1. Perception of overtourism
Overtourism describes destinations where hosts or guests, locals or visitors, feel that there are
too many visitors and that the quality of life in the area or the quality of the experience has
deteriorated unacceptably (Goodwin, 2017).
Spreading around the world
Affects environment, social-cultural & economic impacts
14.3m Pax severed in 2018, a 6.5% increase from 2017 (Edinburgh Airport, 2019)
6th busiest airport in the UK
2. Destinations affected by overtourism
Around 47.3m Pax went through Barcelona Airport in 2017, an increase of 7.1% from 2016
(Barcelona tourism activity report, 2017)
5.2% increase in European commercials flights in 2017
30m overnight visitors in 2017 compared to over 1.6m resident population (Destination
The city reaches an exotic status and the historical centres, monuments and symbolic references
are no longer of interest, but only as backdrops in an urban scenery for tourism (Sassen & Roost,
A more tourism dependent city which has developed a local economy entirely to tourism (Seguí,
Around 30m tourists arrive each year (Valcárcel, 2018).
The status of World heritage site makes attractive for tourists worldwide (Street 2018b; UNESCO,
Source: Icelandic Tourism Board (2018)
An average yearly growth of 24.3% in these 7 years
Environment damage and changes in attitudes on
popular tourists sites Street, (2018b).
5. Bruges, Belgium
An upcoming emerging tourist destination
2 hr flight from Edinburgh, Ryanair and British Airways serving routes
19.1m Pax in Feb 2019, increase of 14.8% from previous year
Tourists seek peaceful and historical break drawn to beautiful cobbled streets of Bruges
Tourists explore the city by sailing through the canal
6. Measures taken to tackle overtourism and overall
It negatively affects resident’s
daily lives after changes are
made in the community.
Community leaders and
developers need to view
tourism as a “community
industry” (Murphy, 1985)
An upcoming emerging tourist destination
It was intended “to promote a tourism model” which would “strengthen
the balance between local residents and tourists.
Creation and promotion of new focal points and landmarks
Improve infrastructure and manage negative impacts
Managing tourism in the city with a comprehensive, cross-sectoral
Redefining Barcelona’s tourism model and creating a comprehensive
smart tourism system
Strengthening the control of public spaces and reinforcing control
Management of groups, creation of a new platform for acquiring the various services of the city
Diversify the arrival points of private buses coming from mainland
Changes to the public transport navigation service routes, regulation of tourist facilities
Introduction of new charges, introduction of landing charges, actions aimed at marketing and
increase police control
Creation of new platforms for acquiring the various services of the city
Strategy of promoting new attractions such as the town of Akureyri, which includes waterfalls and
Develop, maintain and protect nature and man-made structures at tourist attractions
Carry out construction related to traveller safety and nature conservation at tourist destinations
9. Bruges, Belgium
City centre, parking tariffs are raised aggressively to force tourists and day-visitors contribute
more to the city budget
Target various segments and distribute guests across the city and seasons.
Alternative destinations divert traffic and potentially generate income from other sources
Promoting tourism activities during shoulder season (lowered price, more space)
Avoid participating in group tours (Overly congested)
Select appropriate timing for tours
11. Why is there Overtourism within Scotland?
- Investment in visitor attractions (National Museum of Scotland, National
Galleries) (Ferguson, 2018)
- Television and Film series (Outlander, Outlaw King) (MFR, 2018)
- Distinct natural beauty/scenic drives (Old Man of Storr, Fairy Pools, NC500)
- World class events and facilities (Edinburgh Fringe, museum exhibitions)
(Convention Edinburgh, 2019)
Cuillin Mountain Range, Skye
St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh
12. Edinburgh and Isle of Skye
Accommodation issues (short term lets, AirBnB)
Tourist Tax (Adams, 2019)
Erosion of key natural hotspots (Old Man of Storr,
Congestion within city (especially Old Town)
Congestion of traffic and people due to basic
Conflict between locals and tourists
Over-bookings of accommodation in 2017 – police
involved (Rudgard, 2017)
Loss of key areas to commercial events - Princes
Gardens, Royal Mile, Grassmarket.
