Framework of Benefits of zero-emission trucks for workers

1 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public
Ricardo
20th September 2023
Framework of benefits of zero-emission trucks for workers
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Agenda
Objectives and approach
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Objective
• Developing a Framework to identify and analyse potential ZETs benefits for drivers’ working conditions.
Approach
• Initially, we defined the changes to the physical conditions of driving ZET vehicles compared to driving conventional trucks, through
literature review, interviews of truck drivers and a survey.
• We developed a conceptual framework linking these changes to expected operational impacts of ZET driving and consequently on drivers’ job
attractiveness as presented below.
Framework of benefits: objective and approach
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
MOVING PARTS
PRODUCING VIBRATION
WORK-LIFE BALANCE
LOWER ENTRY SKILL
REQUIREMENTS
EASE OF DRIVING
MECHANICAL SKILLS /
KNOWLEDGE OF ELECTRIC
POWERTRAINS
IMPROVED CAREER IMAGE OF
DRIVING A ZET
RESTING TIMES
PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF VEHICLES IMPACT ON OPERATIONS IMPACT ON JOB ATTRACTIVENESS
NOISE, HEATING, CABIN
DESIGN
CHARGING NEEDS
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Agenda
Context
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Context: the EU represents 7% of the world’s road freight activity
Key Findings – Regional analysis
Trucking market snapshot (over 3.5 tonnes)
ZE MHGV deployment pathway
Road transport accounts for around three-
quarters of all inland freight transport
activities in the EU
There are around 4.27 million registered
trucks in the EU as of 2020 [1]
MHGVs account for roughly 20% of the
EU’s road CO2 emissions, despite making
up only 2% of the vehicles on European
roads [2]
ZE MHGVs are increasing at a fast pace,
driven by uptake of BEVs, but still make up <1% of the
truck fleet [3]
Deployment of charging and H2 refuelling
infrastructure is minimal and insufficient in many
EU Member States
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Overview of the trucking sector
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
Composition of fleet:
relatively new
• The average age of trucks in
the EU is 13 years but most of
the road freight activity is
undertaken by a relatively
young fleet [1]
• From 4.27 M trucks, less than
1% is zero emission [2]
Composition of logistics
activity: concentration of
small firms
• 500,000 firms averaging 12
goods vehicles per company
(most only 1 or 2). [6]
• Micro-companies (<10
employees) represent 90%
of the market and 30% of
turnover [7]
Workforce: ageing and with
small share of women
• Ageing workforce, over 44
years. Under 25 y.o. are
less than 7%. [3]
• For instance, Portugal.
• 30% 50 y.o. or over.
• 15% 18-34 y.o. [4]
• Women <3% [5]
Shortage of drivers: a steady
problem
• Long-term staff shortages.
425,000 unfilled truck driver
jobs across Europe [8]
• Higher turnover rate and
lower retirement age than
average
• Gap between end of school
age and age to obtain truck
drivers licence
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Literature review: the current problem with the sector’s workforce
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
TRUCK DRIVERS FACE HARD AND STRESSFUL WORKING
CONDITIONS
LONG HOURS,
OVERTIME AND
NIGHT SHIFTS
FATIGUE
SPECIFIC SLEEP
DEMANDS
LACK OF AND BAD
QUALITY SLEEP
POOR STEERING
CONTROL
DECREASED
REACTION TIME
POOR SPEED
TRACKING
LOSS OF ATTENTION
& HAZARD
PERCEPTION
60% of drivers are fatigued while driving [1]
25% of drivers fell asleep while driving in previous month [2]
LACK OF
RESTING
FACILITIES/
PARKING
LOTS
DIFFICULTY
TO ACHIEVE
WORK-LIFE
BALANCE
WORK DURING
BREAKS
ADVERSE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
LACK OF
PREDICTABILITY
IN SCHEDULES
Noise: constant
and loud, making
interaction on-the-
road/ warehouse
difficult
Vibration:
producing
injuries on
the lower
back
Fumes:
getting into
the cabin
High floor:
strain on
the back
and joints
INSECURITY IN
PARKING
(SPECIALLY FOR
WOMEN)
SALARIES LOWER THAN
EUROPEAN AVERAGE
Physical efforts (loading/ unloading, assisting)
HIGH RISK PROFESSIONAL GROUP
POOR IMAGE AND CAREER ATTRACTIVENESS
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRAIN AND IRRITABILITY
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Agenda
Methodology of the interviews
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Profile of the drivers we interviewed
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
33 years old
User
60 years old
User
45 years old
Non-user
He is the test driver of a Spanish OEM of
electric trucks and vans.
He has worked as professional truck
driver all his life, mainly focusing on
HGVs. This job is his first experience with
electric trucks.
48 years old
User
He is truck driver for a manufacturer of
bottled water. There, he has been using
electric trucks for 6 months. Before that, he
had transported different type of goods in
natural gas trucks. His overall experience
driving trucks is slightly over 1 year.
He is also studying Business Administration.
He drives diesel trucks in Slovenia and
has no experience with electric trucks. He
transport ice-cream and fresh fruit.
During the interview, he offered his views
and believes on the performance of
electric trucks.
He supervises the test drive activity in the
Spanish OEM of electric trucks already
mentioned. He is not a professional driver
but a technical expert in the automotive
industry. But he requested to participate and
add his contribution in the interview to the
OEM’s test driver.
The sample of interviewees gathers professional truck drivers from 3
different countries (Spain, Italy and Slovenia), of different age (from 33
to 60) and combines users and non-users of electric trucks.
