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# Inductive & deductive reasoning (advance research methodology)

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# Inductive & deductive reasoning (advance research methodology)

Definition of Reasoning
Types of Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Comparison inductive vs deductive Reasoning
Literature review of advance research methodology

Definition of Reasoning
Types of Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Comparison inductive vs deductive Reasoning
Literature review of advance research methodology

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### Inductive & deductive reasoning (advance research methodology)

1. 1. ADVANCE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INDUCTIVE & DEDUCTIVE REASONING REVIEW OF LITERATURE Presented BY TARUN KASHNI
2. 2. INDEX 1. Definition of Reasoning 2. Types of Reasoning 3. Inductive Reasoning 4. Deductive Reasoning 5. Comparison inductive vs deductive Reasoning 6. Literature review of advance research methodology
3. 3. WHAT IS REASONING The process of thinking about something, in a rational manner, so as to draw valid conclusions, is known as Reasoning. It is a daily activity that we use to make decisions, which involves the construction of thoughts and converting them into a proposition to give reasons on why we have opted for a particular alternative over the other.
4. 4. TYPES OF REASONING INDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE
5. 5. INDUCTIVE REASONING The inductive reasoning follows a particular flow or behaviour so as to make inferences. In inductive reasoning, there are certain possibilities that the conclusion drawn can be false, even if the all the assumptions are true. The reasoning vests on experience and observations that support the apparent truth of the conclusion. Further, the argument can be strong or weak, as it only describes the likelihood of the inference, to be true.
6. 6. Example 1 "The coin I pulled from the bag is a penny. That coin is a penny. A third coin from the bag is a penny. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are pennies."
7. 7. Inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false Example 2 “Smith’s is a grandfather. Smith is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald." The conclusion does not follow logically from the statements.
8. 8. EXAMPLES IN INDUCTIVE RESEARCH Frederick Winslow Taylor Was An American Mechanical Engineer Who Sought To Improve Industrial Efficiency. Fw Taylor Was The First Person To Introduce Scientific Method that Is Known As Scientific Management Theory
9. 9. EXAMPLES IN INDUCTIVE RESEARCH Peter Ferdinand Drucker was an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator he invented the concept known as management by objectives and self-control. He is also known as the father of management.
10. 10. EXAMPLES IN INDUCTIVE RESEARCH Henri Fayol (29 July 1841 – 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed general theory of business administration that is often called Fayolism
11. 11. EXAMPLES IN DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH In another recent deductive study, Melissa Milkie and Catharine Warner (2011)Milkie, M. A., & Warner, C. H. (2011). Classroom learning environments and the meIn another inductive study, Kristin Ferguson and colleagues (Ferguson, Kim, & McCoy, 2011)Ferguson, K. M., Kim, M. A., & McCoy, S. (2011). Enhancing empowerment and leadership among homeless youth in agency and community settings: A grounded theory approach. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 28, 1–22. analyzed empirical data to better understand how best to meet the needs of young people who are homeless. The authors analyzed data from focus groups with 20 young people at a homeless shelter. From these data they developed a set of recommendations for those interested in applied interventions that serve homeless youth. ntal health of first grade children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 4–22. studied the effects of different classroom environments on first graders’ mental health. Based on prior research and theory, Milkie and Warner hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children. The researchers found support for their hypothesis, demonstrating that policymakers should probably be paying more attention to the mental health outcomes of children’s school experiences, just as they track academic outcomes (American Sociological Association, 2011).
12. 12. DEDUCTIVE REASONING Deductive reasoning uses available information, facts or premises to arrive at a conclusion. Deductive logic is based on the fundamental law of reasoning. Deductive reasoning usually follows steps. First, there is a premise, then a second premise, and finally an inference. A common form of deductive reasoning is the syllogism, in which two statements — a major premise and a minor premise — reach a logical conclusion.
13. 13. Example 1 The premise "Every A is B" could be followed by another premise, "This C is A." Those statements would lead to the conclusion "This C is B." Syllogisms are considered a good way to test deductive reasoning to make sure the argument is valid. A C B
14. 14. Example 2 "All men are mortal. Harold is a man. Therefore, Harold is mortal." Mortal Men Harold
15. 15. EXAMPLES IN INDUCTIVE RESEARCH In a study of US law enforcement responses to hate crimes, Ryan King and colleagues (King, Messner, & Baller, 2009)King, R. D., Messner, S. F., & Baller, R. D. (2009). Contemporary hate crimes, law enforcement, and the legacy of racial violence. American Sociological Review, 74, 291–315. hypothesized that law enforcement’s response would be less vigorous in areas of the country that had a stronger history of racial violence. The authors developed their hypothesis from their reading of prior research and theories on the topic. Next, they tested the hypothesis by analyzing data on states’ lynching histories and hate crime responses. Overall, the authors found support for their hypothesis.
16. 16. EXAMPLES IN DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH In another recent deductive study, Melissa Milkie and Catharine Warner (2011)Milkie, M. A., & Warner, C. H. (2011). Classroom learning environments and the mental health of first grade children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 4–22. studied the effects of different classroom environments on first graders’ mental health. Based on prior research and theory, Milkie and Warner hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children. The researchers found support for their hypothesis, demonstrating that policymakers should probably be paying more attention to the mental health outcomes of children’s school experiences, just as they track academic outcomes (American Sociological Association, 2011).
17. 17. COMPARISON CHART BASIS FOR COMPARISON INDUCTIVE REASONING DEDUCTIVE REASONING Meaning Inductive Reasoning connotes the argument in which the premises give reasons in support of the probable truth of the conjecture. Deductive reasoning is the fundamental form of valid reasoning, wherein the premises give guarantee of the truth of conjecture. Approach Bottom-up approach Top-down approach Starting point Conclusion Premises Based on Patterns or trend Facts, truths and rules Process Observation > Pattern > Tentative Hypothesis > Theory Theory > Hypothesis > Observation > Confirmation Argument May or may not be strong. May or may not be valid. Structure Goes from specific to general Goes from general to specific Draws inferences with Probability Certainity
18. 18. LITERATURE REVIEW ON ADVANCE RESEARCH METHODLOGY
19. 19. ABSTRACT Literature reviews summarize all past research efforts, and because of this, are increasingly being used as a way of addressing the rapid accumulation of management information. Because reviews, rather than primary research, are now being used as the basis for many management decisions, it is important that they are conducted with the same rigor of the primary research. To ensure this rigor, the past two decades have seen a progressive evolution in review methodology, to the point where reviews are now considered research in their own right.
20. 20. WHY DO A LITERATURE REVIEW
21. 21. • The literature review is a critical look at the existing research that is significant to your project. • You should evaluate What has already been done. • Show the relationships between different work • Show how it relates to your project. • It is not supposed to be just a summary of other people's work.
22. 22. WHY WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW
23. 23. • Know what to do (before starting research): To identify gaps in the literature • Know where to start (starting) To carry on from where others have already reached, or position your project relative to previous work To identify information, methods and ideas that may be relevant to your project (i.e. avoid reinventing the wheel) • Know what you have done (finishing) To increase your breadth of knowledge of your area To put your work into perspective • Other To identify opposing views To identify other people working in the same fields