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Management science , system theory, contingency theory (comparison)

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Management science , system theory, contingency theory (comparison)

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Definition of Management Science
History of Management science
Introduction to management science approach
Features of management science approach
Applications of management science approach
Process of management science approach
Advantages & disadvantages of management science approach
Introduction to system theory
History of system theory
Applications of system theory
Process of system theory
Types of system theory
Advantages & disadvantages of system theory
Introduction to contingency theory
History of contingency theory
Features of contingency theory
Advantages & disadvantages of contingency theory
Comparison of system vs contingency theory

Definition of Management Science
History of Management science
Introduction to management science approach
Features of management science approach
Applications of management science approach
Process of management science approach
Advantages & disadvantages of management science approach
Introduction to system theory
History of system theory
Applications of system theory
Process of system theory
Types of system theory
Advantages & disadvantages of system theory
Introduction to contingency theory
History of contingency theory
Features of contingency theory
Advantages & disadvantages of contingency theory
Comparison of system vs contingency theory

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Management science , system theory, contingency theory (comparison)

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, CONTINGENCY APPROACH & SYSTEM THEORY Presented BY TARUN KASHNI
  2. 2. INDEX 1. Definition of Management Science 2. History of Management science 3. Introduction to management science approach 4. Features of management science approach 5. Applications of management science approach 6. Process of management science approach 7. Advantages & disadvantages of management science approach
  3. 3. INDEX 8. Introduction to system theory 9. History of system theory 10. Applications of system theory 11. Process of system theory 12. Types of system theory 13. Advantages & disadvantages of system theory 14. Introduction to contingency theory 15. History of contingency theory
  4. 4. INDEX 16. Features of contingency theory 17. Advantages & disadvantages of contingency theory 18. Comparison of system vs contingency theory
  5. 5. WHAT MANAGEMENT SCIENCE  Management Science is the discipline that adapts the scientific approach for problem solving to help managers make informed decisions. The goal of management science is to recommend the course of action that is expected to yield the best outcome with what is available.  The basic steps in the management science problem solving process involves Analyzing business situations and building mathematical models to describe them; Solving the mathematical models; Communicating/implementing recommendations based on the models and their solutions.
  6. 6. HISTORY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE  Its origins can be traced to operations research, which became influential during World War II when the Allied forces recruited scientists of various disciplines to assist with military operations. In these early applications, the scientists used simple mathematical models to make efficient use of limited technologies and resources. The application of these models to the corporate sector became known as management science.  In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research".
  7. 7. MANAGEMENT SICENCE APPROACH  A scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding operations. Logic and common sense are basic components in supporting the decision making process. The use of techniques such as (US army pamphlet 660-3)Statistical inference Mathematical programming Probabilistic models Network and computer science  Management science approach is a fast developing one in analyzing and understanding management. This has contributed significant in developing orderly thinking in management which has provided exactness in management discipline.
  8. 8. MANAGEMENT SICENCE APPROACH
  9. 9. FEATURES  Management is regarded as the problem-solving mechanism with the help of mathematical tools and techniques.  Management problems can be described in terms of mathematical symbols and data. Thus, every managerial activity can be qualified.  This approach covers decision-making, systems analysis, and some aspects of human behavior.  Operations research, mathematical tools, simulation, models, etc., are the basic methodologies to solve managerial problems.
  10. 10. APPLICATIONS OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE  A number of information systems currently in use by organizations are a result of management science. The approach has been used to identify and understand the correct information system strategies.  The airline industry has used management science to create the scheduling systems for airlines. This has created the system for ensuring the planes are utilized more efficiently, together with guaranteeing the crew is rotated in the most efficient way.  Management science has a number of benefits, which has meant that different fields have started using it to enhance operational and managerial efficiency. Since its early start as part of a core approach to the military, the application has found its way to industries as varied as medical, political, public administration and business. Management science has provided solutions and identified deeper insights into the industries in a number of ways. The following examples are among the best examples of how management science can be applied in a meaningful manner:  Public administrations have also used management science to identify the flow of water from water reservoirs. The process identifies the most efficient routes and cost-effective ways to manage the flow.
  11. 11. PROCESS OF MANAGMEENT SCIENCE In terms of applying management science in business, there is a six-step formula for making the most of it. The steps will help streamline business operations and create a process-based environment for the organization.
  12. 12. PROCESS OF MANAGMEENT SCIENCE 1. Identifying business processes in use The organization must first identify the different management processes it currently has in place. By identifying each process, it’s also possible to notice the strengths and weaknesses of the individual management operation. For example, you’ll identify all the management teams and understand its positive impact on the workforce. As you identify the processes, you’ll start noticing the patterns of management and the specific aspects that require changing or tweaking. 2. Analyze the individual processes As you’ve identified the problem areas, as well as the management processes that are working effectively, you can start using management science to modify the process. By implementing the analytical approach, you will notice which processes need scaling, implementation or adjustment. This step is the key part of management science; it is about diagnosis and the identification of the solution. In some instances, it can even help with creating systems that prevent future problems.