Each interview lasted for about 1 hour and followed a
flexible guide that enabled the interviewer to
spontaneously introduce questions and requests of
clarification as the conversation unfolded
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Agenda
Results from the interviews
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Analysis: benefits offered by the physical characteristics of electric trucks
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
DIRECT HEALTH BENEFITS SAFETY BENEFITS OF STATE-OF-THE-ART
TECHNOLOGY
SIMPLIFIED MAINTENANCE
NOISE: manufacturer’s test found that a Volvo FL
Electric truck has a 10 dB lower noise level than a
regular diesel vehicle. This means that the perceived
sound level is cut by about half
FUMES: no fumes penetrating in cabin.
LOWER FLOOR: decreases strain on the back and
joints. A reduction of 15 cm in the level of the floor
equates to stop climbing approximately 11 flights of
stairs every day.
BODY POSITION/ ERGONOMICS: ride comfort also
improve when battery pack is placed longitudinal
closer to front axle
ZET typically including ADAS and safety
warnings
ZET typically including speed control device.
Better control of speed and lane
Mirror Cam improving visibility
Challenge: need to train drivers on tackling
renewed risk of electric fire and other battery-
related hazards (see specific slide).
Electric trucks typically require less maintenance
than their diesel counterparts since they have
fewer moving parts.
No specific maintenance required on traction
voltage system and fluids top up check only
required after 40,000km.
Reduced need to service braking system to
replace brake pads and discs with regenerative
braking
VIBRATION: healthier lower back and an easier-to-
maneuver vehicle when backing up into docks.
Removing rumble contributes to concentration and
calm state of mind
Shared characteristics with
modern diesel
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Verbatims on physical characteristics of electric trucks I
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
33 years old
User
“If I get an alert on my screen, there is a button like a re-setting, like rebooting.
You just wait 2 or 3 minutes and you put inside keys and start again. Most of
the times, I fix my problems like this”.
“It is true that there are also fewer elements that can be broken.
The vehicle is simpler, but repair is more difficult”.
60 years old
User
“Not many people know how to fix it, you need to place another computer
working on the repair. Even if it looks simple, it is not. Before putting your hands
on it, you have to be careful. You have to wait between 4 to 6 hours, for the
system to cool down and then you can touch cables. Even for the mechanics is
not the same as the diesel, that you open up, check a few screws and that’s it”.
“When you stop the (broken) vehicle you do not know what to do, because you
need to plug in the computer and diagnostic software. It behaves like a very
modern car. You open the hood and say: What do I touch? There is nothing here
to touch. They are all closed boxes, sealed, and with the label that warns of high
voltage danger. You can't do anything, just warn the emergency towing vehicle.”.
MAIN FINDINGS:
With regards to
maintenance: more simple
device with less part to get
broken, but more difficult
to fix.
Sense of losing control.
The vehicle behaves like a
“black box”, closer to an
unknown computer than to
an old well-known
mechanical machine (also
true for modern diesel
vehicles, but even more
here).
48 years old
User
SIMPLER DEVICE
ALARMS AND
TROUBLESHOOTING
VEHICLE AS A
“BLACK BOX”
VEHICLE AS A
“BLACK BOX”
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Analysis: impact of electric technology on operations
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
EASE OF DRIVING CHARGING NEEDS
Electric trucks typically have instant torque and smooth acceleration, providing a
more enjoyable driving experience
The absence of gear shifts and smoother power delivery can minimise driver
fatigue and make long drives less tiring
Advanced driver assistance systems like automatic emergency braking, and
adaptive cruise control improve ease of driving
Easier-to-maneuver vehicle when backing up into docks.
Route optimizer technology is normally included, contrary to diesel trucks
Dynamic approach to adjust charging strategy depending on road and
traffic conditions, vehicle load, and charging facilities
Regenerative braking able to extend the vehicle operating range
Challenge: psychological anxiety is associated with charging (see specific
slide)
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Verbatims on impact of physical conditions on operations of ZETs
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
33 years old
User
“Easier to manoeuvre in tighter spaces like warehouse and backing
into loading dock due to the direct responses of electric motors.
“I would point out that having no clutch, the pedal is very
modulable, very pleasant to manoeuvre. It's very sensitive: you
squeeze your foot a little, and the vehicle moves a little
smoothly forward.
48 years old
User
MAIN FINDINGS:
Ease of manoeuvre,
smooth acceleration,
responsiveness are
the great differentials
expressed by drivers.
The non-user
expresses curiosity
about it (although he
has an intuition over
improved
manoeuvrability). He
also has doubts about
the electronic
component of
steering.
EASE OF
MANEUVERING/
SMOOTH RESPONSE
“No vibrations, no smoke, no noise at high speed. It is
a very silent driving”.
60 years old
User
NO VIBRATION/ NO
NOISE
“If I get an alert on my screen, there is a button like a re-setting, like rebooting.
You just wait 2 or 3 minutes and you put inside keys and start again. Most of
the times, I fix my problems like this”.
ALARMS AND
TROUBLESHOOTING
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Verbatims on impact of physical conditions on operations II
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
33 years old
User
“When I am going from my parking lot to the company where I unload the
water, it is up on the hill. And when I go down, I recharge my battery. If I spend
40% to go up there, when I go back to the parking, I still have the same amount
of energy. I do 78 km without using energy, because I regenerate it”.
45 years old
Non-user
“The charging stations could be used for mandatory rest (e.g. every 8 hours
of drive) but there would need to be a lot of stations (also the station would
need its own transformer station to charge e.g. 100 trucks at the same time
during resting… huge electric flow/voltage)”.
MAIN FINDINGS:
Regenerative brake
relevant to extend
range and reduce range
anxiety.