Locals leaving local area permanently due to the
expense of living
13. What can we do to improve the situation?
Different approaches to marketing:
Psychological marketing – create an awareness of how overtourism can impact an area.
Corporate/tourist responsibility – involve tourism business and individuals in efforts.
Different areas – Market different areas of the country (Dundee, Aberdeenshire)
Investment in infrastructure:
Government/private capital investment for infrastructure (transport links, visitor attractions)
Further regulation for tourism:
Regulation towards accommodation, transport and the balance of tourists and locals)
Portree Bay, Skye(UNWTO, 2019)
14. Experiential tourism trend
Experiential tourism plays a role to offer the ‘non-tourist’ tourist
experience, which is non packaged, individual, or more often a
separately packaged experience (Prentice, 2007).
Experiential tourism urges tourists to strive for less traditional
destinations (Plog, 2001).
Scotland is known for outdoor leisure and adventure tourism
offering a range of activities and attractions experiences (HIE,
Examples of destinations with a growing experiential tourism
market include Romania and Slovenia (Exodus Travels Limited,
15. Wellness tourism trend
Wellness tourism in consumer behaviour has been defined as
lifestyle, temperament and emotion, self- awareness and self-
actualization (Marinov, Vodenska, Assenova & Dogramadjieva,
Scotland as a whole presents wellness tourism (Visit Scotland,
Poland have up to 45 health resorts (Global Wellness Institute
Slovenia is barely touched by tourists and it offers beautiful
green areas of Slovenian spas and health resorts (Slovenian
Tourist Board, 2019).
16. Responsible tourism trend
Resposible tourism aims at raising awareness about sustainability
issues and promote sustainable tourism practices for locals
(World Tourism Organisation 2004).
Scotland is classified as Europe’s top destination in the world for
eco-tourists (The Guardian, 2007).
Switzerland are leading the way with ecotourism (Switzerland
In, 2016 Slovenia was the most sustainable country in the world
hotel industry in Romania has grown over the past 5
years by almost 40 percent(Dragan, 2018)
turnover of more than RON 5.5 billion in 2017(Dragan, 2018)
Henri Coandă International
34% (20,000) of all
Ljubljana Airport Terminal Expansion
Strategy for The sustainable Growth of Slovenian
Tourism for 2017-2021
500 passengers per hour to
1,280 passengers per hour
22 check-in desks
5 long security lines
22,000 square metres
to increase international
tourism receipts to EUR
3.7 – 4 bilion (Government of the
Republic of Slovenia, 2017).
In 2018 almost 15.7 million tourist overnight stays. More than 5.9 million
tourist arrivals and almost 15.7 million overnight stays were recorded in
Slovenia in 2018. Foreign tourists generated 11.2 million overnight stays,
which is 15% more than in 2017(Prijatelj, 2019).
Dragan, A. (2018). Record year for Romania's tourism
industry: Bucharest remains the capital of HORECA -
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responsible tourism. The Guardian.
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Prentice, R. (2007) Experiential Cultural Tourism: Museums & the
Marketing of the New Romanticism of Evoked Authenticity. Museum
Management and Curatorship 19,(1), 5 – 26.
Plog, S. (2001). Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity.
Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(3), 13-13.
HIE. (2015). ADVENTURE TOURISM IN SCOTLAND. Retrieved from
Exodus Travels Limited. (2019). Adventure Holidays in Europe.
Retrieved from https://www.exodus.co.uk/europe-holidays
Marinov, V., Vodenska, M., Assenova, M., & Dogramadjieva, E. (2018).
Traditions and Innovations in Contemporary Tourism. Newcastle
Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
VisitScotland. (2019). Insite Department: Trends 2019. Retrieved from