  13. 13. PROCESS OF MANAGMEENT SCIENCE 3. Redesign the processes With the analysis done, the focus should move to identifying the right process for achieving the right results. Management science tends to present a number of solutions and predictions, which means the organization has to identify the most effective processes for its needs. 4. Ensure the right resources are in place to improve the processes Once you’ve identified the processes and the solutions to the management problems, you need to ensure the organization has the right resources at hand. Redesigning of the processes might require additional resources, either in terms of money or labor. Ensure the appropriate amount and type of resources is identifying to guarantee the newly established processes work as planned. 5. Implement the identified processes The fifth step is about implementation of the above processes. As mentioned in the section about the disadvantages of management science, the system can easily cause fragmentation if the organization is not careful. Therefore, at this step, you must ensure there’s a community wide buy-in and proper information available for people to understand the changes, the reasoning behind them, as well as the new processes themselves.
  14. 14. PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE 6. Review and analyze the effectiveness of the new processes Finally, the implemented processes require constant analysis and review. Management science will provide answers and prediction, but just like any other approach to management, it’s not a magic pill to fix everything. Therefore, you must make sure you continue to collect data and analyze the effectiveness of the processes in place. Only this will guarantee they are working as intended and will provide the organization better chances of tweaking the approach as you go.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES AND DIADVANTAGES OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE S.No. Advantages Disadvantages 1 It will provide boosts in productivity, industrial peace and enhance the organization’s ability to specialize its products and services reduced employee-involvement in decision-making 2 Increased wages decision-making completely away from employee input 3 Relations between the management and the labor are harmonious and built on trust and respect employees might not have a good grasp of how the decisions were made and the justification behind the conclusion 4 Increase industrial peace create fragmentation throughout the organization, 5 The approach makes the utilization of resources easier, since the framework can notice the availability of resources and the proper use of them. a situation where teamwork is non- existent. 6 guaranteeing better relations between the different stakeholders. creativity within the organization can suffer
  16. 16. WHAT SYSTEM THEORY  The trans disciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence. It investigates both the principles common to all complex entities, and the (usually mathematical) models which can be used to describe them.
  17. 17. HISTORY OF SYSTEM THEORY  Systems theory was proposed in the 1940's by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (: General Systems Theory, 1968), and furthered by Ross Ashby (Introduction to Cybernetics, 1956). von Bertalanffy was both reacting against reductionism and attempting to revive the unity of science. He emphasized that real systems are open to, and interact with, their environments, and that they can acquire qualitatively new properties through emergence, resulting in continual evolution  Systems concepts include: system-environment boundary, input, output, process, state, hierarchy, goal-directedness, and information.
  18. 18. APPLICATIONS OF SYSTEM THEORY
  19. 19. PROCESS OF SYSTEM THEORY
  20. 20. TYPES OF SYSTEM THEORY
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES AND DIADVANTAGES OF SYSTEM THEORY S.No. Advantages Disadvantages 1 Deals with complexity Not a prescriptive management theory 2 Takes a holistic view Does not specify tools and techniques for practicing managers 3 Can easily manage change through interaction with the environment Too abstract – difficult to apply in practical problems 4 Utilises feedback – easy to improve Does not adequately address power and social inequalities and their causes 5 Recognises importance of supersystems
  22. 22. WHAT CONTINGENCY APPROACH  A contingency approach to management is based on the theory that management effectiveness is contingent, or dependent, upon the interplay between the application of management behaviors and specific situations. In other words, the way you manage should change depending on the circumstances. One size does not fit all.  The contingency approach to management finds its foundation in the contingency theory of leadership effectiveness developed by management psychologist Fred Fielder. The theory states that leadership effectiveness, as it relates to group effectiveness, is a component of two factors: task motivation, or relation motivation, and circumstances. You measure task motivation, or relation motivation, by the least preferred co- worker (LPC) scale.
  23. 23. HISTORY OF CONTINGENCY THEORY  The contingency approach to leadership was influenced by two earlier research programs endeavoring to pinpoint effective leadership behavior. During the 1950s, researchers at Ohio State University administered extensive questionnaires measuring a range of possible leader behaviors in various organizational contexts. Although multiple sets of leadership behaviors were originally identified based on these questionnaires, two types of behaviors proved to be especially typical of effective leaders:  (1) consideration leader behaviors that include building good rapport and interpersonal relationships and showing support and concern for subordinates and  (2) initiating structure leader behaviors that provided structure (e.g., role assignment, planning, scheduling) to ensure task completion and goal attainment.
  24. 24. FEATURES  The contingency approach focuses on the variable nature of businesses and organizations.  The contingency approach to management generally depends upon the complexity of a problem.  It is also called the ‘if-then’ approach to management. The ‘if section’ represents an independent variable or a particular problem or a situation. The ‘then part’ represents the action to be taken accordingly or the dependent variable of the problem.  The contingency theory depends upon both the internal as well as external factors of an organization.
  25. 25. ADVANTAGES AND DIADVANTAGES OF CONTINGENCY THEORY S.No. Advantages Disadvantages 1 The approach is adaptive in nature. sometimes wastage of resources time and money. 2 The managers can consider the entire factors, analyze situations thoroughly and then take the appropriate decision managers may not be able to dig deeper into the situation and they might take superficial decisions. 3 Due to this approach the scope of leadership has widened It is not always feasible for the managers 4 The contingency approach allows an organization to choose different leaders as per their leadership styles in various contexts. The contingency approach might be complex to implement as it is not fixed.
  26. 26. SYSTEM THEORY VS CONTINGENCY THEORY
  27. 27. THANK YOU

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