Common idea that
charging time can be
made coincide with
mandatory breaks for
truck drivers. But for
this, requirements
regarding distribution
and capacity of
charging points should
be attained.
“It is possible to use charging time to take legally required breaks for truck
drivers”.
REGENERATIVE
BRAKES
MANDATORY REST
MANDATORY REST
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The challenge of charging and other negative aspects
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
60 years old
User
“There is the issue of accessibility. We ran out of battery because
we could not enter a supermarket because of the height of the
cabin.
“From the moment we leave until we return, we have 250 km of
charge. To get back to 100%, we need 4 hours, but it is difficult to
find these chargers (fast chargers) on the road”.
48 years old
User
“Driving the number of hours that you are allowed, by the Law, as a
driver. If you don't have SOC (charge) and you have only a few
hours of driving left (by law), what do you do?
MAIN FINDINGS:
Charging takes a lot of
space in their mind. It
implies a wide variety
of problems: low
range, lack of fast
chargers, accessibility
of charging points to
trucks, need to
coincide mandated
hours with charging
needs.
Communication with
the engine through
noise is also
considered.
LACK OF FAST
CHARGERS
CHARGING POINTS
NOT ACCESIBLE FOR
TRUCKS
COORDINATION OF LEGAL
HOURS OF DRIVE WITH
CHARGING NEEDS
33 years old
User
“When I turn on the engine it doesn't make any noise and I cannot
really understand it, especially if I want to use the manual option on
the gears”.
COMMUNICATION
WITH THE ENGINE
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Analysis: work-life balance and career attractiveness
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
WORK-LIFE BALANCE CAREER ATTRACTIVENESS
Strategically scheduled charging time which allows for more predictability in
everyday life and a less strenuous schedule with optimized family and sleeping
times
Cleaner repair workshops and work, which is more attractive for women. It
is possible to think about a white coat type of service facility.
Environmental consciousness: younger generations, in particular, are
increasingly concerned about environmental issues and are actively seeking
sustainable alternatives.
Possibility of resting during breaks for recharging, making both periods coincide
Reduction of night shifts and overtime due to the constraints imposed by the
requirement of the overnight charging
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Verbatims on work-life balance and career attractiveness
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
33 years old
User
“Repair space is a surgery room. Yes, our workshop is an operating room.
Well, there is brake fluid here too, but there is much less, almost
nothing”.
“More predictable schedule and route to drive on, as it requires careful
route planning before the journey. I know when I wake up every day, and I
know that every night I am on my bed, I don’t sleep on the truck”.
60 years old
User
“Women are more skilled in this type of vehicles that require much more
engineers and computer professionals, more than the pure and hard
mechanics”.
MAIN FINDINGS:
More predictable routes
as a result of: a) need
for planning charging, b)
branded trucks (trend?)
Less working hours
acknowledged.
Cleaner and more
attractive spaces as an
incentive for entry of
new segments: women,
young.
Mechanics vs computer
scientists: change of
professional profile.
“I work less hours as a result of driving electric trucks. I went from 12-14
with a natural gas truck to 7-8 hours now”.
PREDICTABLE
SCHEDULE
HOURS OF WORK
CLEAN WORK SPACES
DIFFERENT PROFILE
OF WORKERS
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Verbatims accounting for a generational split
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
33 years old
User
“Now I find it novel and attractive. I have always been more
favourable to internal combustion engines. But hey, maybe things
changed... We become modern and we have to adapt”.
“It is true that my vehicle does not pollute. But I am concerned
about where the energy comes from.
60 years old
User
OLD GUARD:
• hard-to-change mindset. No
explicit environmental
sensitivity.
• Adaptation is forced to them,
imposed by external forces
• Attached to the mechanics of
vehicles.
• Pessimistic feeling.
NEW GENERATION:
• explicit environmental
concerns
• No specific attachment to
mechanics (no knowledge of it)
• Enter the market if
employment is attractive (“work
less hours”).
• May do other tasks in parallel.
I am studying. Before I was listening podcasts while I was driving
and I realised that I could use that time to learn.
“As things stand now, I see (electric vehicles) complicated for
long distance. To make urban or interurban delivery, I see it very
well”.
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Agenda
Summary of the survey
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Summary of results from the SURVEY ON DRIVERS (full results in the Annex)
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
METHODOLOGY
• In June 2023, ECTA launched a survey aiming to collect the perception and opinion of professional truck drivers on the use of zero-emission
trucks (ZET) along European roads. The following are the results of the survey:
SAMPLE COMPOSITION
• 15 truck drivers, mostly men from a variety of European Union countries, between 35-50 years old (73%) and between 5 and 25 years of
experience (60%)
• 73% had previous experience with electric trucks (not with any other ZE powertrain). Mainly covering less than 200 km a day and with an HGV
(67%)
NOISE AND EASE OF DRIVING, THE FAVOURITE ATTRIBUTES
• Most liked aspects: zero noise (7 mentions), smooth speed/ acceleration (4 mentions), ease to manoeuvre (3 mentions)
• Least liked aspects: range (5 mentions), no engine noise requires adaptation (2 mentions), Lack of charging points (2 mentions)
PERCEIVED AS CLEARLY DIFFERENT THAN DIESEL TRUCKS
• Noise, comfort and vibrations are the main aspects differentiating ZET and diesel trucks. Cabin space and access to the cabin are not
differentiators.
ATTRACTIVE FOR WORKERS
• Positive assessment of attractiveness and image.
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Agenda
Overall main findings
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Summary of overall findings
Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions
A GOOD JOB
• Main benefits are concentrated in work-life balance, career attractiveness and operations (e.g. ease of manoeuvring and mandatory rest).
