marketing and manufacture are kept at a minimum
Price is set artificially low in order to gain market share. Once this is achieved, the price is increased
High price where there is a uniqueness about the product Used for luxuries Products/Services
Marketing Mix - Place
“A channel of distribution comprises a set of institutions which perform all of
the activities utilized to move a product and its title from production to
consumption” Bucklin -Theory of Distribution Channel Structure (1966)
• Sold through every available outlets.Intensive
• Sold through multiple but not all possible outletsSelective
• Sold through one single outletExclusive
• Sold only through the company’s outletsDirect
• Sold through direct and/or indirect channelsIndirect
Marketing Mix - Promotion
What does Promotion mean?
Marketing Mix - Promotion (Cont’d)
• The elements of the promotions mix are:
• Personal Selling is an effective way to manage personal
• sales people are very expensive and should only be used
where there is a genuine return on investment.
• The sales person acts on behalf of the organization
• Sales promotion tend to be thought of as being all
promotions apart from advertising.
• BOGOF promotion, or Buy One Get One Free. Others
include couponing, money-off promotions, free
• Sales promotion is generally broken into two major
• Consumer-oriented activities.
• Trade-oriented activities.
Public Relations (PR)
• Public Relations is defined as 'the deliberate, planned and
sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual
understanding between an organization and its publics'
• Public relations uses publicity and a variety of other tools-
• Special publications
• Participation in community activities
• Sponsorship of special events
• Various public affairs activities-to enhance an organization's
• In Direct marketing organizations communicate directly
with target customers to generate a response and/or a
• Direct marketing is much more than direct mail and mail-
Advertising is a 'paid for' communication.
It is used to develop attitudes, create awareness, and
transmit information in order to gain a response from the
There are many advertising 'media' such as newspapers
(local, national, free, trade), magazines and journals,
television (local, national, terrestrial, satellite) cinema,
outdoor advertising (such as posters, bus sides).
Internet and Interactive Marketing
• Interactive media allow for a back-and-forth flow of
information whereby users can participate in and modify
the form and content of the information they receive in
• The new media allow users to perform a variety of
functions such as:
• Receive and alter information and images.
• Make inquiries.
• Respond to questions.
• Make purchases
Selecting Promotion Activities
• Selection of promotional activities is based on five
• Nature of Product or Services
• Budget: Power to spend
• Market Condition: Recession / Active market
• Product Stage: status of product on the PLC
Services’ Marketing Mix
• Additional elements for the services Marketing Mix