EASE OF DRIVE AS KEY BENEFIT
• Regarding physical aspects, ease of manoeuvring, responsiveness and smooth acceleration are the main benefits. Reduced noise, vibration
and fumes comes in a second place in the interview results, but are top results in the survey.
• Fewer noise may be also associated with a negative aspect: loss of communication with the engine/ vehicle and reduced awareness by other
road users.
REPAIRS: LOSS OF CONTROL OR BEING FREED FROM THAT TASK?
• They acknowledge the benefits of ZETs for maintenance, and that they do not need knowledge or interest in mechanics for their role. But there
is also the sense of loss of control when facing malfunctioning, instead of the feeling that they have been freed from that responsibility.
MORE ATTRACTIVE FOR WOMEN AND YOUNGSTERS
• There is an indication of a general shift in workers’ profile: mechanics vs informatics; clearer and cleaner spaces which are felt as more
attractive for women and the young.
GENERATIONAL SPLIT REGARDING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS
• The younger generation are more open-minded, value less the tradition of ICE, are more sensitive for environmental aspects and would enter
the workforce only if the employment is attractive and has a good work-life balance.
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Agenda
Annex
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Complete results of the survey: Sample composition (15 respondents)
Objectives
93
7
Gender (%)
Male Female
20
73
7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
18-34
35-50
More than 50
Age (%)
7
13 13
7
40
27
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Italy Germany Austria Netherlands Poland Other
Country of operation (%)
33
60
7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Less than 5 years
Between 5 and 25 years
More than 25 years
Years driving (%)
Middle-age workforce, with
expertise in trucking
business. Variety of
countries. Only 1 woman.
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Complete results of the survey: Previous experience with ZET
Objectives
All experience with ZET is
with BEV. 3 out of 4 have
experience with electric
truck. Mainly for urban
distances with HGV.
73
27
Previous experience with electric trucks (%)
Yes No
67
7
7
20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Less than 200 km
Between 200 and 500 km
More than 500 km
Others
Typical distance covered with ZET (%)
67
13
20
Size of ZET (%)
Heavy Goods Vehicle (>12 tonnes of gross vehicle weight)
Light Goods Vehicle (<3.5 tonnes of gross vehicle weight)
Do not drive ZET
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Complete results of the survey: Likes and dislikes (number of responses, umprompted)
Objectives
On one hand, zero
noise and on the
other ease of
driving and smooth
acceleration are
the aspects most
appreciated.
Absence of noise
may have a
negative side
which can be
addressed. Range
anxiety is, so far, a
clear concern that
outweighs the
others
1
1
1
2
2
3
4
7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Avoided fuel/ ad blue spills
Fuel costs
High torque
Zero emissions/ environmental concerns
Zero vibrations
Easy to manouvre
Smooth speed up/ acceleration
Zero noise
Likes (spontaneous, umprompted)
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Don't know/ No answer
Fixing technical problems
No possibility of unplanned stops
Complicated elevator
Need for monitoring battery status
Higher centre of gravity
Lack of charging points
No engine noise requires adaptation
Autonomy/ Range
Dislikes (spontaneous/ umprompted)
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Complete results of the survey: Importance of aspects at the moment of driving (average rating from 1
to 5)
Objectives
3,3
3,6
3,8
4,1
4,2
4,2
4,2
4,3
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5
Time and conditions for recharging/refuelling
Vibrations
Repairing breakdown problems
Image
Noise
Vision
Ease of manouvering
Comfort
Comfort is the only aspect
that leads with slight
advantage. Then, ease of
manoeuvring, noise and
vision.
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Complete results of the survey. Comparison with diesel trucks: physical aspects
Objectives
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Overall, zero-emission trucks and diesel trucks are similar
There are more vibrations in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel truck
Driving a zero-emission truck is less noisy than a diesel truck
There is a better visibility from the cabin in a zero-emission truck than in a
diesel truck
I feel more comfortable driving in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel
truck
There is no difference in accessing the cabin of a zero-emission truck and
of a diesel truck]
Zero-emission trucks and diesel trucks offer the same space in the cabin
Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree DK/NA
ZE and diesel trucks are
clearly perceived as different
one from another.
Noise, comfort, vibration are
the main aspects that
differentiate them.
Cabin space and access to
the cabin are not
differentiators.
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Complete results of the survey. Comparison with diesel trucks: impact on operations
Objectives
Divided opinion on
operational aspects.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Overall, operations (driving, loading/unloading, charging, etc.)
are easier with a zero-emission truck than with a diesel truck
Charging an electric truck is easier than refuelling a diesel truck
Charging an electric truck will allow the driver to rest more than
refuelling a diesel truck
There is no difference in manoeuvring a zero-emission truck or
a diesel truck
Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree DK/NA
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Complete results of the survey. Attribute evaluation: job attractiveness
Objectives
More positive than negative
responses on image/
attractiveness. Except for
feeling safer.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
I feel safer in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel truck
I feel more proud to drive a zero-emission truck than a diesel
truck
Driving a zero-emission truck can attract new drivers to the
sector
I would recommend to my collegues to drive a zero-emission
truck
I like other people seeing me driving a zero-emission truck
Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree DK/NA
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References
Objectives
Slide Number Document
3 [1] [2] [3] Ricardo (2023) Global zero-emisión MHDV freight market Outlook. For the
Environmental Defense Fund.
4 [1] [2] Ricardo (2023) Global zero-emisión MHDV freight market Outlook. For the
Environmental Defense Fund.
4 [3] [4] Sousa, I. C. & Ramos, S (2018) Working conditions, health and retirement intentions: a
case study of truck drivers. International Journal of Workplace Health Management. 11
(3), 114-129
5 [1] [2] ETF (2021) Driver Fatigue in European Road Transport
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Contact details
Objectives
Sofia Amaral
Ricardo Energy & Environment Ltd
30 Eastbourne Terrace
London W2 6LA
United Kingdom
Sofia.Amaral@ricardo.com
Andres Kilstein
Ricardo Energy & Environment Ltd
Agustin de Foxa 29
Madrid 28036
Spain
Andres.Kilstein@ricardo.com
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Framework of Benefits of zero-emission trucks for workers

  • 1. 1 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Ricardo 20th September 2023 Framework of benefits of zero-emission trucks for workers
  • 2. 2 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Objectives and approach
  • 3. 3 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Objective • Developing a Framework to identify and analyse potential ZETs benefits for drivers’ working conditions. Approach • Initially, we defined the changes to the physical conditions of driving ZET vehicles compared to driving conventional trucks, through literature review, interviews of truck drivers and a survey. • We developed a conceptual framework linking these changes to expected operational impacts of ZET driving and consequently on drivers’ job attractiveness as presented below. Framework of benefits: objective and approach Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions MOVING PARTS PRODUCING VIBRATION WORK-LIFE BALANCE LOWER ENTRY SKILL REQUIREMENTS EASE OF DRIVING MECHANICAL SKILLS / KNOWLEDGE OF ELECTRIC POWERTRAINS IMPROVED CAREER IMAGE OF DRIVING A ZET RESTING TIMES PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF VEHICLES IMPACT ON OPERATIONS IMPACT ON JOB ATTRACTIVENESS NOISE, HEATING, CABIN DESIGN CHARGING NEEDS
  • 4. 4 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Context
  • 5. 5 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Context: the EU represents 7% of the world’s road freight activity Key Findings – Regional analysis Trucking market snapshot (over 3.5 tonnes) ZE MHGV deployment pathway Road transport accounts for around three- quarters of all inland freight transport activities in the EU There are around 4.27 million registered trucks in the EU as of 2020 [1] MHGVs account for roughly 20% of the EU’s road CO2 emissions, despite making up only 2% of the vehicles on European roads [2] ZE MHGVs are increasing at a fast pace, driven by uptake of BEVs, but still make up <1% of the truck fleet [3] Deployment of charging and H2 refuelling infrastructure is minimal and insufficient in many EU Member States
  • 6. 6 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Overview of the trucking sector Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions Composition of fleet: relatively new • The average age of trucks in the EU is 13 years but most of the road freight activity is undertaken by a relatively young fleet [1] • From 4.27 M trucks, less than 1% is zero emission [2] Composition of logistics activity: concentration of small firms • 500,000 firms averaging 12 goods vehicles per company (most only 1 or 2). [6] • Micro-companies (<10 employees) represent 90% of the market and 30% of turnover [7] Workforce: ageing and with small share of women • Ageing workforce, over 44 years. Under 25 y.o. are less than 7%. [3] • For instance, Portugal. • 30% 50 y.o. or over. • 15% 18-34 y.o. [4] • Women <3% [5] Shortage of drivers: a steady problem • Long-term staff shortages. 425,000 unfilled truck driver jobs across Europe [8] • Higher turnover rate and lower retirement age than average • Gap between end of school age and age to obtain truck drivers licence
  • 7. 7 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Literature review: the current problem with the sector’s workforce Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions TRUCK DRIVERS FACE HARD AND STRESSFUL WORKING CONDITIONS LONG HOURS, OVERTIME AND NIGHT SHIFTS FATIGUE SPECIFIC SLEEP DEMANDS LACK OF AND BAD QUALITY SLEEP POOR STEERING CONTROL DECREASED REACTION TIME POOR SPEED TRACKING LOSS OF ATTENTION & HAZARD PERCEPTION 60% of drivers are fatigued while driving [1] 25% of drivers fell asleep while driving in previous month [2] LACK OF RESTING FACILITIES/ PARKING LOTS DIFFICULTY TO ACHIEVE WORK-LIFE BALANCE WORK DURING BREAKS ADVERSE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT LACK OF PREDICTABILITY IN SCHEDULES Noise: constant and loud, making interaction on-the- road/ warehouse difficult Vibration: producing injuries on the lower back Fumes: getting into the cabin High floor: strain on the back and joints INSECURITY IN PARKING (SPECIALLY FOR WOMEN) SALARIES LOWER THAN EUROPEAN AVERAGE Physical efforts (loading/ unloading, assisting) HIGH RISK PROFESSIONAL GROUP POOR IMAGE AND CAREER ATTRACTIVENESS PSYCHOLOGICAL STRAIN AND IRRITABILITY
  • 8. 8 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Methodology of the interviews
  • 9. 9 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Profile of the drivers we interviewed Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 33 years old User 60 years old User 45 years old Non-user He is the test driver of a Spanish OEM of electric trucks and vans. He has worked as professional truck driver all his life, mainly focusing on HGVs. This job is his first experience with electric trucks. 48 years old User He is truck driver for a manufacturer of bottled water. There, he has been using electric trucks for 6 months. Before that, he had transported different type of goods in natural gas trucks. His overall experience driving trucks is slightly over 1 year. He is also studying Business Administration. He drives diesel trucks in Slovenia and has no experience with electric trucks. He transport ice-cream and fresh fruit. During the interview, he offered his views and believes on the performance of electric trucks. He supervises the test drive activity in the Spanish OEM of electric trucks already mentioned. He is not a professional driver but a technical expert in the automotive industry. But he requested to participate and add his contribution in the interview to the OEM’s test driver. The sample of interviewees gathers professional truck drivers from 3 different countries (Spain, Italy and Slovenia), of different age (from 33 to 60) and combines users and non-users of electric trucks. Each interview lasted for about 1 hour and followed a flexible guide that enabled the interviewer to spontaneously introduce questions and requests of clarification as the conversation unfolded
  • 10. 10 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Results from the interviews
  • 11. 11 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Analysis: benefits offered by the physical characteristics of electric trucks Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions DIRECT HEALTH BENEFITS SAFETY BENEFITS OF STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY SIMPLIFIED MAINTENANCE NOISE: manufacturer’s test found that a Volvo FL Electric truck has a 10 dB lower noise level than a regular diesel vehicle. This means that the perceived sound level is cut by about half FUMES: no fumes penetrating in cabin. LOWER FLOOR: decreases strain on the back and joints. A reduction of 15 cm in the level of the floor equates to stop climbing approximately 11 flights of stairs every day. BODY POSITION/ ERGONOMICS: ride comfort also improve when battery pack is placed longitudinal closer to front axle ZET typically including ADAS and safety warnings ZET typically including speed control device. Better control of speed and lane Mirror Cam improving visibility Challenge: need to train drivers on tackling renewed risk of electric fire and other battery- related hazards (see specific slide). Electric trucks typically require less maintenance than their diesel counterparts since they have fewer moving parts. No specific maintenance required on traction voltage system and fluids top up check only required after 40,000km. Reduced need to service braking system to replace brake pads and discs with regenerative braking VIBRATION: healthier lower back and an easier-to- maneuver vehicle when backing up into docks. Removing rumble contributes to concentration and calm state of mind Shared characteristics with modern diesel
  • 12. 12 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Verbatims on physical characteristics of electric trucks I Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 33 years old User “If I get an alert on my screen, there is a button like a re-setting, like rebooting. You just wait 2 or 3 minutes and you put inside keys and start again. Most of the times, I fix my problems like this”. “It is true that there are also fewer elements that can be broken. The vehicle is simpler, but repair is more difficult”. 60 years old User “Not many people know how to fix it, you need to place another computer working on the repair. Even if it looks simple, it is not. Before putting your hands on it, you have to be careful. You have to wait between 4 to 6 hours, for the system to cool down and then you can touch cables. Even for the mechanics is not the same as the diesel, that you open up, check a few screws and that’s it”. “When you stop the (broken) vehicle you do not know what to do, because you need to plug in the computer and diagnostic software. It behaves like a very modern car. You open the hood and say: What do I touch? There is nothing here to touch. They are all closed boxes, sealed, and with the label that warns of high voltage danger. You can't do anything, just warn the emergency towing vehicle.”. MAIN FINDINGS: With regards to maintenance: more simple device with less part to get broken, but more difficult to fix. Sense of losing control. The vehicle behaves like a “black box”, closer to an unknown computer than to an old well-known mechanical machine (also true for modern diesel vehicles, but even more here). 48 years old User SIMPLER DEVICE ALARMS AND TROUBLESHOOTING VEHICLE AS A “BLACK BOX” VEHICLE AS A “BLACK BOX”
  • 13. 13 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Analysis: impact of electric technology on operations Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions EASE OF DRIVING CHARGING NEEDS Electric trucks typically have instant torque and smooth acceleration, providing a more enjoyable driving experience The absence of gear shifts and smoother power delivery can minimise driver fatigue and make long drives less tiring Advanced driver assistance systems like automatic emergency braking, and adaptive cruise control improve ease of driving Easier-to-maneuver vehicle when backing up into docks. Route optimizer technology is normally included, contrary to diesel trucks Dynamic approach to adjust charging strategy depending on road and traffic conditions, vehicle load, and charging facilities Regenerative braking able to extend the vehicle operating range Challenge: psychological anxiety is associated with charging (see specific slide)
  • 14. 14 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Verbatims on impact of physical conditions on operations of ZETs Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 33 years old User “Easier to manoeuvre in tighter spaces like warehouse and backing into loading dock due to the direct responses of electric motors. “I would point out that having no clutch, the pedal is very modulable, very pleasant to manoeuvre. It's very sensitive: you squeeze your foot a little, and the vehicle moves a little smoothly forward. 48 years old User MAIN FINDINGS: Ease of manoeuvre, smooth acceleration, responsiveness are the great differentials expressed by drivers. The non-user expresses curiosity about it (although he has an intuition over improved manoeuvrability). He also has doubts about the electronic component of steering. EASE OF MANEUVERING/ SMOOTH RESPONSE “No vibrations, no smoke, no noise at high speed. It is a very silent driving”. 60 years old User NO VIBRATION/ NO NOISE “If I get an alert on my screen, there is a button like a re-setting, like rebooting. You just wait 2 or 3 minutes and you put inside keys and start again. Most of the times, I fix my problems like this”. ALARMS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
  • 15. 15 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Verbatims on impact of physical conditions on operations II Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 33 years old User “When I am going from my parking lot to the company where I unload the water, it is up on the hill. And when I go down, I recharge my battery. If I spend 40% to go up there, when I go back to the parking, I still have the same amount of energy. I do 78 km without using energy, because I regenerate it”. 45 years old Non-user “The charging stations could be used for mandatory rest (e.g. every 8 hours of drive) but there would need to be a lot of stations (also the station would need its own transformer station to charge e.g. 100 trucks at the same time during resting… huge electric flow/voltage)”. MAIN FINDINGS: Regenerative brake relevant to extend range and reduce range anxiety. Common idea that charging time can be made coincide with mandatory breaks for truck drivers. But for this, requirements regarding distribution and capacity of charging points should be attained. “It is possible to use charging time to take legally required breaks for truck drivers”. REGENERATIVE BRAKES MANDATORY REST MANDATORY REST
  • 16. 16 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public The challenge of charging and other negative aspects Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 60 years old User “There is the issue of accessibility. We ran out of battery because we could not enter a supermarket because of the height of the cabin. “From the moment we leave until we return, we have 250 km of charge. To get back to 100%, we need 4 hours, but it is difficult to find these chargers (fast chargers) on the road”. 48 years old User “Driving the number of hours that you are allowed, by the Law, as a driver. If you don't have SOC (charge) and you have only a few hours of driving left (by law), what do you do? MAIN FINDINGS: Charging takes a lot of space in their mind. It implies a wide variety of problems: low range, lack of fast chargers, accessibility of charging points to trucks, need to coincide mandated hours with charging needs. Communication with the engine through noise is also considered. LACK OF FAST CHARGERS CHARGING POINTS NOT ACCESIBLE FOR TRUCKS COORDINATION OF LEGAL HOURS OF DRIVE WITH CHARGING NEEDS 33 years old User “When I turn on the engine it doesn't make any noise and I cannot really understand it, especially if I want to use the manual option on the gears”. COMMUNICATION WITH THE ENGINE
  • 17. 17 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Analysis: work-life balance and career attractiveness Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions WORK-LIFE BALANCE CAREER ATTRACTIVENESS Strategically scheduled charging time which allows for more predictability in everyday life and a less strenuous schedule with optimized family and sleeping times Cleaner repair workshops and work, which is more attractive for women. It is possible to think about a white coat type of service facility. Environmental consciousness: younger generations, in particular, are increasingly concerned about environmental issues and are actively seeking sustainable alternatives. Possibility of resting during breaks for recharging, making both periods coincide Reduction of night shifts and overtime due to the constraints imposed by the requirement of the overnight charging
  • 18. 18 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Verbatims on work-life balance and career attractiveness Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 33 years old User “Repair space is a surgery room. Yes, our workshop is an operating room. Well, there is brake fluid here too, but there is much less, almost nothing”. “More predictable schedule and route to drive on, as it requires careful route planning before the journey. I know when I wake up every day, and I know that every night I am on my bed, I don’t sleep on the truck”. 60 years old User “Women are more skilled in this type of vehicles that require much more engineers and computer professionals, more than the pure and hard mechanics”. MAIN FINDINGS: More predictable routes as a result of: a) need for planning charging, b) branded trucks (trend?) Less working hours acknowledged. Cleaner and more attractive spaces as an incentive for entry of new segments: women, young. Mechanics vs computer scientists: change of professional profile. “I work less hours as a result of driving electric trucks. I went from 12-14 with a natural gas truck to 7-8 hours now”. PREDICTABLE SCHEDULE HOURS OF WORK CLEAN WORK SPACES DIFFERENT PROFILE OF WORKERS
  • 19. 19 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Verbatims accounting for a generational split Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions 33 years old User “Now I find it novel and attractive. I have always been more favourable to internal combustion engines. But hey, maybe things changed... We become modern and we have to adapt”. “It is true that my vehicle does not pollute. But I am concerned about where the energy comes from. 60 years old User OLD GUARD: • hard-to-change mindset. No explicit environmental sensitivity. • Adaptation is forced to them, imposed by external forces • Attached to the mechanics of vehicles. • Pessimistic feeling. NEW GENERATION: • explicit environmental concerns • No specific attachment to mechanics (no knowledge of it) • Enter the market if employment is attractive (“work less hours”). • May do other tasks in parallel. I am studying. Before I was listening podcasts while I was driving and I realised that I could use that time to learn. “As things stand now, I see (electric vehicles) complicated for long distance. To make urban or interurban delivery, I see it very well”.
  • 20. 20 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Summary of the survey
  • 21. 21 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Summary of results from the SURVEY ON DRIVERS (full results in the Annex) Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions METHODOLOGY • In June 2023, ECTA launched a survey aiming to collect the perception and opinion of professional truck drivers on the use of zero-emission trucks (ZET) along European roads. The following are the results of the survey: SAMPLE COMPOSITION • 15 truck drivers, mostly men from a variety of European Union countries, between 35-50 years old (73%) and between 5 and 25 years of experience (60%) • 73% had previous experience with electric trucks (not with any other ZE powertrain). Mainly covering less than 200 km a day and with an HGV (67%) NOISE AND EASE OF DRIVING, THE FAVOURITE ATTRIBUTES • Most liked aspects: zero noise (7 mentions), smooth speed/ acceleration (4 mentions), ease to manoeuvre (3 mentions) • Least liked aspects: range (5 mentions), no engine noise requires adaptation (2 mentions), Lack of charging points (2 mentions) PERCEIVED AS CLEARLY DIFFERENT THAN DIESEL TRUCKS • Noise, comfort and vibrations are the main aspects differentiating ZET and diesel trucks. Cabin space and access to the cabin are not differentiators. ATTRACTIVE FOR WORKERS • Positive assessment of attractiveness and image.
  • 22. 22 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Overall main findings
  • 23. 23 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Summary of overall findings Study on ZET drivers’ working conditions A GOOD JOB • Main benefits are concentrated in work-life balance, career attractiveness and operations (e.g. ease of manoeuvring and mandatory rest). EASE OF DRIVE AS KEY BENEFIT • Regarding physical aspects, ease of manoeuvring, responsiveness and smooth acceleration are the main benefits. Reduced noise, vibration and fumes comes in a second place in the interview results, but are top results in the survey. • Fewer noise may be also associated with a negative aspect: loss of communication with the engine/ vehicle and reduced awareness by other road users. REPAIRS: LOSS OF CONTROL OR BEING FREED FROM THAT TASK? • They acknowledge the benefits of ZETs for maintenance, and that they do not need knowledge or interest in mechanics for their role. But there is also the sense of loss of control when facing malfunctioning, instead of the feeling that they have been freed from that responsibility. MORE ATTRACTIVE FOR WOMEN AND YOUNGSTERS • There is an indication of a general shift in workers’ profile: mechanics vs informatics; clearer and cleaner spaces which are felt as more attractive for women and the young. GENERATIONAL SPLIT REGARDING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS • The younger generation are more open-minded, value less the tradition of ICE, are more sensitive for environmental aspects and would enter the workforce only if the employment is attractive and has a good work-life balance.
  • 24. 24 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Agenda Annex
  • 25. 25 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey: Sample composition (15 respondents) Objectives 93 7 Gender (%) Male Female 20 73 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 18-34 35-50 More than 50 Age (%) 7 13 13 7 40 27 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Italy Germany Austria Netherlands Poland Other Country of operation (%) 33 60 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Less than 5 years Between 5 and 25 years More than 25 years Years driving (%) Middle-age workforce, with expertise in trucking business. Variety of countries. Only 1 woman.
  • 26. 26 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey: Previous experience with ZET Objectives All experience with ZET is with BEV. 3 out of 4 have experience with electric truck. Mainly for urban distances with HGV. 73 27 Previous experience with electric trucks (%) Yes No 67 7 7 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Less than 200 km Between 200 and 500 km More than 500 km Others Typical distance covered with ZET (%) 67 13 20 Size of ZET (%) Heavy Goods Vehicle (>12 tonnes of gross vehicle weight) Light Goods Vehicle (<3.5 tonnes of gross vehicle weight) Do not drive ZET
  • 27. 27 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey: Likes and dislikes (number of responses, umprompted) Objectives On one hand, zero noise and on the other ease of driving and smooth acceleration are the aspects most appreciated. Absence of noise may have a negative side which can be addressed. Range anxiety is, so far, a clear concern that outweighs the others 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Avoided fuel/ ad blue spills Fuel costs High torque Zero emissions/ environmental concerns Zero vibrations Easy to manouvre Smooth speed up/ acceleration Zero noise Likes (spontaneous, umprompted) 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Don't know/ No answer Fixing technical problems No possibility of unplanned stops Complicated elevator Need for monitoring battery status Higher centre of gravity Lack of charging points No engine noise requires adaptation Autonomy/ Range Dislikes (spontaneous/ umprompted)
  • 28. 28 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey: Importance of aspects at the moment of driving (average rating from 1 to 5) Objectives 3,3 3,6 3,8 4,1 4,2 4,2 4,2 4,3 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 Time and conditions for recharging/refuelling Vibrations Repairing breakdown problems Image Noise Vision Ease of manouvering Comfort Comfort is the only aspect that leads with slight advantage. Then, ease of manoeuvring, noise and vision.
  • 29. 29 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey. Comparison with diesel trucks: physical aspects Objectives 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Overall, zero-emission trucks and diesel trucks are similar There are more vibrations in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel truck Driving a zero-emission truck is less noisy than a diesel truck There is a better visibility from the cabin in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel truck I feel more comfortable driving in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel truck There is no difference in accessing the cabin of a zero-emission truck and of a diesel truck] Zero-emission trucks and diesel trucks offer the same space in the cabin Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree DK/NA ZE and diesel trucks are clearly perceived as different one from another. Noise, comfort, vibration are the main aspects that differentiate them. Cabin space and access to the cabin are not differentiators.
  • 30. 30 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey. Comparison with diesel trucks: impact on operations Objectives Divided opinion on operational aspects. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Overall, operations (driving, loading/unloading, charging, etc.) are easier with a zero-emission truck than with a diesel truck Charging an electric truck is easier than refuelling a diesel truck Charging an electric truck will allow the driver to rest more than refuelling a diesel truck There is no difference in manoeuvring a zero-emission truck or a diesel truck Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree DK/NA
  • 31. 31 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Complete results of the survey. Attribute evaluation: job attractiveness Objectives More positive than negative responses on image/ attractiveness. Except for feeling safer. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 I feel safer in a zero-emission truck than in a diesel truck I feel more proud to drive a zero-emission truck than a diesel truck Driving a zero-emission truck can attract new drivers to the sector I would recommend to my collegues to drive a zero-emission truck I like other people seeing me driving a zero-emission truck Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree DK/NA
  • 32. 32 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public References Objectives Slide Number Document 3 [1] [2] [3] Ricardo (2023) Global zero-emisión MHDV freight market Outlook. For the Environmental Defense Fund. 4 [1] [2] Ricardo (2023) Global zero-emisión MHDV freight market Outlook. For the Environmental Defense Fund. 4 [3] [4] Sousa, I. C. & Ramos, S (2018) Working conditions, health and retirement intentions: a case study of truck drivers. International Journal of Workplace Health Management. 11 (3), 114-129 5 [1] [2] ETF (2021) Driver Fatigue in European Road Transport
  • 33. 33 © Ricardo plc 18 September 2023 ED18004 Public Contact details Objectives Sofia Amaral Ricardo Energy & Environment Ltd 30 Eastbourne Terrace London W2 6LA United Kingdom Sofia.Amaral@ricardo.com Andres Kilstein Ricardo Energy & Environment Ltd Agustin de Foxa 29 Madrid 28036 Spain Andres.Kilstein@ricardo.com